Contents of: V/36B/./intro.doc

The following document lists the file intro.doc from catalogue V/36B.
A plain copy of the file (without headers/trailers) may be downloaded.



   The Bright Star Catalogue (BS) was ostensibly complete to magnitude
6.50v on the visual system of the HR catalogue (Harvard Revised
Photometry, Harvard Annals, vol. 50, 1908).  Included in the HR were
over 500 stars fainter than 6.50v, of which 26 had magnitudes between
7.00 and 7.64v.  Following Frank Schlesinger, who compiled the first
two editions of the BS (1930 and 1940), we have included in the third (1964)
and fourth (1982) editions only the stars with HR numbers.  Subsequently a
number of complaints have been received because numerous stars now known to
be brighter then 6.50V in the modern photoelectric UBV system are not included
in the BS.  All of the stars that were specifically called to our attention
had actually been listed as fainter than 6.50v in the Harvard photometric
catalogues that were available when the HR was being assembled.  In response
to the criticism, however, we have now collected data on stars for which
photoelectric determinations are given as 7.10V or brighter and which are not
HR stars already in the BS (except for a few that occur in the REMARKS of
the BS because they are companions to the BS stars).

    The major sources for the selection of the Supplement stars have been
the tapes provided by Carlos Jaschek of the Centre de Donnees Stellaires for
the preparation of the fourth edition of the BS.  These are primarily Nicolet
(A. and A. Supp. 34, 1, 1978) and Morel-Magnenat (A. and A. Supp. 34,
477, 1978), although a great many other miscellaneous sources are represented.
However, we make no claim to completeness.  Moreover, a few stars may
inadvertently be included when a published value labelled V actually was meant
to refer to a visual or photovisual determination (v).  This Supplement,
then, which is more in the nature of a first approximation than a final product,
contains 2603 stars.

    From tables by van Rhijn (Groningen Pub. 43, 1929) it is estimated that
to magnitude 7.10v there should be approximately 16000 stars.  With 9084
to this limit in the BS, a complete supplement should contain on the order of
7000 stars, for only 37% of which we have found V magnitudes.  To have included
all of the stars with visual or photovisual magnitudes to 7.10 would have led
to a spurious impression of completeness--more stars of true V magnitude
brighter than 7.1 would have been omitted than fainter stars, originally graded
as brighter than 7.10, would have been included.

    2554 of the stars in the Supplement are common to the SAO catalogue.
For these, Figure 1 shows the correlation between the V-magnitudes and the
visual or photovisual magnitudes (v) given in the SAO.  The latter stem
mainly from three sources, the HD, DM, or Cape Zone Catalogues.  410, or 16%
with V magnitudes brighter than 7.10 are given as fainter in the old visual
catalogues, and would therefore have been rejected from the Supplement
had the criteria for inclusion been the older values.  For 52% of the stars
common to the two catalogues, the v magnitudes are the fainter (by up to
1.8 mag.), 24% are the same, and 24% are brighter than their corresponding V
values.  Hence, a selection of all stars to 7.1v would not even guarantee
completeness to 6.50V if the current selection of 2554 stars is typical of the
entire expected 7000.  The current sample indicates that 96% completeness to
6.50V would have been achieved if the stars had actually been selected on the
basis of a visual limit of 7.1v, at the expense of the inclusion of some
1800 stars actually fainter than 6.50V on the UBV system.

    The data given in the Supplement are basically the same as for the BS
itself.  Here, however, the NAME column has been omitted as very few of
the Supplement stars have Bayer or Flamsteed designations.  Where such do
apply they are entered under N in the REMARKS.  In place of the name
column we have inserted the SAO numbers (which do not appear in the BS).  On
the right-hand pages PAR now includes only trigonometric parallaxes; all
the dynamical parallaxes are relegated to the REMARKS.  For double stars
a column headed PA has been added for position angle.  REMARKS are
given for 49% of the stars.  For a high percentage of these, various data in
the literature have been found to be discordant.  When these could not readily
be resolved and corrections indicated, the discordant values are entered in the
REMARKS.  Misidentifications or oversights are not precluded, as positional
data are not of comparable precision in all the sources.

    A summary of the completeness of the data for the 2603 Supplement stars
is shown in Table I, together with the corresponding percentages for the BS
catalogue.  Table II gives the number of double or multiple systems, n, of
multiplicity N, indicating that the 2603 stars actually represent 3577
components.  The last entry, for N = 21, corresponds to HD 25639 = ADS 2984,
for which Aitken listed 21 components.  These comprise part of the open cluster
NGC 1502, so that the strictly binary nature of most of the components may be

    In Figures 2 - 4 the color indices (B-V), (U-B), and (R-I) are
compared with the major spectral classes.  The considerable dispersions reflect
possible errors in spectral classification, in the colors, and color excesses,
as well as differences in luminosity classes (which are not differentiated in
the Figures).  The expected spread in color due to luminosity classes is much
smaller than the observed dispersions.  A comparison with mean expected
unreddened colors for each spectral class, as given by C.W. Allen
(Astrophysical Quantities, p. 206, 1973), indicates that our values for
(B-V) and (U-B) as plotted in Figures 2 and 3 have a spread of from
2 to 9 times greater than the expected differences between luminosity V dwarfs
and luminosity I supergiants.  Very large deviations may indicate errors in
star identifications.  A few correspond to the difference between resolved and
unresolved magnitudes for close double stars; and in rare instances the spectral
class and colors might represent different phases in unrecognized variable


    Much of the material included in this Supplement stems from the same tapes
and catalogues supplied by Carlos Jaschek of the Centre de Donnees
Stellaires at Strasbourg for the preparation of the fourth edition of the
Bright Star Catalogue.  Dr. Philip C. Keenan kindly supplied a number of
new spectral classes of G and K type stars.  Dr. W. van Altena contributed all
of the trigonometric parallaxes, a few of which may still be subject to minor
revisions as the new General Catalogue of Stellar Trigonometric Parallaxes
is not quite completed.

    All three authors have shared in the extensive search of the literature
(through 1981, though not necessarily exhaustive in all categories, and with
many data from more recent publications).  The final selection of the material
to be included in the catalogue has been the sole prerogative of the senior
author.  Michael Saladyga has been the one mainly responsible for the numerous
and often cumbersome programs necessary on the PDP-11, the DEC-20, and the
OMNITECH computers.  Peter Wlasuk also aided considerably in various phases of
programming and proof reading.  The following undergraduate student assistants
helped over shorter time intervals:  Andrew Partan wrote the earliest versions
of the DEC-20 programs; Jerome Demarque, Nathaniel Glasser, Iris McNair, and
Rose Swift shared tasks of putting the REMARKS on the DEC-20 and meticulous
proof reading.  Graduate student James Shombert made himself available for
advice on programming whenever needed.

    The catalogue was compiled from magnetic tapes and manuscript materials us-
ing the PDP-11 computer at the Yale Astronomy Department and the DEC-20 computer
at the Department of Computer Science.  The REMARKS and introductory pages were
compiled on the DEC-20 system.  The final camera-ready copy was produced
using the DEC-20/SCRIBE document preparation system and the OMNITECH typesetter
at the Yale Printing Service.

    We are particularly grateful to the National Science Foundation for Grant
AST-8116517 under which this project was carried out.

TABLE I.  Completeness of Data

CATEGORY                                No.    %   % in BS

SAO Numbers                            2576   99       -
Infrared Sources (I)                    310   12      19
Components of Visual Doubles            649   25      32
Named Variable Stars                    217    8       9
Unnamed or Suspected Variables          181    7      13
(B-V)                                  1794   69      94
MK Luminosity Classes                  1894   73      93
Proper Motions                         2595   99.7   100
Trigonometric Parallaxes                255   10      31
Radial Velocities                      1510   58      93
Spectroscopic Binaries                   21    8      19
Other Stars with variable or
  suspected var. RV (% of RV)           155   10      29
vsini                                   356   14      43

TABLE II.  Multiplicity of Components

       N          n        nN

       1       2053      2053
       2        309       618
       3        133       399
       4         54       216
       5         19        95
       6          8        48
       7          9        63
       8          4        32
       10         2        20
       12         1        12
       21         1        21

       TOTAL Components  3577

Left-Hand Pages


    1    HD  Number in the Henry Draper Catalogue, Harvard Annals,
           93-99, 1918-1924

    2    DM  Durchmusterung number
           BD north of -23 deg
           CD from -23 deg to -51 deg
           CP South of -52 deg

    3    SAO  Number in the Smithsonian Astrophysical Obs. Star Catalog,

    4    I  Infrared source.  Mainly from the Catalog of Infrared
           Observations, NASA Tech. Memorandum 83819, 1982.

    5    D  Double or multiple stars (other than spectroscopic binary
           or eclipsing):
           Number  ADS, Aitken General Catalogue of Double Stars, 1932
           W  From Charles Worley, USNO 1978 unpublished update of the IDS.
              The letters following the W indicate which components of a
              multiple star the HD number represents.
           C  Couteau, IAU Inform. Bull. Double Stars, No. 75, 1978
           D  Duplicity discovered by occultation

    6    VAR  Variable star designations: Numbers alone in this column
           indicate unconfirmed variables from the New Catalogue of
           Suspected Variable Stars, Kukarkin, Kholopov, et. al.,1982.
           VAR and VAR? for unnamed variables and suspected unconfirmed
           variables not included in the general catalogues

    7-8   Equatorial coordinates for 1900

    9-10  Equatorial coordinates for 2000

    11-12 Galactic coordinates

Right-Hand Pages


    1    HD  Repeated from Left Page

    2    V  Visual magnitude on Johnson UBV system

    3    B-V  On Johnson system

    4    U-B  On Johnson system

    5    R-I  On Johnson system unless followed by a letter:
          E, mainly from Eggen, on Kron system
          C, from Cousins, close to Kron system
        (Caution: the Johnson and Kron systems depend on different
        effective wavelengths and may not be used interchangeably.)

    6    Spectral Class  If followed by * the complete modern
           determination is too long for the available column width.
           The complete class is given either in the REMARKS or in the text.

    7    PM(alpha)  Annual proper motion in R.A.

    8    PM(delta)  Annual proper motion in Dec.

    9    PAR  Trigonometric parallax

    10   RV  Radial velocity.  V and V? indicate variable or suspected
          variable radial velocity; SB, spectroscopic binaries, SB1 or
          SB2, single or double lined spectra; followed by an O, orbital
          data available.

    11    vsini  Projected rotational velocities

    12    ^m  Magnitude difference between two components of a double,
            or between the two brightest components of a multiple system

    13    SEP  The separation of the same two components.  The letter
            "a" in this column indicates the semi-major axis of the orbit.

    14    PA  Position angle of the same two components.  "orb" in this
            column means an orbit is available; hence no position angle
            is given.

    15    Comp  Identification of which two components are represented
            in columns 12 and 13.  An O in this column indicates
            occultation binary.

    16    N  The number of components assigned to the multiple systems

    17    R  An asterisk (*) in the final column calls attention to a
            note in the REMARKS section following the catalogue proper.


    A vast amount of information could not readily be included in the
left- and right-hand pages of the Catalogue proper, partly because of
space limitations on the number of columns, but mainly because of the
diverse nature of many of the notes.  All of this material is collected
in the REMARKS, which are divided into the following categories:


C  MAGNITUDES, COLORS and color excess.

S  SPECTRA.  Notes on discordances in classification, peculiarities, etc.

VAR  VARIABLE STARS.  Most of the notes in this category comprise types of
variability, maximum and minimum magnitudes, and periods.  Notes are also
included in this category for stars not known to show variability in light,
but which have shown changes in spectrum, magnetic field, or other
characteristics (unless such changes are noted under S, SB, RV or D).

SB  SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES.  Mostly orbital data: the period of revolution;
K, the half amplitude of the radial velocity in the orbiting system, or K$1
and K$2, the semi-amplitude in RV for each of the components of a
double-lined spectroscopic binary; V$0, the mean radial velocity of the
system; msin!3i, the mass function in terms of the solar mass;
and asini, the projected semi-major axis in units of 10!6km.

such data for the secondary components of visual or multiple stars are shown,
but not data already included under SB or D.

D  DOUBLE and MULTIPLE STARS, including astrometric and those discovered by
occultations or speckle interferometry.  Orbital data are given, including
magnitudes and spectral classes of the major components, orbital periods, and
semi-major axes, a.



G  Membership in CLUSTERS, GROUPS, ASSOCIATIONS, and apparent association
with nebulosity (R associations).  No attempt has been made to resolve
conflicting assignments in different sources: the various alternatives are


                     Translation Table: Scribe Codes and
                  short versions of codes in tape version of
                       Bright Star Supplement Catalogue

       short code      Scribe code          (follow this sequence when making
                                              blanket changes of the codes)

       @g              @g(g)   gamma                           first
       @c              @g(c)   chi                             second

       @a              @g(a)   alpha
       @b              @g(b)   beta
       @d              @g(d)   delta
       @D              @c(@g(D)) small cap. Delta              a
       @h              @g(h)   eta                             n
       @k              @g(k)   kappa                           y
       @l              @g(l)   lambda
       @p              @g(p)   pi
       @r              @g(r)   rho                             o
       @s              @g(s)   sigma                           r
       @t              @g(t)   tau                             d
       @x              @g(x)   xi                              e
       @y              @g(y)   psi                             r
       @z              @g(z)   zeta

       !n              @+(n)   superscript } where {  01234hmsvc
       $n              @-(n)   subscript   }  n =  {  01234CEAB
                       @g(7)   degrees

       asini           @i(a)sin@i(i)                 asini
       vsini           @i(v)sin@i(i)                 vsini
       a$1sini         @i(a)@-(1))sin@i(i)           a1sini
       a$2sini         @i(a)@-(2))sin@i(i)           a2sini
       msin!3i         @i(m)sin@+(3)@i(i)            msin3i
       m$1sin!3i       @i(m)@-(1))sin@+(3)@i(i)      m1sin3i
       m$2sin!3i       @i(m)@-(2))sin@+(3)@i(i)      m2sin3i

           other codes used to produce printed version
                  but not used in tape version:

       %               @g(1)   minus sign (not dash)
       {               @g(8)   minutes sign (not single quote)
       }               @g(9)   seconds sign (not double quote)
       |               @g(5)   plus-or-minus sign
       `               - - -   to represent % sign

        a              @y(h)   less-than/equal sign
        b              @y(i)   greater-than-equal sign
        r              @y(r)   slash (scribe's different from "/")
        s              @!@g(9)@/.    (scribe overprint for ". sign)

                       @g(2)   times sign (not letter X)

             short versions of codes in LEFT PAGE file:

       short code      Scribe code

       @t!4 Ser        @g(t)@+(4) Ser       HD 139216 'tau4Ser'

             short versions of codes in RIGHT PAGE file

       @d              @g(d)                HD 189337
                                            'lowercase greek delta'