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\author{Masafumi Yagi}
\affil{National Astronomical Observatory of Japan,
Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan}
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I present a method to estimate fourth order cosine
coefficient of Fourier harmonics, so called boxiness,
from second and fourth order moments in Cartesian coordinate.
The method is faster than traditional fitting method
about by order and have enough accuracy for $r>10 pix$ objects.
\end{abstract}
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\section{Introduction}
Boxiness, the fourth order cosine coefficient of Fourier harmonics,
is known to be an important photometric parameters
in study of early type galaxies (e.g. Kormendy \& Djorgovski 1989)
The boxiness parameter is, however, not measured
in recent huge survey data.
One of the reason would be the fact that standard boxiness measurement
process is complicated and takes time; fit ellipse, take residual,
iterate if needed, and fit trigonometric functions.
Another reason could be that fitting method is usually not full-automatic,
and requires manual interactive operation, which disables us
from constructing pipeline analysis.
About 2nd-order Fourier components, such as major/minor axis,
many surface photometry packages estimate the parameters from
2nd-order Cartesian moments (e.g. Stobie 1980), and
therefore automatic measurement is implemented.
Extending the idea, I developed a procedure to estimate
the boxiness from 2nd and 4th order non-weighted Cartesian moments.
\section{Method}
In this study, I follow the formalization of
the general ellipse by Stobie (1980);
setting original coordinate as (x,y),
and coordinate along the major and minor axis of
the best fit ellipse as (X,Y),
\begin{eqnarray}
X &=& x cos(\phi) - y sin(\phi) - x0 \\
Y &=& x sin(\phi) + y cos(\phi) - y0,
\end{eqnarray}
where x0, and y0 are the center of the image,
and $\phi$ is the rotation angle.
The shape of isophote is then supposed to be
expanded with Fourier components as
\begin{equation}
{X^2}+\frac{Y^2}{Q^2} \leq a^2(1+ \sum{c_n cos n(\theta+\omega_n)})^2,
\end{equation}
where $\theta=tan^{-1}((Y/b)/(X/a))$, $a$ and $b$ are semi-major axis and
semi-minor axis, and $Q$ is the axis ratio ($Q=b/a$).
With this notation, $a_4=c_4 cos 4\omega_4$ is the boxiness-parameter.
It corresponds to $B_4/r$ in Carter (1978),
$a(4)/a \sqrt{Q}$ in Bender et al. (1988),
and $c_4$ in Milvang-Jensen \& J\o rgensen (1999).
If $a_4$ is positive, the isophote is disky, and
if $a_4$ is negative, the isophote is boxy.
I neglect 3rd and higher than 4th order components for simplicity,
for they are not dominant terms in elliptical galaxies.
The isophote shape is thus written as
\begin{equation}
\label{P7.2-eqn.shape}
{X^2}+\frac{Y^2}{Q^2} \leq a^2(1+ c_4 cos 4(\theta+\omega_4))^2
\end{equation}
I define a moment of a shape as non-weighted,
$ = {\int z dA}/{\int dA}$.
With such moment, estimated major/minor axis can be written as
\begin{eqnarray}
a_0&=&\sqrt{2(p+q)} \nonumber \\
b_0&=&\sqrt{2(p-q)}, \nonumber
\end{eqnarray}
where p and q are Stokes parameters,
\begin{eqnarray}
p&\equiv&+ \nonumber \\
q^2&\equiv&(-)^2+4^2
\end{eqnarray} (Stobie 1980).
It should be noted that p and q are rotation invariant
combination of moments.
Such rotation invariant combination is
obtained by integrating $r (cos^2 n\theta + sin^2 n\theta)$.
As the boxiness is also rotation invariant,
it is supposed to be estimated from such combinations.
For fourth order case, rotation invariant combinations are
\begin{eqnarray}
p_4&\equiv& +2+ \nonumber \\
q_4^2&\equiv& (+-6)^2+16(-)^2.
\end{eqnarray}
As $a_4$ is usually less than 10\% (e.g. Bender et al. 1988),
one can neglect $c_4^2$ and approximate as $1+O(c_4^2) \sim 1$.
With this approximation, $p_4$ of Eqn. (\ref{P7.2-eqn.shape}) is written as
\begin{eqnarray}
p_4&=&+2+ \nonumber \\
&\sim&\frac{\pi Q a_0^6}{8 A} \times \nonumber \\
\label{P7.2-eqn.est}
&& \left(( 1 + Q^4 + 2/3 Q^2) + a_4 (1+Q^4-2 Q^2) \right) ,
\end{eqnarray}
where A is the total area of the isophote.
We can easily solve equation to estimate $a_4$ as a
function of $p_4, Q, a_0$, and $A$,
\begin{equation}
a_4 \sim \frac{1}{(1-Q^2)^2} (\frac{8 A p_4}{Q \pi a_0^6} - a_0^4(1 + Q^4 + 2/3 Q^2)).
\end{equation}
\section{Implementation and Simulation}
The Eqn. \ref{P7.2-eqn.est} is implemented in standard C
as a code for measuring boxiness profile, $a_4(r)$.
Rapid flooding method (Treuenfels 1994) is adopted
for extracting isophotal shape profile.
And in moment calculation, ``single visit with
temporal mean method'' is adopted, which uses recurrence formulae;
$=f(x_n, , , ... )$.
As rapid flooding method visit once for each pixel,
and single visit with temporal mean method can
calculate moment by the single visit,
the combination succeeds in quick boxiness estimation.
For boxiness estimation only, the code is
about 20 times faster than IRAF/STSDAS
ellipse task (Busko 1996) tested on Solaris/SPARC
architecture.
The error is estimated by applying the code to simulated images.
For large ($r=400$) images,
relative error of $a_4$ is always less than 10\%,
with no systematic error with rotation angle.
All except rounder (Q=0.9) image have
absolute error less than 0.001.
For smaller images, error correlates with $r=\sqrt{ab}=a\sqrt{Q}$.
Error is smaller than 0.005(rms) for $r>15$ pix,
and smaller than 0.01(rms) for $r>10$ pix.
\section{Result and Future Plans}
The implementation is applied to real image of
23 E/S0 galaxies taken from Frei (1996) R-band data.
Our result is consistent with other studies
within relative error of 10\% or absolute error of 0.01.
The accuracy is as expected from model analysis,
and enough for boxy/disky discrimination.
Figure 1 shows an example of the result.
Some inconsistency is found around log(a)$\sim$1.8,
where star debris is seen in the image.
It could be the difference of the image quality,
preprocessing of the image, or post-processing of
the boxiness profile.
As a next step, I plan to investigate
flux-weighted moments, preprocessing (e.g. Unsharpmasking) of images,
and interpolation of internal parts or interpolation of moments
at small radii.
\begin{figure}
\epsscale{0.8}
\plotone{P7-2_f1.eps}
\caption{
An example of boxiness estimation.
Comparison of boxiness profiles.
Our estimation is shown as black dots.
Measurement with IRAF/STSDAS/ellipse (Busko 1996) is shown
as cross with error bars.
Other symbols are taken from literatures.
Open circles, open squares, and open stars represent
measurement by Jedrzejewski (1987),
Peletier et al. (1990), and
Michard \& Marchal (1994), respectively.
}\label{P7.2-fig-1}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\epsscale{0.6}
\plotone{P7-2_f2.eps}
\caption{
R-band image of NGC 3377 from Frei (1996),
The debris of star removal
affect the boxiness at log(a)$\sim$1.8 in Fig \ref{P7.2-fig-1}.
}\label{P7.2-fig-2}
\end{figure}
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% References
%-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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% \reference King, I.\ R.\ 1966, \aj, 71, 276
% \reference King, I.\ R.\ 1975, in Dynamics of Stellar
% Systems, ed.\ A.\ Hayli (Dordrecht: Reidel), 99
% \reference Tody, D.\ 1998, \adassvii, 146
% \reference Zacharias, N.\ \& Zacharias, M.\ 2003,
% \adassxii, \paperref{P7.6}
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\begin{references}
\reference Bender, R., D\"obereiner, S.\ \& M\"ollenhoff, C.\ 1988, \aaps, 74, 385
\reference Busko, I. \ 1996, \adassv, 139
\reference Frei, Z., Guhathakurta, P., Gunn, J.\ E.\ \& Tyson, J.\ A.\ 1996, \aj, 111, 174
\reference Jedrzejewski, R.\ I.\ 1987, \mnras, 226, 747
\reference Kormendy, J.\ \& Djorgovski, S.\ 1989, \araa, 27 235
\reference Milvang-Jensen, B.\ \& J\o rgensen, I.\ 1999, BaltA, 8, 535
\reference Michard, R.\ \& Marchal, J.\ 1994, \aaps, 105, 481
\reference Peletier, R.\ F., Davies, R.\ L., Illingworth, G.\ D., Davies, L.\ E.\ \& Cawson, M.\ 1990, \aj, 100, 1091
\reference Stobie, R.\ S.\ 1980, JBIS, 33, 323
\reference Treuenfels, A.\ 1994, C Users Journal, 12, 8, 39
\end{references}
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