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J/A+A/611/A28  ATLAS3D Hα imaging of early-type galaxies (Gavazzi+, 2018)

Hα imaging observations of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Gavazzi G., Consolandi G., Pedraglio S., Fossati M., Fumagalli M., Boselli A. <Astron. Astrophys. 611, A28 (2018)> =2018A&A...611A..28G (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Galaxies, nearby ; Redshifts ; Photometry, H-alpha Keywords: Galaxy: evolution - galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD - galaxies: fundamental parameters - galaxies: star formation Abstract: The traditional knowledge of the mechanisms that caused the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies (ETG) in a hierarchical universe was challenged by the unexpected finding by ATLAS3D that 86% of the ETGs show signs of a fast-rotating disk at their interior. This implies a common origin of most spiral galaxies, followed by a quenching phase, while only a minority of the most massive systems are slow rotators and were likely to be the products of merger events. Our aim is to improve our knowledge on the content and distribution of ionized hydrogen and their usage to form stars in a representative sample of ETGs for which the kinematics and detailed morphological classification were known from ATLAS3D. Methods. Using narrow-band filters centered on the redshifted Hα line along with a broad-band (r-Gunn) filter to recover the stellar continuum, we observed or collected existing imaging observations for 147 ETGs (including members of the Virgo cluster) that are representative of the whole ATLAS3D survey. Fifty-five ETGs (37%) were detected in the Hα line above our detection threshold, (EW(Hα)≤-1Å), and 21 harbor a strong source (EW(Hα)≤-5Å). The strong Hα emitters appear associated with mostly low-mass (M*∼1010M) S0 galaxies that contain conspicuous stellar and gaseous discs. These harbor significant star formation at their interior, including their nuclei. The weak Hα emitters are almost one order of magnitude more massive, contain gas-poor discs and harbor an AGN at their centers. Their emissivity is dominated by [NII] and does not imply star formation. The 92 undetected ETGs constitute the majority in our sample and are gas-free systems that lack a disc and exhibit passive spectra even in their nuclei. These pieces of evidence reinforce the conclusion made previously that the evolution of ETGs followed the secular channel for the less massive systems and the dry merging channel for the most massive galaxies at the center of clusters of galaxies. Description: The sample of ETGs analyzed in this work was extracted from the ATLAS3D whole-sky catalog of 260 ETGs. Narrow-band imaging of the Hα line emission (rest frame λ=6562.8Å) of 118 galaxies in the main program (+ 20 filler targets) was obtained using the 2.1m telescope at the SPM, belonging to the Mexican Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (OAN). The Hα measurements of the remaining 29 targets included in the present investigation are taken from the literature. The observations were scheduled in two observing runs of eight nights each in 2015 (March 17-24) and 2016 (April 7-14), both including new-moon periods. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file tablea1.dat 91 147 General parameters of the 147 target galaxies tablea2.dat 91 20 General parameters of the 20 filler targets tablea3.dat 49 147 The observational parameters of the 147 observed galaxies tablea4.dat 49 20 The observational parameters of the 20 filter targets tablea5.dat 91 147 The results of our Halpha imaging campaign for the 147 target galaxies tablea6.dat 91 20 The results of our Halpha imaging campaign for the 20 filler targets
See also: J/MNRAS/413/813 : ATLAS3D project. I. (Cappellari+, 2011) J/MNRAS/414/888 : ATLAS3D project. III. (Emsellem+, 2011) J/MNRAS/414/940 : ATLAS3D project. IV. (Young+, 2011) J/MNRAS/416/1680 : ATLAS3D project. VII. (Cappellari+, 2011) J/MNRAS/433/2812 : ATLAS3D project. XXIII. (Krajnovic+, 2013) J/MNRAS/448/3484 : ATLAS3D Project. XXX (McDermid+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea1.dat tablea2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Galaxy Galaxy name 12- 13 I2 h RAh Right ascension (J2000) 15- 16 I2 min RAm Right ascension (J2000) 18- 22 F5.2 s RAs Right ascension (J2000) 24 A1 --- DE- Declination sign (J2000) 25- 26 I2 deg DEd Declination (J2000) 28- 29 I2 arcmin DEm Declination (J2000) 31- 34 F4.1 arcsec DEs Declination (J2000) 36- 39 I4 km/s cz ? Recessional velocity 41- 45 F5.1 Mpc D ? Distance in Mpc 47- 50 A4 --- Type Morphological type 52- 56 F5.2 mag gmag ?=- g magnitude from Consolandi et al. (2016, Cat. J/A+A/591/A38) 58- 62 F5.2 mag rmag ?=- r magnitude from Consolandi et al. (2016, Cat. J/A+A/591/A38) 64- 69 F6.3 [Msun] logMstar ?=- log of stellar mass 71- 73 A3 --- Rot Kinematic classification in ATLAS3D 75 A1 --- l_logMH2Y [=<] Limit flag on MH2Y ("=" detected, < upper limit) 77- 80 F4.2 [Msun] logMH2Y ?=- log of the molecular hydrogen mass (H2) as given by Young et al. (2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/414/940) 81- 82 A2 --- n_logMH2Y [H2 ] Note on MH2Y (1) 84 A1 --- l_logMH2S [=<] Limit flag on MH2S ("=" detected, < upper limit) 86- 89 F4.2 [Msun] logMH2S ?=- log of the atomic hydrogen mass (H2) as given by Serra et al. (2012MNRAS.422.1835S) 90- 91 A2 --- n_logMH2S [HI ] Note on MH2S (2)
Note (1): when a CO spectrum is available from the NED, but an estimate of the H2 mass is not given, a "H2" is reported. Note (2): when a HI spectrum is available from NED (mostly from ALFALFA), but an estimate of the HI mass is not given, a "HI" is reported.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea3.dat tablea4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- Galaxy Galaxy name 13- 14 I2 --- Ref [1/11] Reference to the Halpha observation (G1) 16- 19 F4.2 --- AmON15 ? Air mass during the ON-band exposure in 2015 21- 24 F4.2 --- AmOFF15 ? Air mass during the OFF-band exposure in 2015 26- 29 F4.2 --- AmON16 ? Air mass during the ON-band exposure in 2016 31- 34 F4.2 --- AmOFF16 ? Air mass during the OFF-band exposure in 2016 36- 38 I3 s TexpON25 ? Exposure time of the individual ON-band exposure in 2015 40- 41 I2 s TexpOFF15 ? Exposure time of the individual OFF-band exposure in 2015 43- 45 I3 s TexpON26 ? Exposure time of the individual ON-band exposure in 2016 47- 49 I3 s TexpOFF16 ? Exposure time of the individual OFF-band exposure in 2016
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea5.dat tablea6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- Galaxy Galaxy name 13- 19 F7.2 0.1nm EW3as ? Halpha+[NII] (negative means emission) measured in a circular aperture of 3" positioned on the galaxy nucleus 21- 24 F4.2 0.1nm e_EW3as ? rms uncertainty of the (EW) Halpha+[NII] measured in a circular aperture of 3" 26 A1 --- l_LogF3as Limit flag on LogF3as (< for undetection) 27- 32 F6.2 [mW/m2] LogF3as ? log of the Halpha+[NII] flux measured in a circular aperture of 3" positioned on the galaxy nucleus; 34- 37 F4.2 [mW/m2] e_LogF3as ? rms uncertainty of LogF3as 39- 45 F7.2 0.1nm EWtot ? Total (EW) Halpha+[NII] measured in a circular aperture containing the whole galaxy 47- 50 F4.2 0.1nm e_EWtot ? rms uncertainty on EWtot 52 A1 --- l_LogFTot Limit flag on LogFTot (< for undetection) 53- 58 F6.2 [mW/m2] LogFTot ? log of the Halpha+[NII] flux measured in a circular aperture containing the whole galaxy 60- 63 F4.2 [mW/m2] e_LogFTot ? rms uncertainty on LogFTot 65 A1 --- l_logSFR Limit flag on logSFR (< for undetection) 66- 70 F5.2 [Msun/yr] logSFR ? log of the total star formation rate derived from the Halpha flux (1) 72- 76 A5 --- Spec Availability of a nuclear spectrum flag (2) 78- 80 A3 --- SpecTy Nuclear spectral classification (3) 82 I1 --- Det [1/3]? Detection flag (4) 84 A1 --- morfHa Halpha morphological classification (5) 86 A1 --- HST HST imaging availability flag (6) 88- 91 A4 --- Ref Reference to Halpha imaging (G1)
Note (1): as prescribed by Kennicutt (1998ARA&A..36..189K), but adapted for a Chabrier IMF. Note (2): Availability of a nuclear spectrum flag as follows: LOI = taken at the Loiano 1.5m telescope (this work) SDSS = taken from the SDSS database NED = taken from NED HO = in Ho et al. (1995, Cat. J/ApJS/98/477) NEDMH = from NED taken at Mount Hopkins 1.5m telescope Note (3): HII, SEY, AGN, PSB, RET, PAS, according to the criteria of Gavazzi et al. (2012, Cat. J/A+A/545/A16; 2013, Cat. J/A+A/558/A68) Note (4): Detection flag as follows: 1 = strong Halpha detection 2 = weak detection 3 = undetected Note (5): Halpha morphological classification as follows: d = disc D = diffuse c = centrally peaked F = filamentary Note (6): HST imaging availability flag as follows: - = not available 0 = available, featureless 1 = available, showing a prominent structure (disc, dust ring, or filaments)
Global notes: Note (G1): References as follows: 1 = this work 2 = Koopmann and Kenney (2006ApJS..162...97K) 3 = Boselli at al. (2015, Cat. J/A+A/579/A102) 4 = Young et al. (1996AJ....112.1903Y) 5 = Macchetto et al. (1996A&AS..120..463M) 6 = Koopmann et al. (2001ApJS..135..125K) 7 = Boselli and Gavazzi (2002A&A...386..124B) 8 = Kennicutt and Kent (1983AJ.....88.1094K) 9 = Trinchieri and Di Serego Alighieri (1991AJ....101.1647T) 10 = Gavazzi et al. (2000A&A...361....1G) 11 = Kenney et al. (2008ApJ...687L..69K)
Acknowledgements: Giuseppe Gavazzi, giuseppe.gavazzi(at)mib.infn.it
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 28-Sep-2017
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