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J/A+A/616/A10    46 open clusters GaiaDR2 HR diagrams (Gaia Collaboration, 2018)

Gaia Data Release 2: Observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. Gaia Collaboration, Babusiaux C., van Leeuwen F., Barstow, M. A., Jordi C., Vallenari A., Bossini A., Bressan A., Cantat-Gaudin T., van Leeuwen M., Brown A.G.A., Prusti T., de Bruijne J.H.J., Bailer-Jones C.A.L., Biermann M., Evans D.W., Eyer L., Jansen F., Klioner S.A., Lammers U., Lindegren L., Luri X., Mignard F., Panem C., Pourbaix D., Randich S., Sartoretti P., Siddiqui H.I., Soubiran C., Walton N.A., Arenou F., Bastian U., Cropper M., Drimmel R., Katz D., Lattanzi M.G., Bakker J., Cacciari C., Castaneda J., Chaoul L., Cheek N., De Angeli F., Fabricius C., Guerra R., Holl B., Masana E., Messineo R., Mowlavi N., Nienartowicz K., Panuzzo P., Portell J., Riello M., Seabroke G.M., Tanga P., Thevenin F., Gracia-Abril G., Comoretto G., Garcia-Reinaldos M., Teyssier D., Altmann M., Andrae R., Audard M., Bellas-Velidis I., Benson K., Berthier J., Blomme R., Burgess P., Busso G., Carry B., Cellino A., Clementini G., Clotet M., Creevey O., Davidson M., De Ridder J., Delchambre L., Dell'Oro A., Ducourant C., Fernandez-Hernandez J., Fouesneau M., Fremat Y., Galluccio L., Garcia-Torres M., Gonzalez-Nunez J., Gonzalez-Vidal J.J., Gosset E., Guy L.P., Halbwachs J.-L., Hambly N.C., Harrison D.L., Hernandez J., Hestroer D., Hodgkin S.T., Hutton A., Jasniewicz G., Jean-Antoine-Piccolo A., Jordan S., Korn A.J., Krone-Martins A., Lanzafame A.C., Lebzelter T., Loeer W., Manteiga M., Marrese P.M., Martin-Fleitas J.M., Moitinho A., Mora A., Muinonen K., Osinde J., Pancino E., Pauwels T., Petit J.-M., Recio-Blanco A., Richards P.J., Rimoldini L., Robin A.C., Sarro L.M., Siopis C., Smith M., Sozzetti A., Sueveges M., Torra J., van Reeven W., Abbas U., Abreu Aramburu A., Accart S., Aerts C., Altavilla G., Alvarez M.A., Alvarez R., Alves J., Anderson R.I., Andrei A.H., Anglada Varela E., Antiche E., Antoja T., Arcay B., Astraatmadja T.L., Bach N., Baker S.G., Balaguer-Nunez L., Balm P., Barache C., Barata C., Barbato D., Barblan F., Barklem P.S., Barrado D., Barros M., Bartholome Munoz S., Bassilana J.-L., Becciani U., Bellazzini M., Berihuete A., Bertone S., Bianchi L., Bienayme O., Blanco-Cuaresma S., Boch T., Boeche C., Bombrun A., Borrachero R., Bouquillon S., Bourda G., Bragaglia A., Bramante L., Breddels M.A., Brouillet N., Bruesemeister T., Brugaletta E., Bucciarelli B., Burlacu A., Busonero D., Butkevich A.G., Buzzi R., Caau E., Cancelliere R., Cannizzaro G., Carballo R., Carlucci T., Carrasco J.M., Casamiquela L., Castellani M., Castro-Ginard A., Charlot P., Chemin L., Chiavassa A., Cocozza G., Costigan G., Cowell S., Crifo F., Crosta M., Crowley C., Cuypersy J., Dafonte C., Damerdji Y., Dapergolas A., David P., David M., de Laverny P., De Luise F., De March R., de Martino D., de Souza R., de Torres A., Debosscher J., del Pozo E., Delbo M., Delgado A., Delgado H.E., Diakite S., Diener C., Distefano E., Dolding C., Drazinos P., Duran J., Edvardsson B., Enke H., Eriksson K., Esquej P., Eynard Bontemps G., Fabre C., Fabrizio M., Faigler S., Falcao A.J., Farras Casas M., Federici L., Fedorets G., Fernique P., Figueras F., Filippi F., Findeisen K., Fonti A., Fraile E., Fraser M., Frezouls B., Gai M., Galleti S., Garabato D., Garcia-Sedano F., Garofalo A., Garralda N., Gavel A., Gavras P., Gerssen J., Geyer R., Giacobbe P., Gilmore G., Girona S., Giurida G., Glass F., Gomes M., Granvik M., Gueguen A., Guerrier A., Guiraud J., Gutierrez-Sanchez R., Haigron R., Hatzidimitriou D., Hauser M., Haywood M., Heiter U., Helmi A., Heu J., Hilger T., Hobbs D., Hofmann W., Holland G., Huckle H.E., Hypki A., Icardi V., Janssen K., Jevardat de Fombelle G., Jonker P.G., Juhasz A.L., Julbe F., Karampelas A., Kewley A., Klar J., Kochoska A., Kohley R., Kolenberg K., Kontizas M., Kontizas E., Koposov S.E., Kordopatis G., Kostrzewa-Rutkowska Z., Koubsky P., Lambert S., Lanza A.F., Lasne Y., Lavigne J.-B., Le Fustec Y., Le Poncin-Lafitte C., Lebreton Y., Leccia S., Leclerc N., Lecoeur-Taibi I., Lenhardt H., Leroux F., Liao S., Licata E., Lindstrom H.E.P., Lister T.A., Livanou E., Lobel A., Lopez M., Managau S., Mann R.G., Mantelet G., Marchal O., Marchant J.M., Marconi M., Marinoni S., Marschalko G., Marshall D.J., Martino M., Marton G., Mary N., Massari D., Matijevi?c G., Mazeh T., McMillan P.J., Messina S., Michalik D., Millar N.R., Molina D., Molinaro R., Molnar L., Montegrio P., Mor R., Morbidelli R., Morel T., Morris D., Mulone A.F., Muraveva T., Musella I., Nelemans G., Nicastro L., Noval L., O'Mullane W., Ordenovic C., Ordonez-Blanco D., Osborne P., Pagani C., Pagano I., Pailler F., Palacin H., Palaversa L., Panahi A., Pawlak M., Piersimoni A.M., Pineau F.-X., Plachy E., Plum G., Poggio E., Poujoulet E., Prsa A., Pulone L., Racero E., Ragaini S., Rambaux N., Ramos-Lerate M., Regibo S., Reyle C., Riclet F., Ripepi V., Riva A., Rivard A., Rixon G., Roegiers T., Roelens M., Romero-Gomez M., Rowell N., Royer F., Ruiz-Dern L., Sadowski G., Sagrista Selles T., Sahlmann J., Salgado J., Salguero E., Sanna N., Santana-Ros T., Sarasso M., Savietto H., Schultheis M., Sciacca E., Segol M., Segovia J.C., Segransan D., Shih I-C., Siltala L., Silva A.F., Smart R.L., Smith K.W., Solano E., Solitro F., Sordo R., Soria Nieto S., Souchay J., Spagna A., Spoto F., Stampa U., Steele I.A., Steidelmueller H., Stephenson C.A., Stoev H., Suess F.F., Surdej J., Szabados L., Szegedi-Elek E., Tapiador D., Taris F., Tauran G., Taylor M.B., Teixeira R., Terrett D., Teyssandier P., Thuillot W., Titarenko A., Torra Clotet F., Turon C., Ulla A., Utrilla E., Uzzi S., Vaillant M., Valentini G., Valette V., van Elteren A., Van Hemelryck E., Vaschetto M., Vecchiato A., Veljanoski J., Viala Y., Vicente D., Vogt S., von Essen C., Voss H., Votruba V., Voutsinas S., Walmsley G., Weiler M., Wertz O., Wevers T., Wyrzykowski L., Yoldas A., Zerjal M., Ziaeepour H., Zorec J., Zschocke S., Zucker S., Zurbach C., Zwitter T. <Astron. Astrophys. 616, A10 (2018)> =2018A&A...616A..10G (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Clusters, open ; Parallaxes, trigonometric ; Proper motions Keywords: parallaxes - Hertzsprung-Russell and C-M diagrams - solar neighbourhood - stars: evolution Abstract: Gaia Data Release 2 provides high-precision astrometry and three-band photometry for about 1.3 billion sources over the full sky. The precision, accuracy, and homogeneity of both astrometry and photometry are unprecedented. We highlight the power of the Gaia DR2 in studying many fine structures of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). Gaia allows us to present many different HRDs, depending in particular on stellar population selections. We do not aim here for completeness in terms of types of stars or stellar evolutionary aspects. Instead, we have chosen several illustrative examples. We describe some of the selections that can be made in Gaia DR2 to highlight the main structures of the Gaia HRDs. We select both field and cluster (open and globular) stars, compare the observations with previous classifications and with stellar evolutionary tracks, and we present variations of the Gaia HRD with age, metallicity, and kinematics. Late stages of stellar evolution such as hot subdwarfs, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and white dwarfs are also analysed, as well as low-mass brown dwarf objects. The Gaia HRDs are unprecedented in both precision and coverage of the various Milky Way stellar populations and stellar evolutionary phases. Many fine structures of the HRDs are presented. The clear split of the white dwarf sequence into hydrogen and helium white dwarfs is presented for the first time in an HRD. The relation between kinematics and the HRD is nicely illustrated. Two different populations in a classical kinematic selection of the halo are unambiguously identified in the HRD. Membership and mean parameters for a selected list of open clusters are provided. They allow drawing very detailed cluster sequences, highlighting fine structures, and providing extremely precise empirical isochrones that will lead to more insight in stellar physics. Gaia DR2 demonstrates the potential of combining precise astrometry and photometry for large samples for studies in stellar evolution and stellar population and opens an entire new area for HRD-based studies. Description: We have determined the membership of 46 open clusters. For the nine clusters within 250pc we determined optimised parallaxes based on the combined information extracted from the measured parallax and proper motion values. These clusters are : in Tables A1a & A3: alphaPer, Blanco1, ComaBer, Hyades, IC2391, IC2602, NGC2451A, Pleiades, Praesepe. The remaining 37 clusters are in Table A1b & A4: Coll140, IC4651, IC4665, IC4725, IC4756, NGC0188, NGC0752, NGC0869, NGC0884, NGC1039, NGC1901, NGC2158, NGC2168, NGC2232, NGC2323, NGC2360, NGC2422, NGC2423, NGC2437, NGC2447, NGC2516, NGC2547, NGC2548, NGC2682, NGC3228, NGC3532, NGC6025, NGC6281, NGC6405, NGC6475, NGC6633, NGC6774, NGC6793, NGC7092, Stock2, Trump02, Trump10. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file tablea1a.dat 71 5378 Stars in nine open clusters within 250pc tablea1b.dat 71 35525 Stars in 37 open clusters beyond 250pc tablea3.dat 160 9 Mean parameters for clusters within 250pc tablea4.dat 120 37 Mean parameters for clusters beyond 250pc
See also: I/345 : Gaia DR2 (Gaia Collaboration, 2018) Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea1a.dat tablea1b.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 22 I22 --- Source Source identifier in Gaia DR2 (source_id) 24- 31 A8 --- Cluster Cluster identifier 33- 41 F9.5 deg RAdeg Right Ascension (ICRS), epoch 2015.5 43- 51 F9.5 deg DEdeg Declination (ICRS), epoch 2015.5 53- 58 F6.3 mag Gmag Gaia G mean magnitude 60- 65 F6.3 mas plx ? Optimized parallax (only in tablea1a.dat) (1) 67- 71 F5.3 mas e_plx ? Uncertainty on optimized parallax (only in tablea1a.dat)
Note (1): optimized parallaxes obtained for nearby clusters based on the combined information extracted from the measured parallax and proper motion values.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Cluster Cluster name 10- 15 F6.2 deg RAdeg Right Ascension (ICRS), epoch 2015.5 17- 22 F6.2 deg DEdeg Declination (ICRS), epoch 2015.5 24- 29 F6.3 km/s U U-component of cluster velocity 31- 35 F5.3 km/s e_U Uncertainty on U 37- 42 F6.3 km/s V V-component of cluster velocity 44- 48 F5.3 km/s e_V Uncertainty on V 50- 56 F7.3 km/s W W-component of cluster velocity 58- 62 F5.3 km/s e_W Uncertainty on W 64- 68 F5.2 --- cUV Error-correlation coefficient U,V 70- 74 F5.2 --- cUW Error-correlation coefficient U,W 76- 80 F5.2 --- cVW Error-correlation coefficient V,W 82- 89 F8.4 deg RAconv Right ascension of convergent point 91- 98 F8.4 deg DEconv Declination of convergent point 100-105 F6.3 mas plx Parallax of cluster centre 107-111 F5.3 mas e_plx Uncertainty on parallax cluster centre 113-119 F7.3 mas/yr pmRA Proper motion along RA of cluster centre 121-125 F5.3 mas/yr e_pmRA Uncertainty on pmRA cluster centre 127-133 F7.3 mas/yr pmDE Proper motion along DE of cluster centre 135-139 F5.3 mas/yr e_pmDE Uncertainty on pmDE cluster centre 141-144 I4 --- NMemb number of cluster members identified 146-149 F4.2 --- uwsd Unit-weight standard deviation of solution 151-155 F5.2 km/s RV Radial velocity at cluster centre 157-160 F4.2 km/s e_RV Uncertainty of Vrad
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 7 A7 ---- Cluster Cluster name 9- 16 F8.4 deg RAdeg Right Ascension cluster centre (J2000) 18- 25 F8.4 deg DEdeg Declination cluster centre (J2000) 27- 32 F6.4 mas plx Parallax of cluster centre 34- 39 F6.4 mas e_plx Uncertainty of parallax cluster centre 41- 48 F8.4 mas/yr pmRA Proper motion along RA of cluster centre 50- 55 F6.4 mas/yr e_pmRA Uncertainty of pmRA 57- 64 F8.4 mas/yr pmDE Proper motion along DE of cluster centre 66- 71 F6.4 mas/yr e_pmDE Uncertainty of pmDE 73- 77 F5.2 --- cc1 Error correlation coefficient plx-pmRA 79- 83 F5.2 --- cc2 Error correlation coefficient plx-pmDE 85- 89 F5.2 --- cc3 Error correlation coefficient pmRA-pmDE 91- 94 I4 --- NMemb Number of cluster members 96- 99 F4.2 deg rMax Maximum radius of the cluster 101-104 F4.2 --- uwsd Unit-weight standard deviation of solution 106-111 F6.2 km/s RV ? Mean radial velocity, Gaia data 113-116 F4.2 km/s e_RV ? Uncertainty on RV 118-120 I3 --- o_RV ? Number of radial velocity data points
Acknowledgements: Floor van Leeuwen, fvl(at)ast.cam.ac.uk
(End) F. van Leeuwen [IoA, Cambridge Univ.], P. Vannier [CDS] 17-May-2018
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