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J/A+A/366/508           S Dor variables                    (van Genderen+, 2001)

S Doradus variables in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds van Genderen A.M. <Astron. Astrophys. 366, 508 (2001)> =2001A&A...366..508V
ADC_Keywords: Stars, supergiant ; Stars, variable ; Photometry, VBLUW ; Effective temperatures ; Magnitudes, absolute ; Reddening Keywords: catalogue - stars: variables - stars: supergiants Abstract: The goal in writing this paper is five fold: (1) to summarize the scientific achievements in the 20th century on S Dor variables (or LBVs); (2) to present an inventory of these variables in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds with a description of their physical state and instability properties; (3) to emphasize the photometric achievements of the various types of instabilities. Generally this seems to be a neglected item resulting in a number of misunderstandings continuously wandering through literature; (4) to investigate the structure of the S Dor-area on the HR-diagram; (5) to estimate the total numbers of S Dor variables in the three stellar systems. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file stars.dat 80 49 Positions and cross-identifications table1.dat 209 69 Effective temperature, absolute visual magnitude and luminosity of S Dor variables (tables 1, 4, 8 and 11 of the original publication) notes1.dat 80 72 Notes to table 1 table2.dat 226 49 Reddening, distance and VJ magnitude of S Dor variables (tables 2, 5, 9 and 12 of the original publication) notes2.dat 80 60 Notes to table 2 table3.dat 165 54 Time scales and amplitudes of the light variations of S Dor variables (tables 3, 6, 8 and 13 of the original publication) notes3.dat 80 83 Notes to table 3 table16.dat 96 17 Overview of the presumable trends of the brightness in the intervals before 1950 and between 1950 and 2000, their amplitudes, the duration of the low stages and the time scales, for 17 S Dor variables refs.dat 177 300 References
Byte-by-byte Description of file: stars.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- Cat Category of S Dor Star (G1) 5- 15 A11 --- Name Star name 17- 18 I2 h RAh ? Right ascension (J2000.0) (1) 20- 21 I2 min RAm ? Right ascension (J2000.0) (1) 23- 26 F4.1 s RAs ? Right ascension (J2000.0) (1) 28 A1 --- DE- Declination sign (J2000.0) (1) 29- 30 I2 deg DEd ? Declination (J2000.0) (1) 32- 33 I2 arcmin DEm ? Declination (J2000.0) (1) 35- 36 I2 arcsec DEs ? Declination (J2000.0) (1) 38- 51 A14 ---- SName Name in Simbad 52 A1 --- n_Names [*] Note on Names (2) 53- 80 A28 --- Names Other names as indicated in tables 1, 4, 8 and 11 of the paper
Note (1): Positions from Simbad Note (2): Individual notes: R149: The maximum light amplitude, MLA=0.3mag, is too high for a normal α Cyg variable, thus, supporting the S Dor membership based on (10) and observations listed in Table 7. VBLUW photometry, made in eight nights in 1975 and 1976 are listed in Table 7. The VJ given above is an average based on a compilation in (10), complemented with the data in Table 7 and in (165), (166) and (167). This relative high amplitude may be partly caused by the SD-phase. HD 269858: The spectral type in the visual minimum is according to (9): B1.5Iaeq
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- Cat Category of S Dor Star (G1) 5- 15 A11 --- Name Star name 16 A1 --- n_Name Note in notes1.dat file 18- 28 A11 --- SpType Spectral type 30 A1 --- n_SpType [p] Note on SpType in notes1.dat file 31- 45 A15 ---- Date Approximate date of the extremum for which the physical and photometric parameters are applicables 46 A1 --- n_Date [t] Note on Date in notes1.dat file 47- 48 A2 --- l_logTeff [≤ ] 49- 52 F4.2 [K] logTeff ? Effective temperature 53 A1 --- u_logTeff [)-] ')' uncertain value; '-' interval 54 A1 --- n_logTeff [osuvprq] Note on logTeff in notes1.dat file 55- 58 F4.2 [k] logTeff2 ? Lower value of Teff when interval 60- 64 F5.1 mag VMAG ? Absolute visual magnitude 65 A1 --- n_VMAG [wzxy)-] Note on VMAG in notes1.dat file ')' uncertain value; '-' interval 66- 67 I2 mag VMAG2 ? Upper value of VMAG when interval 69 A1 --- --- [)] 70- 73 F4.2 [solLum] logL ? Luminosity 74 A1 --- u_logL [)-] ')' uncertain value; '-' interval 75 A1 --- n_logL [uvrq] Note on logL in notes1.dat file 76- 79 F4.2 [solLum] logL2 ? Upper value of logL when interval 81-103 A23 --- r_logL References for logTeff, VMAG and logL 105 A1 --- Gas [ny?-] Gas nebula? 107 A1 --- Dust [ny?-] Dust nebula ? 110-209 A100 --- r_Gas References for Gas or Dust nebula
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- Cat Category of S Dor Star (G1) 5- 15 A11 --- Name Star name 17 A1 --- n_Name Note on Name in notes2.dat file 19- 20 A2 --- l_E(B-V) [=><] Limit flag on E(B-V) (Johnson system) 21- 25 F5.2 mag E(B-V) Reddening E(B-V) (Johnson system) 26 A1 --- --- [-] 27- 28 I2 mag E(B-V)2 ? Second value of E(B-V) when interval 29 A1 --- n_E(B-V) [d] Note on E(B-V) (1) 31- 45 A15 --- r_E(B-V) References for E(B-V) 46- 47 A2 --- l_Dist [=>] Limit flag on Dist 48- 52 F5.2 kpc Dist ? Distance 53 A1 --- u_Dist [)] Uncertainty flag on Dist 54 A1 --- --- [-] 55 A1 kpc Dist2 ? Second value of Dist when interval 57- 67 A11 --- r_Dist References for Dist 69- 73 F5.2 mag Vmag ? Johnson V magnitude (max for s-a, mean for other) 74 A1 --- n_Vmag Note on Vmag in notes2.dat file 76- 80 F5.2 mag Vmag2 ? Minimum Johnson V magnitude (for s-a and w-a) 81 A1 --- n_Vmag2 [B-E ikm] Note on Vmag2 in notes2.dat file 83- 97 A15 ---- r_Vmag References on Vmag 99-186 A88 ---- r_Name Additional references 187-226 A40 ---- Com Comments
Note (1): Note on E(B-V)J: d: Based on the spectral types in minimum light (B5Iae) and maximum light (A0Ia, see note d in Notes on Name, in T1) and (B-V)J=0.1 (9) and 0.18 (63), respectively.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- Cat Category of S Dor Star (G1) 5- 15 A11 --- Name Star name 17 A1 --- n_Name [b-s] Note on Name in notes3.dat file 19 A1 --- l_PerLSD Limit flag on PerLSD 20- 21 I2 yr PerLSD ? Long-SD phase (LSD, <10yr) period (lower value if interval) 22 A1 --- f_PerLSD [-] '-' if interval of values 23- 24 I2 yr PerLSDu ? Upper value of PerLSD if interval 25 A1 --- u_PerLSD [?)] Uncertainty flag on PerLSD 27 A1 --- l_ALSD Limit flag on ALSD 28- 30 F3.1 mag ALSD ? Amplitude of the LSD phase (lower value if interval) 31 A1 --- f_ALSD [-] '-' if interval of values 32- 34 F3.1 mag ALSDu ? Upper value of ALSD if interval 35 A1 --- u_ALSD [)c] Uncertainty flag on ALSD (1) 36 A1 --- l_PerSSD Limit flag on PerSSD 37- 39 F3.1 yr PerSSD ? Short SD phase (SSD, t≳20yr) period (lower value if interval) 40 A1 --- f_PerSSD [-] '-' if interval of values 41 I1 yr PerSSDu ? Upper value of PerSSD if interval 42 A1 --- --- [,] 43 I1 yr PerSSD2 ? Second SSD phase period 44 A1 --- n_PerSSD [kmtu?] Note on PerSSD in notes3.dat file 46- 49 F4.2 mag ASSD ? Amplitude of the SSD phase (lower value if interval) 50 A1 --- f_ASSD [-] '-' if interval of values 51- 53 F3.1 d ASSDu ? Upper value of ASSD if interval 55 A1 --- l_microvar [~] Limit flag on microvar 56- 63 F8.3 d microvar ? Microvariation period (lower value if interval) 64 A1 --- f_microvar [-] '-' if interval of values 65- 69 F5.1 d microvaru ? Upper value of microvar if interval 70 A1 --- u_microvar [)?] Uncertainty flag on microvar 71- 75 F5.1 d microvar2 ? Second microvariation period 76 A1 --- --- [;] 77- 79 I3 d microvar3 ? Thrid microvariation period 80 A1 --- n_microvar [gvwx] Note on microvar in notes3.dat file 81- 82 A2 --- l_Amicrovar [≤] Limit flag on Amicrovar 83- 86 F4.2 mag Amicrovar ? Amplitude of microvar (lower value if interval) 87 A1 --- f_Amicrovar [-] '-' if interval of values 88- 91 F4.2 mag Amicrovaru ? Upper value of Amicrovar if interval 92 A1 --- u_Amicrovar [)] Uncertainty flag on Amicrovar 93 A1 --- n_Amicrovar [fy] Note on Amicrovar in notes3.dat file 95-144 A50 ---- r_Name References (in refs.dat file) 146-165 A20 --- Com References for light curve/light history
Note (1): Note on ALSD: c: It is unknown to what type of SD-phase (S-SD or L-SD) the long-term light variation belongs with an approximate amplitude of 2mag (Fig. 3).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: notes1.dat notes2.dat notes3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- Note Letter code of the note 3- 80 A78 --- Text Text of the note
Table 7 : VBLUW photometry of R 149 (in log intensity scale), and the transformed values in the UBV system (in magnitude scale) with subscript J, made in 1975 and 1976 ----------------------------------------------------------------- JD V V-B B-U U-W B-L VJ (B-V)J ----------------------------------------------------------------- 2442712.555 2.202 0.003 0.072 0.13 0.030 12.39 0.02 2442714.552 2.208 0.002 0.080 0.08 0.042 12.41 0.00 2442813.382 2.200 0.008 0.097 0.047 12.39 0.03 2442818.362 2.212 0.005 0.074 0.040 12.42 0.02 2442830.282 2.216 0.012 0.103 0.042 12.43 0.04 2442838.299 2.205 0.005 0.089 0.033 12.40 0.00 2442862.288 2.191 0.017 0.085 0.026 12.36 0.03 2442869.344 2.218 0.004 0.090 0.040 12.43 0.02 Byte-by-byte Description of file: table16.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- Name Star name 14 A1 --- n_Name [a-d] Note on Name (1) 16- 19 A4 --- Cat Category of S Dor Star (G1) 21- 26 A6 --- A1950- brightness/activity for period <1950 (2) 28- 32 A5 --- A1950-2000 brightness/activity for period 1950-2000 (2) 33 A1 --- n_A1950-2000 [b] Note (2) 35- 37 F3.1 mag Ampl ? Amplitude of the variation 38 A1 --- u_Ampl [)] Uncertainty flag on Ampl 40- 41 A2 --- l_ttrend [~<>] Limit flag on ttrend 42- 44 I3 yr ttrend ? Duration of the trend stage 45 A1 --- u_ttrend [)] Uncertainty flag on ttrend 47- 48 A2 --- l_tlow [~<>] Limit flag on tlow 49- 51 I3 yr tlow ? Duration of the low stage 52 A1 --- f_tlow [-] '-' for interval 53- 54 I2 yr tlowu ? Upper value of tlow interval 55 A1 --- u_tlow [)] Undertainty flag on tlow 57- 68 A12 --- r_Name References in refs.dat file 70- 84 A15 --- Com References to figures or tables of this paper
Note (1): Individual notes: a: According to Fig. 2, the star is probably active since at least 1890, thus t_high ∼110yr. b: The star was also ``high'' between 1970 and 1980, but much less than before 1950. After 1980 and until 1995 the star behaved as a w-a S Dor variable. New observations have been made by Sterken after 1995. The results will be published in due course. c: It is unknown whether the ``high'' state in the 17th century was only due to SD-eruptions, or whether also SD-phases were involved. d: This star seems to be brighter at present (thus, in the interval 1950-2000) than around 1900, but there is no SD-activity detected in the present photometry. Note (2): high, low, (high), (low)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- Ref Reference code 5- 23 A19 --- BibCode Bibcode 26- 49 A24 --- Aut Author's name 51-177 A127 --- Com Comments
Global notes: Note (G1): Category of S Dor Star: s-a: strong-active members: light amplitudes >0.5mag. The cycle lengths of the SD-phases are <10yr and ≳20yr (S-SD and L-SD phases, respectively). They are listed in tables 1, 2 and 3 of the paper. w-a: weak-active members: light-amplitudes <0.5mag The cycle lengths of the SD-phases are <10yr, thus they are S-SD phases. It is evident that the detection of low amplitude (say <0.2mag) variations on a time scale of decades (representing the L-SD phases) is difficult due to too short time bases of the observations. They are listed in tables 4, 5 and 6 of the paper. ex: ex- and dormant members. These objects showed no SD-type photometric variability in the 20th century as far as the scattered observations allow such a conclusion (though they do show the microvariations like all α Cyg variables, if photometrically well observed). Usually, they are, or have been suspected members on account of one or two of the other criteria listed in Sect. 1.3. For some specimens a strong photometric variability in the 19th century, or even earlier, has been taken as an important criterium for membership. If they would have been monitored photometrically more extensive, a few might in fact be w-a S Dor variables. They are listed in Tables 8, 9 and 10 of the paper. pf*: Candidate SD variables (coined such in the literature) and former candidates (candidates rejected in the present paper). This group is divided into three subgroups, (1): the positive (+), (2): the negative (-) candidates (the first ones show a stronger SD-signature than the second ones) and (3): the former, thus, non-candidates (0). It is now certain, or at least almost certain, that the last category do not belong to the S Dor variables. They all are listed in Tables 11, 12 and 13 of the paper.
Acknowledgements: Arjen van der Meer
(End) Patricia Bauer [CDS] 23-Oct-2000
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