Contents of: VII/239A/./refs.dat

The following document lists the file refs.dat from catalogue VII/239A.
Also available: plain copy of the file with f77 program to read file into arrays or line by line
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## (from tabmap V6.0 (2016-08-18)) 2019-10-22T09:31:39
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#-- VII/239A History and Accurate Positions for the NGC/IC Objects (Corwin, 2004)
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#---Table: VII/239A/./refs.dat References of positions  (2365 records)
#       Ref A5     ---   Reference code
#    n_Text A1     ---   [*=] * indicate a remark line, = the Bibcode
#      Text A71    ---   Text of note.
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     |e|
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Ref  |t|Text
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2MSP | |2MASS Point Source Catalog, 2000.  On-line version via VizieR.
2MSP |*|Standard deviation 0.18 arcsec.  There are far fewer problems with
2MSP | |the point source positions than there are with the extended source
2MSP | |positions.
2MSP |=|Cat. II/246
2MSX | |2MASS Extended Source Catalog, 2003.  (Some positions from the 1st or
2MSX | |2nd Incremental Releases, 1999 and 2000, via NED).
2MSX |*|Standard deviation 0.30 arcsec, but much larger accidental errors can
2MSX | |occur in the Incremental Releases.  I checked all of these before
2MSX | |entering them here.  The problems (due to edge-of-scan effects) are
2MSX | |largely overcome in the Full-Sky release of 2003, but some remain.
2MSX |=|Cat. VII/233
AA   | |Arthur Auwers, AN 58, 369, 1862; micrometric observations, re-reduced.
AA   |*|Standard deviation about 2 arcsec at a guess.
AA   |=|1862AN.....58..369A
AAS  | |A.A. Schoenmaker, quoted in dBW and vdK2,3 (which see; also see
AAS  | |van Herk and Schoenmaker, IAU Circular 2334, 1971 and A&A 17, 146,
AAS  | |1971 for repeat of N5055).  Optical positions for a few bright
AAS  | |galaxies.
AAS  |*|Standard deviation about 0.5 arcsec.
AAS  |=|1972A&A....17..146V
AC   | |R. W. Argyle and E. D. Clements, Observatory 110, 93, 1990.  N = 32
AC   |*|Standard deviation about 0.2 arcsec.
AC   |=|1990Obs...110...93A
AC22 | |AC 2000.2.  Stars; and a few planetaries, courtesy Brian Skiff.
AC22 | |Proper motion almost always ignored.
AC22 |*|Standard deviation around 0.2-0.3 arcsec at B1950.0.
AC22 |=|Cat. I/275
ACR  | |R. C. Stone, J. R. Pier, and D. G. Monet, AJ 118, 2488, 1999.
ACR  | |Astrometric Calibration Regions around the celestial equator.  A few
ACR  | |galaxies picked up among the 1.2 million stars.  These are tightly
ACR  | |tied to the ICRS.
ACR  |*|Standard deviation around 0.03 arcsec (that is not a typo:  0.03"!)
ACR  |=|Cat. I/263
AE   | |R. W. Argyle and P. Eldridge, MNRAS 243, 504, 1990.  Seyfert
AE   | |galaxies.  N = 72
AE   |*|Standard deviation about 0.15 arcsec.
AE   |=|1990MNRAS.243..504A
AGK2 | |A. Kopff and J. Peters.  AGK2.  Astron. Rechen-Inst. Veroff. 16,
AGK2 | |No. 71.  Positions for objects that can be fairly represented by
AGK2 | |stars.
AGK2 |*|Standard deviation about 0.3 arcsec (but with systematic errors).
AGK2 |=|Cat. I/2
AGK3 | |AGK3 (check SIMBAD or VizieR for the complete reference).  Positions
AGK3 | |for stellar objects.
AGK3 |*|Standard deviation about 0.3 arcsec (but with systematic errors).
AH   | |Brent A. Archinal and Steven J. Hynes.  "Star Clusters", 2003
AH   | |Willmann-Bell, Richmond, VA.  Positions for Galactic, LMC, SMC, M31,
AH   | |and Fornax open and globular clusters, precessed from J2000.0.
AH   |*|Standard deviation varies, depending on cluster size and position
AH   | |source.
AH   |=|2003stcl.book.....A
AK   | |A. N. Argue and C. M. Kenworthy, MNRAS 160, 197, 1972.  NGC 1275.
AK   | |N = 1
AK   |*|Standard deviation about 0.2 arcsec.
AK   |=|1972MNRAS.160..197A
AK90 | |O.B. Aaquist and S. Kwok.  A&AS 84, 229, 1990.  Position for NGC 6807
AK90 | |pulled in by B.A. Skiff.
AK90 |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec at a guess.
AM   | |H.C. Arp and B.F. Madore.  "Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies
AM   | |and Associations," Cambridge U. Press, 1987.
AM   |*|Standard deviation around 15-20 arcsec.
AM   |=|Cat. VII/170
AMo  | |R.W. Argyle and L.V. Morrison, IAUC 5976, 1994.  Offsets (9"w, 7"n;
AMo  | |see Treffers etal. IAUC 5946) from SN 1994D in NGC 4526 for nucleus.
AMo  | |SN pos is 12 31 29.945 +07 58 36.87 (n=18) +-0.06 arcsec.
AMo  |*|Standard deviation about an arcsec; depends on offset.
AMo  |=|1994IAUC.5976....1A
APM  | |S. Maddox et al, MNRAS 243, 692, 1990.  APM Galaxy Catalogue, 1996
APM  | |version.  Selected galaxies only.
APM  |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec for small galaxies, up to 8-10 arcsec
APM  | |for large galaxies.  Use 3 arcsec for the time being.
APM  |=|1990MNRAS.243..692M
APMN | |Northern APM scans from POSS1 copy plates.  Seems to be free from the
APMN | |systematic errors that plague the southern APM positions.
APMN |*|Standard deviation for small galaxies 0.2 arcsec, probably around 1-2
APMN | |arcsec for large ones.
APMN |=|Cat. I/267
APMb | |J. Loveday et al, MNRAS 278, 1025, 1996.  APM Bright Galaxy Catalogue.
APMb | |Selected galaxies only.  Many galaxy images are contaminated by
APMb | |superposed star images, and many others have just plain wrong
APMb | |positions.
APMb |*|Standard deviation around 3 arcsec.  Occasional much larger errors are
APMb | |weeded out.
APMb |=|1996MNRAS.278.1025L
APMn | |A. Naim et al, MNRAS 274, 1107, 1995.  830+- galaxies in the south-
APMn | |equatorial zone.  Same problems as the APM Bright Galaxy Catalogue
APMn | |(APMb here, which see), though superposed stars are less frequent.
APMn |*|Standard deviation around 8-10 arcsec.
APMn |=|1995MNRAS.274.1107N
AO   | |Aoki et al (1991, PASJ 43, 775; pos for IR nucleus of NGC 891)
AO   |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
AO   |=|1991PASJ...43..755A
AR   | |R. J. Allen and E. Raimond, A&A 19, 317, 1972.  Maffei 2.  N = 1
AR   |*|Standard deviation 2 arcsec.
AR   |=|1972A&A....19..317A
ASec | |A. Secchi.  AN 66, 11, 1866.  About a dozen objects found by Brother
ASec | |Ferraro at College Roman, most now unidentifiable.  Nominal positions.
ASec |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
ASec |=|1866AN.....66..161S
Ames | |A. Ames, HA 88, No. 1, 1930.  Virgo Cluster survey on four Bruce
Ames | |refractor plates.  Only positions that Ames measured herself used
Ames | |here.  She took most NGC/IC positions from the NGC/IC itself.
Ames |*|Standard deviation 20 arcsec at a guess.
Bar  | |E.E. Barnard, various publications.  Micrometric observations,
Bar  | |re-reduced w.r.t. modern comparison positions when possible, precessed
Bar  | |otherwise.  (See also EEB, below).
Bar  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
Bax  | |J. Baxendell.  Nominal position for NGC 7088, a non-existent nebula.
Bax  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Be   | |L. Becker, Annals of the Edinburgh Observatory No. 1, page 1, 1902.
Be   | |Meridian circle observations.
Be   |*|Standard deviation around 5 arcsec at a guess.
Beck | |S.C. Beck et al.  ApJ 457, 610, 1996.  2-cm and H-alpha peaks for NGC
Beck | |5253; astrometry based on GSC stars.
Beck |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec in both coordinates.
Beck |=|1996ApJ...457..610B
Bids | |Bidschof, AN 3520.  Micrometric measurements at Vienna Obs.
Bids | |Precessed from 1890.0.
Bids |*|Standard deviation around 2 arcsec.
Big  | |G. Bigourdan, visual micrometric measurements (1884 - 1907) reduced
Big  | |by me w.r.t. SAO, AGK3, GSC, or AC positions, taking proper motion
Big  | |into account when possible.
Big  |*|Standard deviation varies, usually about 2 arcsec, but is larger for
Big  | |objects with poorly-defined or faint nuclei.
Bige | |G. Bigourdan, estimated offset.
Bige |*|Standard deviation anywhere from 3 to 30 arcsec.
Bign | |Bigourdan's nominal position for objects not found by me.
Bign |*|Standard deviation meaningless in this case.
Bond | |G. P. Bond, AN 1453.  Micrometric observations with the 16-inch
Bond | |Harvard refractor, c. 1850s.  Most are stars.
Bond |*|Standard deviation around 20 arcsec at a guess.
Bord | |M. Rapaport et al.  A&A 376, 325, 2001.  Bordeaux meridian circle
Bord | |positions for PNe, extracted by Brian Skiff.
Bord |*|Standard deviation around 0.15 arcsec at a guess.
BAA  | |Brent A. Archinal, private communication (but also see source AH).
BAA  | |Open clusters.
BAA  |*|Standard deviation 5-30 arcsec depending on cluster size.
BASm | |B. Skiff, means from several different sources, usually for
BASm | |planetaries.
BASm |*|Standard deviation around 1-2 arcsec.
BC   | |R. Buta and H. Corwin, Ap. J. Suppl. 62, 255, 1986.  Means of several
BC   | |sources (calculated by me).  Hercules Cluster.  N = 35
BC   |*|Standard deviation better than 1 arcsec.
BC   |=|1986ApJS...62..255B
BCG  | |E.J. Barton, R.R. De Carvalho, and M.J. Geller.  AJ 116, 1573, 1998.
BCG  | |About 500 galaxies in or near compact groups.
BCG  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
BCG  |=|1998AJ....116.1573B
BCGP | |Barbieri, C., Capaccioli, M., Ganz, R., and Pinto, G.  AJ 77, 444,
BCGP | |1972.  Radio sources.
BCGP |*|Standard deviation about 0.4 arcsec.
BCGP |=|1972AJ.....77..444B
BI   | |W.A. Baan and J.A. Irwin.  ApJ 446, 602, 1995.  1412.1 and 1655.2 MHz
BI   | |observations of the unresolved nuclear source in NGC 3079.
BI   |*|Standard deviation around 0.3-0.4 arcsec.
BI   |=|1995ApJ...446..602B
BJM  | |B.J. McNamara.  PASP, 83, 491, 1971.  Crab pulsar from Lick 36-inch
BJM  | |plates.
BJM  |*|Standard deviation around 0.1 arcsec.
BJM  |=|1971PASP...83..491M
BPP  | |L. Basso, G. Palumbo, R. Primavera, G. Vettolani, and M. Vigotti.
BPP  | |A&AS 83, 569, 1990.  CGCG galaxies, Paper 4 (see VPS).  Paper copies of
BPP  | |microfiche scanned, proofed.
BPP  |*|Standard deviation depends on size of galaxy, varies from 1 arcsec to
BPP  | |5 arcsec.
BPP  |=|1990A&AS...83..569B
BSV  | |Brian Skiff, private communication.  Open clusters and central stars
BSV  | |of planetaries, measured using SkyView, precessed from J2000.0.
BSV  |*|Standard deviation depends on size of object.  For planetaries, it is
BSV  | |around 2 arcsec; for small compact clusters, around 5 arcsec; for
BSV  | |large scattered clusters, around an arcmin.
BSa  | |B. Santiago, private communication.  ESGC galaxies, measured with
BSa  | |an overlay.  N = 20
BSa  |*|Standard deviation about 10 arcsec.
BSc  | |E. Bica and H. Schmitt, ApJS 110, 41, 1995.  SMC clusters and
BSc  | |nebulae, from ESO IIIa-F sky survey films.
BSc  |*|Standard deviation about 10 arcsec.
BSc  |=|1995ApJS..101...41B
BTC  | |Bordeaux Transit Circle.  See 2001A&A...376..325R.  Courtesy Brian
BTC  | |Skiff; a few planetaries.
BTC  |*|Standard deviation 0.1 arcsec at a guess (I obviously haven't seen the
BTC  | |paper yet.)
BTC  |=|Cat. I/272
Carl | |D.W. Evans, M.J. Irwin, and L. Helmer.  A&A 395, 347, 2002.  Carlsberg
Carl | |CCD drift scans in the +-3 deg equatorial belt.  The galaxies are
Carl | |usually in the "reject" file, but their positions nevertheless have
Carl | |very small errors.  This will eventually extend north to +30 deg.
Carl |*|Standard deviation "about 0.035 arcsec."
Carl |=|Cat. I/282
Cer  | |V. Cerulli, AN 139, 47, 1895; NGC 5898, 5903 micrometrically measured,
Cer  | |precessed from equinox 1895.
Cer  |*|Standard deviation probably 2-3 arcsec
Cer  |=|1896AN....139...47C
Cope | |Ralph Copeland, found with LdR's 72-inch.  Adopted only for missing
Cope | |objects.
Cope |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
CB2  | |J.J. Condon and J.J. Broderick.  AJ 102, 1663, 1991.  6-cm and optical
CB2  | |positions for galaxies identified with IRAS sources.
CB2  |*|Standard deviations:  less than 1 arcsec for 6-cm, 0.5 arcsec for
CB2  | |optical positions given to 0.1 arcsec, 3-5 arcsec for optical given
CB2  | |to 1 arcsec.
CB2  |=|1991AJ....102.1663C
CB2o | |J.J. Condon and J.J. Broderick.  AJ 102, 1663, 1991.  6-cm and optical
CB2o | |positions for galaxies identified with IRAS sources.
CB2o |*|Standard deviations:  less than 1 arcsec for 6-cm, 0.5 arcsec for
CB2o | |optical positions given to 0.1 arcsec, 3-5 arcsec for optical given
CB2o | |to 1 arcsec.
CB2o |=|1991AJ....102.1663C
CBF  | |R. Chandar, L. Bianchi, H.C. Ford.  ApJS 122, 431, 1999.  M33 on HST
CBF  | |WFPC2 frame.
CBF  |*|Standard deviation around 0.2-0.3 arcsec.
CBF  |=|1999ApJS..122..431C
CCA  | |W. Cotton, J.J. Condon, E. Arbizzani.  ApJS, December 1999.
CCA  | |All UGC galaxies, from DSS.  NGC/IC identifications are mine.
CCA  |*|Standard deviation:  1.2 arcsec (though CCA added in an additional
CCA  | |error as a function of diameter as well; I've included their nominal
CCA  | |error as a note).
CCA  |=|1999ApJS..125..409C
CCBD | |J.J. Condon, M.A. Condon, J.J. Broderick, and M.M. Davis.  AJ 88, 20,
CCBD | |1983.  Optical positions for flat-spectrum radio sources.  Four
CCBD | |NGC/IC objects included.
CCBD |*|Standard deviations:  1 arcsec.
CCBD |=|1983AJ.....88...20C
CCR  | |J.J. Condon, M.A. Condon, G. Gisler, and J.J. Puschell.  ApJ 252, 102,
CCR  | |1982.  6- or 21-cm positions (CCR), or optical positions (CCO) for
CCR  | |bright spirals.
CCR  |*|Standard deviations:  1 arcsec (optical), "smaller than 1 arcsec"
CCR  | |(radio).
CCR  |=|1982ApJ...252..102C
CCO  | |J.J. Condon, M.A. Condon, G. Gisler, and J.J. Puschell.  ApJ 252, 102,
CCO  | |1982.  6- or 21-cm positions (CCR), or optical positions (CCO) for
CCO  | |bright spirals.
CCO  |*|Standard deviations:  1 arcsec (optical), "smaller than 1 arcsec"
CCO  | |(radio).
CCO  |=|1982ApJ...252..102C
CDC  | |P.C. Crane, J.R. Dickel, and J.J. Cowan, ApJ 390, L9, 1992.  3.6 cm
CDC  | |position for the nucleus of M31.
CDC  |*|Standard deviation 0.4 arcsec.
CDC  |=|1992ApJ...390L...9C
CFB  | |J.J. Condon, D.T. Frayer, and J.J. Broderick.  AJ 101, 362, 1991.
CFB  | |6-cm and optical positions for UGC galaxies which are strong radio
CFB  | |sources.
CFB  |*|Standard deviations:  less than 1 arcsec for 6-cm, 0.5 arcsec for
CFB  | |optical positions given to 0.1 arcsec, 3-5 arcsec for optical given
CFB  | |to 1 arcsec.
CFB  |=|1991AJ....101..362C
CFBo | |J.J. Condon, D.T. Frayer, and J.J. Broderick.  AJ 101, 362, 1991.
CFBo | |6-cm and optical positions for UGC galaxies which are strong radio
CFBo | |sources.
CFBo |*|Standard deviations:  less than 1 arcsec for 6-cm, 0.5 arcsec for
CFBo | |optical positions given to 0.1 arcsec, 3-5 arcsec for optical given
CFBo | |to 1 arcsec.
CFBo |=|1991AJ....101..362C
CK   | |J. Condon and D.L. Kaplan, ApJS 117, 361, 1998.  Optical positions of
CK   | |planetary nebulae measured on DSS.
CK   |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec for stellar planetaries, 5-10 arcsec
CK   | |for larger objects.
CK   |=|1998ApJS..117..361C
CP   | |C. Pollas, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, IAU Circulars Nos. 5076,
CP   | |5141, 5147, 5421; parent galaxies of SNe.
CP   |*|Standard deviation probably 1-2 arcsec
CSD  | |E. Corbelli, E. E. Salpeter, and J. M. Dickey, ApJ 370, 49, 1991.
CSD  | |Positions for galaxies in two rich clusters, including Abell 400.
CSD  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
CSD  |=|1991ApJ...370...49C
CSP  | |C. S. Pierce, Harvard Annals, Vol 8, Part 1.  Used only when the
CSP  | |object is not found (e.g. NGC 1170).
CSP  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
CW   | |Carl Wirtz, Strassburg Annals, 1911.  Precessed from 1900, or
CW   | |occasionally re-reduced from the original micrometric offsets.
CW   |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
(CW1 | |Identification by Corwin, position from Wolf, List 1 (MW1).)
(CW1 | |This source replaced by MW1.
(CW1 |*|Standard deviation around 3-5 arcsec.
d'A  | |Heinrich d'Arrest, 1867.  Observed positions precessed from 1861.
d'A  | |Usually included only for nebulae not found.
d'A  |*|Standard deviation around an arcmin, but meaningless for objects not
d'A  | |found.
dBW  | |A.G. de Bruyn and A.G. Willis.  A&A 33, 351, 1974.  6-cm positions for
dBW  | |NGC 2782 and NGC 4151 (RA's only, not included here, for N1068, N3227,
dBW  | |and N7469).
dBW  |*|Standard deviation 1 arcsec or better.
dBW  |=|1974A&A....33..351D
Den  | |Denning, private communication to Dreyer; taken from NGC.
Den  | |This source will be replaced; positions are place-holders for now.
Den  |*|Standard deviation around 2-3 arcmin.
DAD  | |D. A. Dale, AJ, in press.  DSS positions for galaxies in clusters.
DAD  |*|Standard deviation around 1 arcsec.
DC   | |L. L. Dressel and J. J. Condon, Ap. J. Suppl. 31, 187, 1976.
DC   |*|Standard deviation around 4 arcsec.
DC   |=|1976ApJS...31..187D
DDB  | |D.D. Balam.  IAUC 6427.  Positions for parent galaxies of SNe.
DDB  |*|Standard deviation better than 0.5 arcsec.
DDB  |=|1996IAUC.6427R...1W
DFOT | |M. Doi, M. Fukugita, S. Okamura, and K. Tarusawa. ApJS 97, 77, 1995.
DFOT | |Galaxies brighter than B = 16 within 5 degrees of the Coma Cluster.
DFOT |*|Standard deviation around 1 arcsec.
DFOT |=|1995ApJS...97...77D
DJSo | |D.J. Saikia et al.  MNRAS 245, 397, 1990.  Optical and radio positions
DJSo | |for nuclear hot spots in NGC 1808.
DJSo |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec.
DJSo |=|1990MNRAS.245..397S
DJSr | |D.J. Saikia et al.  MNRAS 245, 397, 1990.  Optical and radio positions
DJSr | |for nuclear hot spots in NGC 1808.
DJSr |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec.
DJSr |=|1990MNRAS.245..397S
DKM1 | |D. K. Milne, A.J. 78, 239, 1973.  Planetaries.
DKM1 |*|Standard deviation 6-8 arcsec.
DKM1 |=|1973AJ.....78..239M
DKM2 | |D. K. Milne, A.J. 81, 753, 1976.  Planetaries.
DKM2 |*|Standard deviation 6-8 arcsec.
DKM2 |=|1976AJ.....81..753M
DLW  | |D. L. Welch, AJ 101, 538, 1991.  SMC clusters.
DLW  |*|Standard deviation 5 arcsec.
DLW  |=|1991AJ....101..538W
DM   | |S. Djorgovski and G. Meylan, 1993, in Structure and Dynamics of
DM   | |Globular Clusters, ASP Conference Series No. 50, ed. Djorgovski, S.
DM   | |and Meylan, G., ASP (San Francisco), p. 325.  Globulars.
DM   |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
DS   | |Delisle Stewart, HA 60.  677 nebulae found on 24-inch Bruce reflector
DS   | |plates taken at Arequipa, Peru.  Used only when the nebula is not
DS   | |found.  Given to 0.1 minute and 1 arcmin in HA 60.
DS   |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
DWFo | |M. J. Drinkwater, R. L. Webster, P. J. Francis, J. J. Condon,
DWFo | |S. L. Ellison, D. L. Jauncey, J. Lovell, B. A. Peterson, and
DWFo | |A. Savage, MNRAS 284, 85, 1997.  Optical positions for Parkes radio
DWFo | |sources, taken from the COSMOS/UKST Southern Sky Catalogue, corrected
DWFo | |for systematic plate-to-plate errors; or from APM scans of the POSS1.
DWFo |*|Standard deviation 0.8 arcsec.
DWFo |=|1997MNRAS.284...85D
DWFr | |M. J. Drinkwater, R. L. Webster, P. J. Francis, J. J. Condon,
DWFr | |S. L. Ellison, D. L. Jauncey, J. Lovell, B. A. Peterson, and
DWFr | |A. Savage, MNRAS 284, 85, 1997.  Radio positions for Parkes radio
DWFr | |sources, observed at the VLA or at the ATCA.
DWFr |*|Standard deviation about 0.3 - 0.5  arcsec.
DWFr |=|1997MNRAS.284...85D
dEn  | |d'Engelhardt, monograph.  Micrometric positions for a few IC objects,
dEn  | |precessed from 1885.0.
dEn  |*|Standard deviation 3-5 arcsec at a guess.
ECP  | |Edward C. Pickering, Harvard Circular No. 5.
ECP  | |Miscellaneous positions, usually measured on Harvard plates.
ECP  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
EDC  | |E. D. Clements, MNRAS 197, 829, 1981. Seyfert Galaxies.  N = 14
EDC  |*|Standard deviation around 0.15 arcsec.
EDC  |=|1981MNRAS.197..829C
EEB  | |E.E. Barnard, IC positions precessed; used for objects not found in
EEB  | |any of Barnard's published papers.  Some positions are exact and
EEB  | |obviously micrometrically measured, but most are clearly estimates.
EEB  | |I've found one (IC 5259) that is 2.5 min off in RA, and another (IC
EEB  | |5366) that may be 2 degrees off.
EEB  |*|Standard deviation varies, but take an arcmin.
EHDS | |E. Hummel and D.J. Saikia, A&A 249, 43, 1991.  1.49 GHz and 4.86 GHz
EHDS | |positions for NGC 4388 and NGC 4438.
EHDS |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec at a guess.
EHDS |=|1991A&A...249...43H
EHo  | |Eric Holmberg, Double Galaxy Catalogue, 1937.  Delta RA, delta Dec
EHo  | |from main galaxy to companions.
EHo  |*|Standard deviation about 10 arcsec.
EHo  |=|1937AnLun...6....1H
EJS  | |E. J. Shaya, et al.  A.J. 111, 2212, 1996.  N = 1.  NGC 1316
EJS  |*|Standard deviation probably 0.5 arcsec or so.
EJS  |=|1996AJ....111.2212S
En   | |R. Engelmann, AN 104, 193, 1883.  Meridian circle observations.
En   | |Precessed from equinox 1870.0.
En   |*|Standard deviation around 3-5 arcsec; there is probably a systematic
En   | |offset.
En   |=|1883AN....104..193E
ESO  | |Andris Lauberts, The ESO/Uppsala Survey of the Quick B Atlas of the
ESO  | |Southern Sky (Garching: ESO), 1982.  This reference is being replaced
ESO  | |by the more explicit ESOB as I find them.
ESO  |*|Standard deviation about 5-6 arcsec.
ESO  |=|1982ESO...C......0L
ESOB | |Andris Lauberts, The ESO/Uppsala Survey of the Quick B Atlas of the
ESOB | |Southern Sky (Garching: ESO), 1982.
ESOB |*|Standard deviation about 5-6 arcsec.
ESOB |=|1982ESO...C......0L
ESOL | |A. Lauberts and E. Valentijn, Surface Photometry of the ESO/Uppsala
ESOL | |Galaxies (Garching: ESO), 1989.  Positions revised from ESO, newly
ESOL | |measured, or offset from ESO-B position.
ESOL |*|Standard deviation about 6-8 arcsec.
ESOL |=|Cat. VII/115
ESOLV| |A. Lauberts and E. Valentijn, Surface Photometry of the ESO/Uppsala
ESOLV| |Galaxies (Garching: ESO), 1989.  Positions revised from ESO, newly
ESOLV| |measured, or offset from ESO-B position.
ESOLV|*|Standard deviation about 6-8 arcsec.
ESOLV|=|Cat. VII/115
EWSo | |R.D. Ekers, J.V. Wall, P.A. Shaver, W.M. Goss, R.A.E. Fosbury,
EWSo | |I.J. Danziger, A.F.M. Moorwood, D.F. Malin, A.S. Monk, and J.A. Ekers.
EWSo | |MNRAS 236, 737, 1989.  Optical positions for radio galaxies.
EWSo |*|Standard deviation 1-1.5 arcsec.
EWSo |=|1989MNRAS.236..737E
EWSr | |R.D. Ekers, J.V. Wall, P.A. Shaver, W.M. Goss, R.A.E. Fosbury,
EWSr | |I.J. Danziger, A.F.M. Moorwood, D.F. Malin, A.S. Monk, and J.A. Ekers.
EWSr | |MNRAS 236, 737, 1989.  6.1-cm positions for radio galaxies.
EWSr |*|Standard deviation 0.3-0.5 arcsec.
EWSr |=|1989MNRAS.236..737E
FAB  | |F.A. Bellamy.  MN 64, 662, 1904.  Position for IC 4996, derived from
FAB  | |an approximate mean for positions of 103 stars in an area about 15
FAB  | |arcmin across.
FAB  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcmin.
FAB  |=|1904MNRAS..64..662B
FAST | |FASTT transit circle.  See 1999AJ....118.2488S.  Courtesy of Brian
FAST | |Skiff; a few planetaries.
FAST |*|Standard deviation 0.1 arcsec at a guess (I obviously haven't seen the
FAST | |paper yet).
FAST |=|1999AJ....118.2488S
FBP  | |C.B. Foltz, B.M. Peterson, and T.A. Boroson.  Astron. J. 85, 1328,
FBP  | |1980.  Markarian 701-797.
FBP  |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec.
FBP  |=|1980AJ.....85.1328F
FBi  | |F. Bidschof. (Ann. K. K. Univ.-Sternw. Wein, 14, 1, 1900).
FBi  | |Micrometric measurements, precessed from 1897.0.
FBi  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec at a guess.
FC   | |H. Ferguson, A.J. 98, 367, 1989, from hand measures of Las Campanas
FC   | |2.5-m plate.  Fornax Cluster.  (This and sources FSn and FSs replace
FC   | |source HF.)
FC   |*|Standard deviation 20 arcsec at a guess.
FC   |=|1989AJ.....98..367F
FCJL | |H.C. Ford, P.C. Crane, G.H. Jacoby, D.G. Lawrie, and J.M. van der
FCJL | |Hulst.  ApJ 293, 132, 1985.  6 and 20-cm observations of NGC 5194.
FCJL |*|Standard deviation 0.04 arcsec.
FCJL |=|1985ApJ...293..132F
FGLM | |E.B. Fomalont, W.M. Goss, A.G. Lyme, R.N. Manchester.  MN 210, 113,
FGLM | |1984.  Crab pulsar from VLA observations.
FGLM |*|Standard deviation 0.1 arcsec
FGLM |=|1984MNRAS.210..113F
FK5  | |Fifth Fundamental Catalogue.  Positions for a few bright stars.
FK5  |*|Standard deviation 0.1 arcsec
FK5  |=|Cat. I/149
FKL  | |K.C. Freeman, B. Karlsson, G. Lynga, J.F. Burrell, H. van Woerden,
FKL  | |and W.M. Goss.  A&A 55, 445, 1977.  Optical position for the Circinus
FKL  | |Galaxy.
FKL  |=|1977A&A....55..445F
FMu  | |Frank Muller, micrometric measurements, re-reduced using modern
FMu  | |positions for comparison stars.
FPB  | |C.B. Foltz, B.M. Peterson, and T.A. Boroson.  AJ 85, 1328, 1980.
FPB  |=|1980AJ.....85.1328F
FSn  | |H. Ferguson, A.J. 98, 367, 1989, from unsaturated PDS scans of IIIa-J
FSn  | |plate.  Fornax Cluster.
FSn  |*|Standard deviation 3 arcsec.
FSn  |=|1989AJ.....98..367F
FSs  | |H. Ferguson, A.J. 98, 367, 1989, from saturated PDS scans of IIIa-J
FSs  | |plate.  Fornax Cluster.
FSs  |*|Standard deviation 10 arcsec at a guess.
FSs  |=|1989AJ.....98..367F
FT   | |J.R. Fisher and R.B. Tully. (A&A 44, 151, 1975). DDO galaxies.
FT   |*|Standard deviation 10 arcsec.
FT   |=|1975A&A....44..151F
Fin  | |W. H. Finlay.  A few nebulae found with the 7-inch refractor at Cape
Fin  | |Town in the 1890's.  Positions reported only if the objects are not
Fin  | |found.
Fin  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Fr   | |R. H. Frost, in Harvard Annals 60.  Used only when the object is not
Fr   | |found.
Fr   |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
GC   | |J.R. Glanfield and M.J. Cameron. Aust. J. Phys. 20, 613, 1967.
GC   | |139 Bright galaxies south of +20 degrees.
GC   |*|Standard deviation 15 arcsec.
GD   | |Glen Deen, private communication.
GD   |*|Standard deviation 5-6 arcsec at a guess.
GDC  | |[Unknown source].  Position for IC 2373 = UGC 04409.
GGH  | |N.A. Grogin, M.J. Geller, and J.P. Huchra.  ApJS 119, 277, 1998.
GGH  | |Galaxies within 15 degrees of 3C 273, most from CGCG.
GGH  |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec.
GGH  |=|1998ApJS..119..277G
GGN  | |S. Garcia-Burillo, M. Guelin, and N. Neininger, IRAM preprint No.
GGN  | |416, 1996 (to appear in A&A).  Kinematic center of NGC 5907 from
GGN  | |high-resolution CO(1-0) observations.
GGN  |*|Standard deviation on the order of 1 arcsec.
GGN  |=|1997A&A...319..450G
GH   | |Gallouet and Heidmann (A&A Suppl. 3, 325, 1971). RC1 galaxies, -2deg
GH   | |to +26deg.
GH   |*|Standard deviation 4-6 arcsec.
GH   |=|1971A&AS....3..325G
GHD1 | |Gallouet, Heidmann, and Dampierre (A&A Suppl. 12, 89, 1973).  RC1
GHD1 | |galaxies, +26deg to +90deg.
GHD1 |*|Standard deviation 4-6 arcsec.
GHD1 |=|1973A&AS...12...89G
GHD2 | |Gallouet, Heidmann, and Dampierre (A&A Suppl. 19, 1, 1975).  RC1
GHD2 | |galaxies, -2deg to -33deg.
GHD2 |*|Standard deviation 4-6 arcsec.
GHD2 |=|1975A&AS...19....1G
GJM  | |L.J. Greenhill, D.R. Jiang, J.M. Moran, M.J. Reid, K.-Y. Lo, and
GJM  | |M.J. Claussen.  ApJ 440, 619, 1995.  Water maser in the nucleus of
GJM  | |NGC 4258.
GJM  |*|Standard deviation 0.1 arcsec.
GJM  |=|1995ApJ...440..619G
GMH  | |L.J. Greenhill, J.M. Moran, and J.R. Herrnstein.  ApJ 481, L23, 1997.
GMH  | |VLBA position for the water maser in the nucleus of NGC 4945.
GMH  |*|Standard deviation 0.1 arcsec.
GMH  |=|1997ApJ...481L..23G
GMKM | |P. Goudfrooij, J. Mack, M. Kissler-Patig, G. Meylan, and D. Minniti.
GMKM | |MNRAS, 322, 643, 2001.  Optical position for NGC 1316, "derived from
GMKM | |archival HST/WFPC2 images".
GMKM |*|Standard deviation on the order of 0.3 arcsec at a guess.
GMKM |=|2001MNRAS.322..643G
GMS  | |G. M. Searle, micrometric observations in HA 60.  Re-reduced when
GMS  | |offsets given.
GMS  |*|Standard deviation about 2 arcsec at a guess.
GPB  | |R.E. Goodson, J.J. Palimaka, and A.H. Bridle.  AJ 84, 1111, 1979.
GPB  | |Radio sources and a few companions.
GPB  |*|Standard deviation about 0.4 arcsec.
GPB  |=|1979AJ.....84.1111G
GRP  | |L. Gregorini, H.R. de Ruiter, P. Parma, E.M. Sadler, G. Vettolani,
GRP  | |and R.D. Ekers.  A&AS 106, 1, 1994.  Optical positions for "dumbbell"
GRP  | |galaxies in rich southern clusters.
GRP  |*|Standard deviation about 2 arcsec.
GRP  |=|1994A&AS..106....1G
GSC  | |Guide Star Catalog, V1.1 (Space Telescope Science Institute, 1991).
GSC  |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec.  The final digits (0.01 sec, 0.1 arcsec
GSC  | |are not significant, but are carried for roundoff protection.
GSC  |=|Cat. I/254
GSC2 | |Guide Star Catalog, V2.2 (Space Telescope Science Institute, 2001).
GSC2 |*|Standard deviation 0.2-0.3 arcsec for stellar images.
GSC2 |=|Cat. I/271
GSCm | |Mean of "several" objects from Guide Star Catalog, V1.1 (STScI, 1991),
GSCm | |typically for double or multiple stars.
GSCm |*|Standard deviation 2-10 arcsec, depending on separation.
GSCm |=|Cat. I/220
GSCA | |GSC-ACT.  Re-reduction of GSC 1.1 by Bill Gray using ACT stars as the
GSCA | |reference frame.  Also called GSC "1.3" by CDS.
GSCA |*|Standard deviation about 0.3-0.4 arcsec for stellar objects.
GSCA |=|Cat. I/255
GSCM | |Dan Moaz, et al.  1996ApJS..107..215M.  "An Atlas of HST UV Images of
GSCM | |Nearby Galaxies."  From GASP images; intensity weighted centroids,
GSCM | |similar to GSC.  N = 110
GSCM |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec, though occasional accidental errors due
GSCM | |to distorted isophotes can be up to 5 arcsec.
GSCM |=|1996ApJS..107..215M
GSCT | |D.A. Turnshek, et al. A.J. 99, 1243, 1990.  3 globulars, 2 galaxies,
GSCT | |from the Guide Star Catalog "using the Center of Gravity centroiding
GSCT | |method, mean error 1 arcsec."  For stellar objects, yes, but not for
GSCT | |these five "non-stellar" objects.
GSCT |*|Standard deviation 5-10 arcsec.
GSCT |=|1990AJ.....99.1243T
GSWr | |R.D. Gehrz, R.A. Sramek, and D.W. Weedman.  ApJ 267, 551, 1983.
GSWr | |6 and 20-cm observations of NGC 3690e and w (incorrectly called NGC
GSWr | |3690 and IC 694), and H-alpha peaks (read from their maps).
GSWr |*|Standard deviation better than 0.3 arcsec for the radio observations,
GSWr | |0.5 for the optical.
GSWr |=|1983ApJ...267..551G
GSWo | |R.D. Gehrz, R.A. Sramek, and D.W. Weedman.  ApJ 267, 551, 1983.
GSWo | |6 and 20-cm observations of NGC 3690e and w (incorrectly called NGC
GSWo | |3690 and IC 694), and H-alpha peaks (read from their maps).
GSWo |*|Standard deviation better than 0.3 arcsec for the radio observations,
GSWo | |0.5 for the optical.
GSWo |=|1983ApJ...267..551G
GVW  | |G.V. Williams.  IAUC 6427.  Positions for nuclei of SN parent
GVW  | |galaxies.
GVW  |*|Standard deviation better than 0.5 arcsec.
GVW  |=|1996IAUC.6427R...1W
GYSB | |P. Guhathakurta, B. Yanny, D.P. Schneider, and J.N. Bahcall.  AJ 111,
GYSB | |267, 1996.  M15
GYSB |*|Standard deviation about 0.3 arcsec.
GYSB |=|1996AJ....111..267G
GrV  | |G. Grueff and M. Vigotti.  A&AS 6, 1, 1972.  Positions for B2 radio
GrV  | |sources identified with galaxies.
GrV  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
GrV  |=|1972A&AS....6....1G
Hart | |E. Hartwig, AN 112, 407, 1885.  Five new nebulae found with the
Hart | |18-inch refractor at Strassburg, micrometrically measured.
Hart |*|Standard deviation about 5 arcsec.
Hart |=|1885AN....112..407H
Harv | |Harvard Annals, Vol. 8.  Nominal position for NGC 3097, now lost.
Harv |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Hee  | |D.S. Heeshan. ApJ 151, L135, 1968.  NGC 1052.
Hee  |*|Standard deviation around 0.5 arcsec.
Hee  |=|1968ApJ...151L.135H
Hu   | |Edwin Hubble, Publ. Yerkes Obs. 4, Part II, 1917.  Photographic
Hu   | |positions, refered to AGK1 stars, precessed.
Hu   |*|Standard deviation about 5 arcsec.
HC   | |My own measurements with an engineering scale, astrometrically
HC   | |reduced, generally on the PSS prints, sometimes from the IIIa-J SSS
HC   | |films.
HC   |*|Standard deviation about 5 arcsec.
HC2m | |My own measurements using IPAC Skyview with 2MASS J-band images for
HC2m | |galaxy nuclei (intensity-weighted centroids using Skyview's "examine"
HC2m | |command).  Most of the nuclei are stellar in the 2MASS frames.
HC2m |*|Standard deviation 0.15 arcsec internal, in both RA and Dec, from
HC2m | |measurements of Tycho-2 stars in the same 2MASS frames.
HCds | |My own measurements using IPAC Skyview with DSS images downloaded from
HCds | |STScI or GSFC's SkyView.  Intensity weighted centroids using Skyview
HCds | |"examine" command are given to 0.01 sec and 0.1 sec, positions from
HCds | |"pick" command, or means, are given to 0.1 sec and 1 sec.
HCds |*|Standard deviation 0.8 arcsecond for well-defined images, 2-5 arcsec
HCds | |for large overexposed images.  The 0.01 seconds and 0.1 arcsec digits
HCds | |are barely significant, and are carried as roundoff protection.
HCe  | |My own measurements for very large diffuse nebulae.  Positions are
HCe  | |the estimated center of gravity of the image on the PSS, and are
HCe  | |adequate for identification.
HCe  |*|Standard deviation about 0.1 degree.
HCht | |My own measurements from HST images.  Details in Notes for each
HCht | |object.
HCht |*|Standard deviation about 0.1 arcsec, dominated by systematic error.
HChw | |My own measurements in 1970-71 for NGC/IC objects on the Hodge-Wright
HChw | |LMC Atlas charts.
HChw |*|Standard deviation about 10 arcsec.
HCm  | |Means from several sources, reduced by me.
HCm  |*|Standard deviation usually better than 1 arc second, but depends on
HCm  | |sources used and centering.
HCo  | |My own measurements, offset from GSC stars unless noted, generally on
HCo  | |the PSS prints, sometimes on the IIIa-J SSS films.
HCo  |*|Standard deviation around 2 arcsec if the GSC star/galaxy is within
HCo  | |2 arcmin of the object, around 4-5 arcsec for larger distances.
HCos | |My own measurements, offset from SAO stars, generally on the PSS
HCos | |prints, sometimes on the IIIa-J SSS films.  Most are now replaced or
HCos | |rejected.
HCos |*|Standard deviation is around 10-15 arcsec; larger accidental errors
HCos | |are not uncommon.
HCp  | |My own measurements using the Edinburgh XY machine, astrometrically
HCp  | |reduced w.r.t. SAO stars.  Indus Supercluster galaxies.
HCp  |*|Standard deviation better than 1 arc second, but subject to
HCp  | |systematic errors in the SAO positions.
HCns | |My own measurements using IPAC Skyview with NEAT/SkyMorph images
HCns | |downloaded from GSFC's SkyView.  See HCds for more info.
HCns |*|Standard deviation unknown, but under one arcsec.
HCrs | |My own measurements using RealSky images.  RealSkyView positions are
HCrs | |given to 0.1 sec and 1 arcsec, Skyview positions to 0.01 sec and 0.1
HCrs | |arcsec.  Reference system is AGK3.
HCrs |*|Standard deviation around 1-2 arcsecond for small galaxies, 2-3 arcsec
HCrs | |for larger or brighter ones using RealSkyView.  Probably a bit better
HCrs | |for positions from Skyview.
HCsv | |My own measurements using GSFC SkyView with the DSS via WWW.
HCsv |*|Standard deviation around 1-2 arcsecond.
HDW  | |E. Hummel, R.-J. Dettmar, and R. Wielebinski.  A&A 166, 97, 1986.
HDW  | |NGC 55.  Center of maximum HI symmetry coincides with blue-light peak
HDW  | |(see G. de Vaucouleurs, ApJ 133, 405, 1961).
HDW  |*|Standard deviation 5-10 arcsec at a guess.
HDW  |=|1986A&A...166...97H
HH   | |H. Howe, Monthly Notices series from 1898 to 1900.  Visual
HH   | |micrometric positions precessed from equinox 1900.0.  Standard stars
HH   | |and offsets are not given.
HH   |*|Standard deviations are around 4-8 arcsec at a guess.
HHD  | |E. Hummel, J.M. van der Hulst, and J.M. Dickey.  A&AS 134, 207, 1984.
HHD  | |VLA 2, 6, and 20-cm observations of 16 galaxies.
HHD  |*|Standard deviation 0.1 arcsec.
HHD  |=|1984A&A...134..207H
HHKK | |E. Hummel, J.M. van der Hulst, W.C. Keel, and R.C. Kennicutt, Jr.
HHKK | |A&AS, 70, 517, 1987.  1.49 GHz VLA observations of 75 galaxies.
HHKK |*|Standard deviations are better than one arcsec.
HHKK |=|1987A&AS...70..517H
HK   | |H. Kobold, Strassburg Annals, 1909.  Visual micrometric precessed
HK   | |from equinox 1900, or re-reduced taking proper motion into account
HK   | |if possible.  Noted if not re-reduced.
HK   |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
HKA  | |P. Hickson, E. Kindl, J.R. Auman, Ap.J.Suppl. 70, 687, 1989.
HKA  | |Galaxies in compact groups.
HKA  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
HKA  |=|1989ApJS...70..687H
HR   | |W. K. Huchtmeier and O.-G. Richter.  A General Catalogue of HI
HR   | |Observations of Galaxies.  New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.  Interim
HR   | |source; most positions are not original.
HR   |*|Standard deviation around 10 arcsec.
HR   |=|Cat. VIII/68
HSA+ | |C. Hazard, J. Sutton, A.N. Argue, C.M. Kenworthy, L.V. Morrison, and
HSA+ | |C.A. Murray.  Nature (Phys. Sci.) 233, 189, 1971.  3C 273.
HSA+ |*|Standard deviation 0.2 arcsec.
HS1  | |H. Schultz.  Monograph, AN 1541, AN 1555.   Micrometric positions,
HS1  | |re-reduced with modern positions for the reference stars.  All
HS1  | |positions here are also in HS2, but the offsets are given here.
HS1  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
HS2  | |H. Schultz.  MNRAS 35, 135, 1875.  Micrometric positions, precessed.
HS2  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
HS2  |=|1875MNRAS..35..135S
HWD  | |H.W. Duerbeck, Space Science Reviews 45, 1, 1987.  Catalogue of
HWD  | |Classical Novae.
HWD  |*|Standard deviation unknown, probably depends on original source.
HWD  | |Those that I've checked on DSS are within an arcsec.
HWD  |=|1987SSRv...45....1D
I1   | |S. Ishikawa, Ann. Tokyo Astron. Obs., 2nd Ser., 21, 437.  Virgo
I1   | |Cluster area dwarves.
I1   |*|Standard deviation appears to be about 2 arcsec.
IDB  | |R. Garnier, G. Paturel, C. Petit, M.C. Marthinet, and J. Rousseau.
IDB  | |"An Image Database."  Positions derived from scanned images of POSS1.
IDB  |*|Standard deviation appears to be around 5-10 arcsec.  Large accidental
IDB  | |errors are common, however, and many "galaxies" are actually stars or
IDB  | |have stars nearby included in the image.
IPds | |Igor Pesenson.  Measurements using IPAC Skyview "pick" command with
IPds | |DSS images clipped from CD-ROM.
IPds |*|Standard deviation 1.2 arcsecond for well-defined images, 2-5 arcsec
IPds | |for larger galaxies.
IR   | |Isaac Roberts.  IC objects found on his 20-inch reflector plates.
IR   |*|Standard deviation varies depending on size of object.
IRAS | |IRAS Point Source or Small-Scale Structure Catalogues. 1987.
IRAS | |I'm replacing these with optical positions.
IRAS |*|Standard deviation about 15 arcsec, but varies widely depending on
IRAS | |number of scans, position on sky, etc.
IRAS |=|Cat. II/125, VII/73
Inn  | |R.T.A. Innes, from one of the three lists that involve his
Inn  | |observations from Cape Town.  About a dozen objects; some micrometric
Inn  | |measurements, some circle settings.
Inn  |*|Standard deviation varies, depending on observing method.
J    | |S. Javelle, from IC.  Re-reduced using modern positions for comparison
J    | |stars.
J    |*|Standard deviation around 4-5 arcsec, but there are occasional
J    | |blunders in these lists.
JA   | |Jason Adamik, private communication via Glen Deen.
JA   |*|Standard deviation 5-6 arcsec at a guess.
JB   | |J. G. Bolton, PASP 80, 5, 1968.  N = 1 (N1068)
JB   |*|Standard deviation around 0.5 arcsec.
JB   |=|1968PASP...80....5B
JCR  | |J.J. Condon. ApJ 242, 894, 1980.  6-cm and optical positions for
JCR  | |compact radio sources and nuclei of bright spirals.
JCR  |*|Standard deviations:  1 arcsec (optical), 0.3 arcsec (radio).
JCR  |=|1980ApJ...242..894C
JCO  | |J.J. Condon. ApJ 242, 894, 1980.  6-cm and optical positions for
JCO  | |compact radio sources and nuclei of bright spirals.
JCO  |*|Standard deviations:  1 arcsec (optical), 0.3 arcsec (radio).
JCO  |=|1980ApJ...242..894C
JFJS | |J.F.J. Schmidt, AN 70, 343, 1868; micrometric observations, precessed.
JFJS |*|Standard deviation 2-4 arcsec at a guess, but there may be systematic
JFJS | |errors, too.
JFJS |=|1868AN.....70..343S
JG   | |W. Jaffe and G. Gavazzi, AJ 91, 204, 1986.  Coma Supercluster.
JG   |*|Standard deviation around 2 arcsec when position is given to 0.01
JG   | |seconds and 0.1 arcsec.  A few positions are apparently accurate to
JG   | |0.1 second and 1 arcsec, and 1 second and 0.1 arcmin; these are
JG   | |obviously less accurate.  Positions apparently accurate to 0.1 minute
JG   | |and 1 arcmin are from CGCG, and were not entered into the position
JG   | |files.
JG   |=|1986AJ.....91..204J
JGr  | |J. Gretchen, priv. comm. via B. A. Skiff.  Nuclei of bright galaxies,
JGr  | |from multiple short exposure CCD frames with 15-cm reflector
JGr  | |(3 arcsec/pixel), reduced wrt GSC 2.2 stars.
JGr  |*|Standard deviation 0.2-0.4 arcsec.
JGL  | |J. G. Lohse, from NGC.  Used only when the object is unrecoverable.
JGL  |*|Standard deviation meaningless
JGV  | |W. Jaffe, G. Gavazzi, and E. Valentijn, AJ 91, 204, 1986.  Groups in
JGV  | |the Coma Supercluster.
JGV  |*|Standard deviation around 2 arcsec.
JH   | |John Herschel's positions, adopted for large diffuse nebulae or open
JH   | |clusters when accurate enough.  Also used as nominal positions for
JH   | |objects not found.
JH   |*|Standard deviation 20-30 arcsec.
JHS  | |J. H. Safford, from NGC.  Used only for NGC 2198:  the object is
JHS  | |unrecoverable.
JHS  |*|Standard deviation meaningless
JJ   | |J. E. Jones and B. T. Jones, MNRAS 191, 685, 1980.  Fornax Cluster.
JJ   |*|Standard deviation around 10 arcsec.
JJ   |=|1980MNRAS.191..685J
JK   | |James Keeler, Lick Obs. Publ. 8, 1908.  Measured on Lick Obs.
JK   | |36-inch reflector plates.
JK   |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec, may have systematic errors depending
JK   | |on the (unspecified) reference star system -- but doesn't look like
JK   | |it.
JK   |=|1908PLicO...8....1K
JMcA | |P.A. Jones and W.B. McAdam.  ApJS 80, 137, 1992.  Optical positons for
JMcA | |southern radio sources.
JMcA |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec.
JMcA |=|1992ApJS...80..137J
JPa  | |J. Palisa, AN 3235 (and others to come as needed).  Micrometric
JPa  | |discovery observations for nebulae, re-reduced wrt modern positions.
JPa  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec at a guess.
JS   | |J.F.J. Schmidt, AN 2097, 1876; Fornax Cluster.
JS   |*|Standard deviation 10 arcsec at a guess, but there are several obvious
JS   | |typos here (corrected when found).
JSMo | |D.L. Jauncey, A. Savage, D.D. Morabito, R.A. Preston, G.D. Nicolson,
JSMo | |and A.K. Tzioumis.  AJ 98, 54, 1989.  Optical positions for a few
JSMo | |radio sources with NGC identifications.
JSMo |*|Standard deviation probably around one arcsec for optical positions,
JSMo | |and around 0.3 arcsec for radio positions.
JSMo |=|1989AJ.....98...54J
JSMr | |D.L. Jauncey, A. Savage, D.D. Morabito, R.A. Preston, G.D. Nicolson,
JSMr | |and A.K. Tzioumis.  AJ 98, 54, 1989.  Optical positions for a few
JSMr | |radio sources with NGC identifications.
JSMr |*|Standard deviation probably around one arcsec for optical positions,
JSMr | |and around 0.3 arcsec for radio positions.
JSMr |=|1989AJ.....98...54J
JT   | |Juan Thome, Cordoba Durchmusterung.  Positions for a few IC objects.
JT   |*|Standard deviation 30 arcsec at a guess.
K01  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K01  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K01  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K01  | |references:
K01  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K01  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K01  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K01  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K01  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K01  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K01  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K01  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K01  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K01  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K01  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K01  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K01  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K01  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K01  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K01  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K01  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K01  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K01  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K01  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K01  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K01  |=|1984AnTok..192.595T
K02  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K02  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K02  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K02  | |references:
K02  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K02  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K02  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K02  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K02  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K02  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K02  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K02  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K02  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K02  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K02  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K02  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K02  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K02  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K02  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K02  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K02  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K02  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K02  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K02  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K02  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K02  |=|1985AnTok..202.237T
K03  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K03  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K03  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K03  | |references:
K03  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K03  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K03  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K03  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K03  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K03  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K03  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K03  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K03  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K03  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K03  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K03  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K03  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K03  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K03  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K03  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K03  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K03  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K03  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K03  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K03  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K03  |=|1985AnTok..202.335T
K04  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K04  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K04  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K04  | |references:
K04  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K04  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K04  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K04  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K04  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K04  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K04  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K04  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K04  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K04  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K04  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K04  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K04  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K04  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K04  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K04  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K04  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K04  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K04  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K04  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K04  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K04  |=|1986AnTok..212.127T
K05  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K05  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K05  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K05  | |references:
K05  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K05  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K05  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K05  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K05  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K05  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K05  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K05  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K05  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K05  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K05  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K05  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K05  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K05  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K05  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K05  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K05  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K05  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K05  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K05  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K05  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K05  |=|1986AnTok..212.181T
K06  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K06  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K06  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K06  | |references:
K06  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K06  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K06  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K06  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K06  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K06  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K06  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K06  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K06  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K06  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K06  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K06  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K06  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K06  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K06  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K06  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K06  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K06  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K06  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K06  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K06  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K06  |=|1987AnTok..212.251T
K07  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K07  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K07  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K07  | |references:
K07  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K07  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K07  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K07  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K07  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K07  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K07  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K07  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K07  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K07  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K07  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K07  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K07  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K07  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K07  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K07  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K07  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K07  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K07  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K07  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K07  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K07  |=|1987AnTok..212.363T
K08  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K08  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K08  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K08  | |references:
K08  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K08  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K08  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K08  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K08  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K08  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K08  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K08  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K08  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K08  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K08  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K08  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K08  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K08  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K08  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K08  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K08  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K08  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K08  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K08  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K08  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K08  |=|1988AnTok..222..41T
K09  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K09  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K09  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K09  | |references:
K09  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K09  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K09  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K09  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K09  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K09  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K09  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K09  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K09  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K09  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K09  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K09  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K09  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K09  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K09  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K09  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K09  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K09  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K09  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K09  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K09  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K09  |=|1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K10  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K10  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K10  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K10  | |references:
K10  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K10  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K10  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K10  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K10  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K10  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K10  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K10  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K10  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K10  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K10  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K10  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K10  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K10  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K10  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K10  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K10  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K10  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K10  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K10  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K10  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K10  |=|1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K10a | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K10a | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K10a | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K10a | |references:
K10a | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K10a | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K10a | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K10a | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K10a | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K10a | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K10a | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K10a | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K10a | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K10a | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K10a | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K10a | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K10a | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K10a | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K10a | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K10a | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K10a | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K10a | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K10a |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K10a | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K10a | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K10a |=|1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K11  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K11  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K11  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K11  | |references:
K11  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K11  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K11  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K11  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K11  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K11  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K11  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K11  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K11  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K11  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K11  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K11  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K11  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K11  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K11  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K11  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K11  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K11  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K11  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K11  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K11  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K11  |=|1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K12  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K12  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K12  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K12  | |references:
K12  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K12  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K12  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K12  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K12  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K12  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K12  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K12  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K12  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K12  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K12  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K12  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K12  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K12  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K12  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K12  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K12  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K12  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K12  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K12  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K12  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K12  |=|1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K13  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K13  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K13  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K13  | |references:
K13  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K13  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K13  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K13  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K13  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K13  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K13  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K13  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K13  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K13  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K13  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K13  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K13  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K13  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K13  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K13  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K13  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K13  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K13  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K13  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K13  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K13  |=|1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K14  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K14  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K14  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K14  | |references:
K14  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K14  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K14  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K14  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K14  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K14  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K14  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K14  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K14  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K14  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K14  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K14  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K14  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K14  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K14  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K14  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K14  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K14  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K14  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K14  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K14  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K14  |=|1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K15  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K15  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K15  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K15  | |references:
K15  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K15  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K15  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K15  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K15  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K15  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K15  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K15  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K15  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K15  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K15  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K15  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K15  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K15  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K15  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K15  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K15  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K15  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K15  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K15  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K15  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K15  |=|1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K16  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K16  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K16  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K16  | |references:
K16  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K16  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K16  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K16  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K16  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K16  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K16  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K16  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K16  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K16  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K16  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K16  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K16  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K16  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K16  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K16  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K16  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K16  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K16  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K16  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K16  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K16  |=|1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K17  | |n = 1,17.  Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy, list nn.  Complete list in
K17  | |B. Takase and N. Miyauchi-Isobe, Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, 3,
K17  | |169, 1993.  Positions for pairs not used.  Here are the individual
K17  | |references:
K17  | |K01      1984AnTok..192.595T
K17  | |K02      1985AnTok..202.237T
K17  | |K03      1985AnTok..202.335T
K17  | |K04      1986AnTok..212.127T
K17  | |K05      1986AnTok..212.181T
K17  | |K06      1987AnTok..212.251T
K17  | |K07      1987AnTok..212.363T
K17  | |K08      1988AnTok..222..41T
K17  | |K09      1989PNAOJ...1...11T
K17  | |K10      1989PNAOJ...1...97T
K17  | |K11      1990PNAOJ...1..181T
K17  | |K12      1991PNAOJ...2....7T
K17  | |K13      1991PNAOJ...2...37T
K17  | |K14      1991PNAOJ...2..239T
K17  | |K15      1992PNAOJ...2..399T
K17  | |K16      1992PNAOJ...2..573T
K17  | |K17      1993PNAOJ...3...21T
K17  | |K10a     1997PNAOJ...4..153M
K17  |*|Standard deviation claimed to be 0.5 arcsec for stars; it is 1 arcsec
K17  | |for the smaller galaxies, and will be worse for the larger ones,
K17  | |probably on the order of 2 - 3 arcsec.
K17  |=|1993PNAOJ...3...21T
Ka83 | |J.D. Kaler.  ApJ 271, 188, 1983.  Positions for planetary nebulae,
Ka83 | |brought in by B.A. Skiff.
Ka83 |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec at a guess.
Ka83 |=|1983ApJ...271..188K
Ko+  | |G. Kojoian and colleagues, VV galaxies, unpublished.
Ko+  |*|Standard deviation varies from 2 arcsec to more than 20 arcsec
Ko+  | |depending on size of galaxy.
KAR  | |P.C. van der Kruit, R.J. Allen, A.H. Rots.  A&A 55, 421, 1977.
KAR  | |Optical position for NGC 6946.
KAR  |=|1977A&A....55..421V
KCA  | |G. Kojoian, P.A. Chute, C.A. Aumann.  AJ 89, 332, 1984.
KCA  | |Markarian 1400-1500.
KCA  |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec.
KCA  |=|1984AJ.....89..332K
KD   | |King, I.R. et al. 1993, ApJ, in press (reported in DM, which see).
KD   | |Globulars.
KD   |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
KEBA | |G. Kojoian, R. Elliott, M. Bicay, and M. Arakelian, AJ 86, 820, 1981.
KEBA | |Arakelian galaxies.  N = 203.
KEBA |*|Standard deviation "about 1.5 arcsec," but large accidental errors are
KEBA | |relatively common (perhaps up to 5% of the list).
KEBA |=|1981AJ.....86..820K
KEB1 | |G. Kojoian, R. Elliott, and M.D. Bicay.  Astron. J. 86, 816, 1981.
KEB1 | |Markarian 1096-1302.
KEB1 |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec.
KEB1 |=|1981AJ.....86..816K
KEB2 | |G. Kojoian, R. Elliott, and M.D. Bicay.  Astron. J. 87, 1364, 1982.
KEB2 | |Markarian 1303-1399.
KEB2 |*|Standard deviation about 2 arcsec.
KEB2 |=|1982AJ.....87.1364K
KET1 | |G. Kojoian, R. Elliott, and H.M. Tovmassian.  Astron. J. 83, 1545,
KET1 | |1978.  Markarian 508-700.
KET1 |*|Standard deviation about 5 arcsec.
KET1 |=|1978AJ.....83.1545K
KET2 | |G. Kojoian, R. Elliott, and H.M. Tovmassian.  Astron. J. 86, 811,
KET2 | |1981.  Markarian 798-1095.
KET2 |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec.
KGo  | |P. Kilmartin and A. Gilmore, IAUC 5951, 1994.  Offsets (9"w, 7"n; see
KGo  | |Treffers etal. IAUC 5946) from SN 1994D in NGC 4526 for nucleus.  SN
KGo  | |pos is 12 31 29.92 +07 58 36.5 +-0.3 arcsec.
KGo  |*|Standard deviation about one arcsec; depends mostly on offset.
KHJ  | |Arnold R. Klemola, Robert B. Hanson, and Burton F. Jones.  AJ, 94,
KHJ  | |501, 1987.
KHJ  | |Lick Northern Proper Motion Program: NPM1 Reference Galaxies.  N =
KHJ  | |50,517.  Mostly faint (B > 16) galaxies, but many brighter, serving
KHJ  | |as reference sources for the Lick Proper Motion survey.  About 1900
KHJ  | |NGC and IC galaxies included.
KHJ  |*|Standard deviation 0.2 - 0.3 arcsec.
KHJ  |=|1987AJ.....94..501K
KHo  | |W.C. Keel and E. Hummel.  A&A 194, 90, 1988.  Optical and 6-cm
KHo  | |positions for NGC 2655.
KHo  |*|Standard deviation close to 1 arcsec.
KHo  |=|1988A&A...194...90K
KHr  | |W.C. Keel and E. Hummel.  A&A 194, 90, 1988.  Optical and 6-cm
KHr  | |positions for NGC 2655.
KHr  |*|Standard deviation close to 1 arcsec.
KHr  |=|1988A&A...194...90K
KK   | |V.E. Karachentseva and I.D. Karachentsev.  A&AS 127, 409, 1998.
KK   | |A list of new nearby dwarf galaxy candidates.
KK   |*|Standard deviation around 5-10 arcsec at a guess.
KK   |=|1998A&AS..127..409K
KKP  | |I. Karachentsev, V. Karachentseva, S. Parnovsky.  Flat Galaxy
KKP  | |Catalogue, AN 314, 97, 1993 (revised version with better positions
KKP  | |published in 1999; see NED for the full reference).
KKP  |*|Standard deviation around 15 arcsec, but frequent larger blunders.
KKP  |=|Cat. VII/162
KLS1 | |n = 1,i. R. Kirshner, B. Leibundgut, and C. Smith, IAU Circular No.
KLS1 | |4900, 4982, 1989-90.  Two (so far) galaxies with supernovae.
KLS1 |*|Standard deviation "better than 2 arcsec."
KLS1 |=|1989IAUC.4900....1K
KLS2 | |n = 1,i. R. Kirshner, B. Leibundgut, and C. Smith, IAU Circular No.
KLS2 | |4900, 4982, 1989-90.  Two (so far) galaxies with supernovae.
KLS2 |*|Standard deviation "better than 2 arcsec."
KLS2 |=|1990IAUC.4982....1M
KMHK | |M. Kontizas, D.H. Morgan, D. Hatzidimitriou, and E. Kontizas.  A&AS,
KMHK | |84, 527, 1990.  Clusters in LMC.  "KMHK" is used for positions from
KMHK | |the original paper.  "KMHA" is used when brought in from Archinal and
KMHK | |Hynes (AH, which see).
KMHK |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
KMHK |=|1990A&AS...84..527K
KMHA | |M. Kontizas, D.H. Morgan, D. Hatzidimitriou, and E. Kontizas.  A&AS,
KMHA | |84, 527, 1990.  Clusters in LMC.  "KMHK" is used for positions from
KMHA | |the original paper.  "KMHA" is used when brought in from Archinal and
KMHA | |Hynes (AH, which see).
KMHA |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
KMHA |=|1990A&AS...84..527K
KOS  | |R. Kirshner, A. Oemler, and P. Schechter.  A.J. 83, 1549, 1978.
KOS  | |Galaxies in 8 high-latitude fields.
KOS  |*|Standard deviation about 6-8 arcseconds at a guess.
KOS  |=|1978AJ.....83.1549K
KP   | |J. Koornneef and S.R. Pottasch.  A&A 335 277, 1998.  Position for
KP   | |the central star of NGC 650/651.
KP   |*|Standard deviation 0.005 arcsec internal, about 0.2 external.
KP   |=|1998A&A...335..277K
KR   | |K. Reinmuth, reported by B. Skiff for PNe.
KR   |*|Standard deviation around 1 arcsec
KRL  | |L. Kohoutek, M.L. Roth-Hoeppner, and S. Laustsen.  A&A 162, 232, 1986.
KRL  | |Position for the central star of NGC 2818.
KRL  |*|Standard deviation 0.2 arcsec internal, 1 arcsec external.
KRL  |=|1986A&A...162..232K
KSG  | |R.A. Knop, B.T. Soifer, J.R. Graham, K. Matthews, D.B. Sanders, and
KSG  | |N.Z. Scoville.  AJ, 107, 920, 1994.  VV 114 = IC 1623, 3 components,
KSG  | |optical peaks from CCD maps.
KSG  |*|Standard deviation around one arcsec.
KSG  |=|1994AJ....107..920K
LdR  | |Lord Rosse (prepared for publication by J.L.E. Dreyer).
LdR  | |"Observations ...", Sci. Trans. Dublin Roy. Soc., Vol. II, (Ser. II),
LdR  | |1880.
LdR  |*|Standard deviation varies from a few arcsec for micrometrically-
LdR  | |measured objects to a few arcmin for those roughly estimated on a
LdR  | |single night.
LdRo | |Lord Rosse (see above) offset, referred to object as noted.
LdRo |*|Standard deviation depends on accuracy of reference object.  Lord
LdRo | |Rosse's and his assistants' measurements are usually good to 3-4
LdRo | |arcsec, but larger errors occasionally exist.
Le1  | |F. P. Leavenworth, in AJ 7, 9, 1886 and AJ 7, 57, 1887
Le1  | |Faint nebulae found with the 26-inch refractor at Leander
Le1  | |McCormick Observatory.  Adopted only when the object cannot be
Le1  | |identified.
Le1  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Le2  | |F. P. Leavenworth, in AJ 7, 9, 1886 and AJ 7, 57, 1887
Le2  | |Faint nebulae found with the 26-inch refractor at Leander
Le2  | |McCormick Observatory.  Adopted only when the object cannot be
Le2  | |identified.
Le2  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Lo1  | |W. Lorenz, Strassburg Annals, micrometric observations.
Lo1  |*|Standard deviation 3-4 arcsec at a guess.
Lo2  | |W. Lorenz, Publ. Astrophys. Obs. Konigstuhl-Heidelberg 6, 19, 1911;
Lo2  | |photographic astrometry for about 180 bright nebulae.
Lo2  |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec at a guess.
Lo2  |=|1911VeHei...6...19L
LB   | |R. Love (Nature(PS), 235, 53, 1972) and Bottinelli et al (A&A 12, 264,
LB   | |1971).  N = 1 (Maffei 2).
LB   |*|Standard deviation around 10 arcsec.
LB   |=|1971A&A....12..264B
LCRS | |S. Shectman, et al.  ApJ 470, 172, 1996.  Las Campanas Redshift
LCRS | |Survey.
LCRS |*|Standard deviation around 3 arcsec, including systematic errors within
LCRS | |individual scans.
LCRS |=|Cat. VII/203
LEDA | |Accurate positions for MCG galaxies from the Lyon Extragalactic
LEDA | |Database maintained by G. Paturel, C. Petit, and colleagues.  Many of
LEDA | |these are from other sources quoted here, but many are new
LEDA | |measurements on DSS images.  Most of the problems with PGC are
LEDA | |cleaned up here.
LEDA |*|Standard deviation is heterogeneous, but is typically a few
LEDA | |arcseconds, exclusive of misidentifications.
LEDA |=|http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr/
LGDC | |J.-F. Le Campion, M. Geffert, M.R. Dulou, and J. Colin.  A&AS 95,
LGDC | |233, 1992.  Accurate position for NGC 7094, brought in by B.A. Skiff.
LGDC |*|Standard deviation about 0.5 arcsec at a guess.
LGDC |=|1992A&AS...95..233L
LHH  | |P.O. Lindblad, et al. A&AS 120, 403, 1996.  NGC 1365.
LHH  |*|Standard deviation around 0.5 arcsec.
LHH  |=|1996A&AS..120..403L
LJG  | |L.J. Greenhill, reported in D.A. Smith and A.S. Wilson.  ApJ, 557,
LJG  | |180, 2001.  Radio position for the Circinus galaxy.
LJG  |*|Standard deviation = 0.1 arcsec.
LJG  |=|2001ApJ...557..180S
LK   | |L. Kohoutek, positions for planetaries, reported by B.A. Skiff.
LK   |*|Standard deviation around 1 arcsec
LMc  | |Micrometric positions from two or more Leander McCormick observers:
LMc  | |Ormond Stone, Frank Muller, Frank Leavenworth.
Mal  | |M. Malkan, et al. ApJ 237, 432, 1980.  UKS 1 (globular).
Mal  |*|Standard deviation unknown, probably better than an arcmin.
Mal  |=|1980ApJ...237..432M
Mar  | |A. Marth.  Nebulae found with Laselle's 48-inch reflector at Malta.
Mar  | |Positions used only when the nebula is not found by me.
Mar  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Mark | |E.J. Cooper, "A Catalogue of Stars Near the Ecliptic ...", Vol. 4,
Mark | |p. 183 (quoted by Auwers in his appendix of new nebulae attached to
Mark | |his reduction of WH's catalogue), Dublin, 1856.  Nominal position for
Mark | |NGC 7447, which is lost.
Mark |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
McB  | |M. L. McCall and R. J. Buta, AJ 109, 2460, 1995.  Maffei 1 and two
McB  | |companions.
McB  |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec.
McB  |=|1995AJ....109.2460M
McN  | |R. H. McNaught, University of Adelaide, Uppsala Schmidt plates or UK
McN  | |Schmidt plates for SNe parent galaxies.  From IAU Circulars Nos. 4726,
McN  | |5071, 5077, 5132, 5334, 5428.
McN  |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec.
Min  | |R. Minkowski, AJ 66, 558, 1961.  Positions for 19 galaxies in A2199;
Min  | |offsets from NGC 6166 reduced using GSC position.  MCG picked up them
Min  | |all from this paper.
Min  |*|Standard deviation 5 arcsec.
Min  |=|1961AJ.....66..558M
Mo   | |C. Monnichmeyer, Publ. Bonn Obs. No. 1, 1895; micrometric
Mo   | |observations, re-reduced using modern positions.
Mo   |*|Standard deviation about 2 arcsec.
Mu1  | |Frank Muller, in AJ 7, 9, 1886 and AJ 7, 57, 1887
Mu1  | |Faint nebulae found with the 26-inch refractor at Leander
Mu1  | |McCormick Observatory.  Adopted only when the object cannot be
Mu1  | |identified.
Mu1  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Mu2  | |Frank Muller, in AJ 7, 9, 1886 and AJ 7, 57, 1887
Mu2  | |Faint nebulae found with the 26-inch refractor at Leander
Mu2  | |McCormick Observatory.  Adopted only when the object cannot be
Mu2  | |identified.
Mu2  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
MAPS | |See R.L. Pennington, R.M. Humphreys, S.C. Odewahn, W. Zumach, and
MAPS | |P.M. Thurmes, PASP 105, 521, 1993.  Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner.
MAPS |*|Standard deviation about 0.8 arcsec for small images.
MB   | |M.D. Bicay, thesis, 1988.  (NED refcode is 1988StanU.T00M....B)
MB   |*|Standard deviation 10 arcsec.
MB   |=|1988StanU.T00M....B
MCG  | |Morphological Galaxy Catalogue, B.A. Vorontsov-Velyaminov and
MCG  | |colleagues.  Used only for missing objects or (primarily) defects on
MCG  | |the POSS1 prints.
MCG  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcmin for defects.
MCG  |=|Cat. VII/62, VII/100
MFG  | |G. Marconi, P. Focardi, L. Greggio, Ap. J. 360, L39, 1990.  One
MFG  | |incorrect measurement for DDO 210, rejected.
MFG  |*|Standard deviation meaningless
MFSK | |N. Metcalfe, R. Fong, T. Shanks, and D. Kilkenny.  MNRAS 236, 207,
MFSK | |1989.  Nine UKST fields to B_J ~16.8.  Previously catalogued galaxies
MFSK | |included.
MFSK |*|Standard deviation about 2 arcsec.
MFSK |=|1989MNRAS.236..207M
MGGP | |R.P. van der Marel, J. Gerssen, P. Guhathakurta, R.C. Peterson, K.
MGGP | |Gebhardt.  AJ, Dec 2002.  M15.
MGGP |*|Standard deviation 0.2-0.3 arcsec.
MGGP |=|2002AJ....124.3270G
MJC  | |M.J. Cameron. CSUAC No. 219, October 1970.  121 galaxies with Dec <
MJC  | |+20 deg and mpg < 12.5.
MJC  |*|Standard deviation 10 arcsec.
MW   | |Max Wolf.  Positions from various AN articles for "nebulae" not
MW   | |found on DSS images or POSS1/SERC prints/films.  These objects are
MW   | |probably defects on the early Heidelberg plates.
MW   |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
MW08 | |Max Wolf, AN 4207, 1908.  IC 4895 discovery position.
MW08 |*|Standard deviation 1 arcmin at a guess.
MW08 |=|1908AN....176..109W
MW1  | |Max Wolf, Konigstuhl Nebulae, List 1, Publ. Astrophys. Obs.
MW1  | |Heidelberg-Konigstuhl, 1, 11, 1902.  Precessed from 1875.  (N.B.
MW1  | |for List 2, see Schwassmann, source Sn.)  The positions from this
MW1  | |series were keyed by Evelyn Deen, and proofread by Glen and Evelyn
MW1  | |Deen.  When an object from this series has been verified on a print
MW1  | |of the original plate, the comments column has the type from the POSS1
MW1  | |followed by the comment "(verified)".
MW1  |*|Standard deviation 3-5 arcsec.
MW3  | |Max Wolf, Konigstuhl Nebulae, List 3, Publ. Astrophys. Obs.
MW3  | |Heidelberg-Konigstuhl, 1, 125, 1902.  Measured on 16" Bruce refractor
MW3  | |plates.  Precessed from 1875.  Coma Cluster.
MW3  |*|Standard deviation 3-5 arcsec.
MW4  | |Max Wolf, Konigstuhl Nebulae, List 4, Publ. Astrophys. Inst.
MW4  | |Konigstuhl-Heidelberg, 2, 57, 1906.  Precessed from 1875.
MW4  |*|Standard deviation 3-5 arcsec.
MW5  | |Max Wolf, Konigstuhl Nebulae, List 5.  Publ. Astrophys. Inst.
MW5  | |Konigstuhl-Heidelberg, 2, 77, 1906.  Precessed from 1875.  Most are
MW5  | |in IC2.  There are many plate defects and faint stars, double stars,
MW5  | |etc in these lists, but the true nebulae have good positions.
MW5  |*|Standard deviation 3-5 arcsec.
MW6  | |Max Wolf, Konigstuhl Nebulae, List 6.  Publ. Astrophys. Inst.
MW6  | |Konigstuhl-Heidelberg, 2, 89, 1906.  Precessed from 1875.
MW6  |*|Standard deviation 3-5 arcsec.
MW7  | |Max Wolf, Konigstuhl Nebulae, List 7.  Publ. Astrophys. Inst.
MW7  | |Konigstuhl-Heidelberg, 3, 77, 1909.  Precessed from 1875.
MW7  |*|Standard deviation 3-5 arcsec.
MW8  | |Max Wolf, Konigstuhl Nebulae, List 8.  Publ. Astrophys. Inst.
MW8  | |Konigstuhl-Heidelberg, 3, 87, 1909.  Precessed from 1875.
MW8  |*|Standard deviation 3-5 arcsec.
MW16 | |Max Wolf, Konigstuhl Nebulae, List 16.  Veroff. ... Heidelberg, 8,
MW16 | |No. 11, p. 18, 1928.  Precessed from 1900.
MW16 |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec.
MW16 |=|1928VeHei...8...18W
MW17 | |Max Wolf, AN 205, 79, 1917.  Photographic position for NGC 6946,
MW17 | |precessed from equinox 1917.0.
MW17 |*|Standard deviation probably around 1 arcsec.
NH   | |S.G. Neff and J.B. Hutchings.  AJ 103, 1746, 1992.  6- and 20-cm
NH   | |positions for IRAS galaxies.
NH   |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec.
NH   |=|1992AJ....103.1746N
NGC  | |J.L.E. Dreyer. NGC.  MemRAS 49, 1, 1888.
NGC  |=|1888MmRAS..49....1D
NMP  | |N.M. Parrish.  Observations of nebulae, re-reduced wrt modern star
NMP  | |positions, quoted in Ormond Stone, "Southern Nebulae", Publ. Leander
NMP  | |McCormick Obs, Vol. 1, p. 173, 1893.  RA's determined by clock, Dec's
NMP  | |by micrometer.
NMP  |*|Standard deviation, a few arcsec.
OSt  | |Ormond Stone, in AJ 7, 9, 1886 and AJ 7, 57, 1887.  Faint nebulae
OSt  | |found with the 26-inch refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.
OSt  | |Adopted only when the object cannot be identified.
OSt  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
OSt1 | |Ormond Stone, in AJ 7, 9, 1886 and AJ 7, 57, 1887.  Faint nebulae
OSt1 | |found with the 26-inch refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.
OSt1 | |Adopted only when the object cannot be identified.
OSt1 |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
OSt2 | |Ormond Stone, in AJ 7, 9, 1886 and AJ 7, 57, 1887.  Faint nebulae
OSt2 | |found with the 26-inch refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.
OSt2 | |Adopted only when the object cannot be identified.
OSt2 |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
OCW  | |O. C. Wendell, Harvard Circular 42, 1899.  Micrometric position for
OCW  | |IC 4816 = Nova Sgr 1898.  This is the discovery position.
OCW  |*|Standard deviation probably a few arcsec.
OCW  |=|1899HarCi..42....1W
Pds  | |G. Paturel, C. Petit, Ph. Prugniel, and R. Garnier.  A&AS 140, 89,
Pds  | |1999.  DSS positions for miscellaneous galaxies.  n = 17335.
Pds  | |Identifications for many galaxies -- especially the zwicky compacts --
Pds  | |are suspect and need to be checked.
Pds  |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsecond for well-defined images, 2-5 arcsec
Pds  | |for larger galaxies.
Pds  |=|1999A&AS..140...89P
Pds2 | |G. Paturel, et al.  A&AS 144, 475, 2000.  See Pds above.
Pds2 |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsecond for well-defined images, 2-5 arcsec
Pds2 | |for larger galaxies.
Pds2 |=|2000A&AS..144..475P
Pe   | |Peters, Copernicus, micrometric observations.  Precessed.
Pe   |*|Standard deviation probably around 3-5 arcsec at a guess.
Pec  | |Pechule, various articles, primarily in AN.  See IC1/2 for a list.
Pec  |*|Standard deviation 2 arcsec at a guess.
Pick | |E.J. Pickering, AN 105, 335, 1883.  Nominal position for NGC 6766;
Pick | |claimed to be an emission-line nebula, but no planetaries nearby.
Pick |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Pick |=|1883AN....105..335P
Pls  | |J. Palisa, AN 116, 337, 1887.  Micrometric positions for a few NGC/IC
Pls  | |objects, precessed.
Pls  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec at a guess.
Pls  |=|1887AN....116..337W
Po   | |Porter, Cinncinati Obs., micrometric observations re-reduced.
Po   |*|Standard deviation around 1-2 arcsec.
Pr   | |D. Proust, Meudon Observatory, IAU Circular No. 5134.
Pr   |*|Standard deviation probably 1-2 arcsec.
Pr   |=|1990IAUC.5134....1P
PA   | |C. Pollas and D. Albanese, IAU Circular No. 5040.  NGC 5917.
PA   |*|Standard deviation probably 1-2 arcsec.
PA   |=|1990IAUC.5040....1P
PC   | |L. Padrielli and R.G. Conway.  A&AS 27, 171, 1977.  4C sources
PC   | |identified with galaxies.
PC   |*|Standard deviation 0.8 arcsec.
PC   |=|1977A&AS...27..171P
PCR  | |P. Parma, R.A. Cameron, and H.R. de Ruiter.  AJ 102, 1960, 1991.
PCR  | |Optical positions for "dumbbell" galaxies which are radio sources.
PCR  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
PCR  |=|1991AJ....102.1960P
PEES | |B.A. Peterson et al.  MNRAS 221, 233, 1986.  Optical positions from
PEES | |Southern Sky Survey IIIa-J plates.
PEES |*|Standard deviation "better than 1 arcsec."
PEES |=|1986MNRAS.221..233P
PKe  | |P. Kempf. (Publ. Astrophys. Obs. Potsdam, No. 29, 1892).  Micrometric
PKe  | |measures, precessed, not re-reduced unless noted.
PKe  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec at a guess.
PK67 | |L. Perek and L. Kohoutek.  Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae,
PK67 | |1967.  Positions brought in by B.A. Skiff.
PK67 |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec at a guess.
PK67 |=|1967PK....C......1P
PL   | |M. Postman and T. Lauer.  ApJ 440, 28, 1995.  Positions from DSS for
PL   | |brightest galaxies in Abell clusters.  Precessed from J2000.0.
PL   |*|Standard deviation 1.0 arcsec.
PL   |=|1995ApJ...440...28P
PPAO | |S. Piatek, C. Pryor, T.E. Armandroff, and E.W. Olszewski.  AJ 123,
PPAO | |2511, 2002.  Draco Dwarf.  Center of isopleths from star counts.
PPAO |*|Standard deviation "about 0.1 arcminutes".
PPAO |=|2002AJ....123.2511P
PPM  | |Positions and Proper Motions (S. Roeser and U. Bastian, Heidelberg,
PPM  | |1991). M31, M32, M92, N2261, N6543.  And a few others.
PPM  |*|Standard deviation about 0.2 arcsec.
PPM  |=|Cat. I/146, I/193
QFW  | |H. Quintana, P. Fouque, and M.J. Way.  A&A 283, 722, 1994.  Optical
QFW  | |positions for the NGC 1400/1407 Group, measured on ESO Quick B survey
QFW  | |copy plate.
QFW  |*|Standard deviation 1.5 arcsec.
QFW  |=|1994A&A...283..722Q
R    | |Rumker, AN 63, 305, 1864, etc.  Micrometric observations, re-reduced
R    | |with modern positions for the reference stars.
R    |*|Standard deviation probably 2-3 arcsec.
Rup  | |M.P. Rupen, AJ 102, 48, 1991.  Neutral hydrogen mapping of NGC 891
Rup  | |and NGC 4565.
Rup  |*|Standard deviation around 1-2 arcsec.
Rup  |=|1991AJ....102...48R
R16  | |Karl Reinmuth, Konigstuhl plates, 1916.  Precessed from equinox 1900.
R16  |*|Standard deviation probably 2-3 arcsec.
R20  | |Karl Reinmuth, Konigstuhl plates, 1920.  Precessed from equinox 1900.
R20  |*|Standard deviation probably 2-3 arcsec.
R27  | |Karl Reinmuth 1927 list of Virgo Cluster galaxies.
R27  |*|Standard deviation about 1 arcsec, but there may be systematic errors
R27  | |depending on reference star system.
R28  | |Karl Reinmuth, Veroff. ... Heidelberg 8, 133, 1928.  Precessed from
R28  | |equinox 1900.0.
R28  |*|Standard deviation around 1 arcsec at a guess.  See previous.
R29  | |Karl Reinmuth, Veroff. ... Heidelberg 8, 167, 1929.  Precessed from
R29  | |equinox 1900.0.
R29  |*|Standard deviation around 1 arcsec at a guess.  See previous.
R32  | |Karl Reinmuth, Veroff. ... Heidelberg 8, 192, 1932.  Precessed from
R32  | |equinox 1900.0.
R32  |*|Standard deviation around 1 arcsec at a guess.  See previous.
RC   | |Ralph Copeland, quoted in NGC for NGC 295, not found.
RC   |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
RC2  | |Second Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (de Vaucouleurs et al.
RC2  | |1976), primarily from GH, GHD1,2 (see above), Cameron, Glanfield and
RC2  | |Cameron (bright southern galaxies, all replaced by ESO), Sandage's
RC2  | |southern lists, and my own measurements (source HC, above).  These are
RC2  | |being replaced as I identify the original sources.
RC2  |*|Standard deviation runs from 5 arcsec to 20 arcsec.
RC2  |=|Cat. VII/112
RC3  | |Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (de Vaucouleurs et al.
RC3  | |1991).  Not used as a source of positions.
RC3  |*|Standard deviation varies between 1 arcsec and 20 arcsec.
RC3  |=|Cat. VII/155
RD   | |D. Reynaud and D. Downes, A&A 319, 737, 1997.
RD   | |Dynamical center of NGC 1530 from high-resolution CO(1-0)
RD   | |observations.
RD   |*|Standard deviation on the order of 1 arcsec.
RD   |=|1997A&A...319..737R
REds | |R. Erdmann, DSS for NGC/IC objects.  Precessed from J2000.0.
REds |*|Standard deviation on the order of 1 arcsec.
RG   | |R.F. Griffin, AJ 68, 421, 1963.  Galaxies in the fields of 3C sources.
RG   |*|Standard deviation 0.3 arcsec.
RG   |=|1963AJ.....68..421G
RGMH | |R. Giovanelli, M. Haynes, and colleagues; various papers.
RGMH |*|Standard deviation about 6 arcsec.
RGO  | |Royal Greenwich Observatory, (Dreyer?), MNRAS 71, 509, 1911.
RGO  | |Photographic positions for far northern galaxies poorly observed by
RGO  | |the Herschels, precessed from equinox 1900.0.
RGO  |*|Standard deviation about 1 arcsec at a guess, though there could be
RGO  | |systematic offsets depending on reference system.
RGO  |=|1911MNRAS..71..509.
RH   | |O.-G. Richter, W.K. Huchtmeier, and colleagues.  Optical positions for
RH   | |galaxies in their HI Catalogue and/or various papers.
RH   |*|Standard deviation 8-10 arcsec.
RL   | |G.H. Rieke and F.J. Low.  ApJ 176, L95, 1972.  10-um position for
RL   | |nucleus of NGC 253.
RL   |*|Standard deviation around 1 arcsec.
RL   |=|1972ApJ...176L..95R
RLT  | |G.H. Rieke, M.J. Lebofksy, R.I. Thompson, F.J. Low, and A.T. Tokunaga.
RLT  | |ApJ 238, 24, 1980.  2.2-um position for M82, "about 3 arcsec off the
RLT  | |visual peak."
RLT  |*|Standard deviation 1.5 arcsec.
RLT  |=|1980ApJ...238...24R
RSA  | |Allan Sandage and Gustav A. Tammann.  The Revised Shapley-Ames
RSA  | |Catalogue ..., Carnegie Publication #635, second edition, 1987.
RSA  |*|Standard deviation around 10 arcsec.
RSA  |=|Cat. VII/51
RWH  | |R.W. Hunstead.  MNRAS 152, 277, 1971.  Optical positions for radio
RWH  | |point sources.  Four bright galaxies (plus fainter not entered).
RWH  |*|Standard deviation 0.4 arcsec.
RWH  |=|1971MNRAS.152..277H
RTBB | |H.J.A. Rottgering, Y. Tang, M.A.R. Bremer, A.G. de Bruyn, G.K. Miley,
RTBB | |R.B. Rengelink, M.N. Bremer.  MNRAS 282, 1033, 1996.  325 MHz position
RTBB | |for Markarian 1498 = WN 1626+5153.
RTBB |*|Standard deviation 4 arcsec.
RTBB |=|1996MNRAS.282.1033R
Sf   | |Schoenfeld, micrometric observations, inferred from other lists until
Sf   | |I can find a copy of his papers.
Sf   |*|Standard deviation looks to be around 3 arcsec.
Sn   | |Schwassmann, A.  Publ. Astrophys. Obs. Konigstuhl-Heidelberg 1, 17,
Sn   | |1902.  Precessed from equinox 1900.0.  Virgo Cluster area.
Sn   |*|Standard deviation about 3-5 arcsec.
Spt  | |R. Spitaler, various publications referenced in NGC and IC.
Spt  | |Micrometric positions re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc.
Spt  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
St1  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St1  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St1  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St1  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St1  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St1  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St1  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St1  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St1  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St1  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St1  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St1  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St1  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St1  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St1  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St1  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St1  | |       AN 2661.
St1  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St2  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St2  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St2  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St2  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St2  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St2  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St2  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St2  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St2  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St2  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St2  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St2  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St2  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St2  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St2  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St2  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St2  | |       AN 2661.
St2  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St3  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St3  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St3  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St3  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St3  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St3  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St3  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St3  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St3  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St3  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St3  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St3  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St3  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St3  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St3  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St3  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St3  | |       AN 2661.
St3  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St4  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St4  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St4  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St4  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St4  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St4  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St4  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St4  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St4  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St4  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St4  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St4  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St4  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St4  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St4  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St4  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St4  | |       AN 2661.
St4  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St5  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St5  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St5  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St5  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St5  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St5  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St5  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St5  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St5  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St5  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St5  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St5  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St5  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St5  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St5  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St5  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St5  | |       AN 2661.
St5  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St6  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St6  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St6  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St6  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St6  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St6  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St6  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St6  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St6  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St6  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St6  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St6  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St6  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St6  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St6  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St6  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St6  | |       AN 2661.
St6  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St7  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St7  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St7  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St7  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St7  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St7  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St7  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St7  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St7  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St7  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St7  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St7  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St7  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St7  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St7  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St7  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St7  | |       AN 2661.
St7  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St8  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St8  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St8  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St8  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St8  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St8  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St8  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St8  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St8  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St8  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St8  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St8  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St8  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St8  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St8  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St8  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St8  | |       AN 2661.
St8  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St9  | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St9  | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St9  | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St9  | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St9  | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St9  | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St9  | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St9  | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St9  | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St9  | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St9  | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St9  | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St9  | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St9  | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St9  | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St9  | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St9  | |       AN 2661.
St9  |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St10 | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St10 | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St10 | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St10 | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St10 | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St10 | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St10 | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St10 | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St10 | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St10 | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St10 | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St10 | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St10 | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St10 | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St10 | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St10 | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St10 | |       AN 2661.
St10 |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St11 | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St11 | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St11 | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St11 | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St11 | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St11 | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St11 | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St11 | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St11 | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St11 | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St11 | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St11 | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St11 | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St11 | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St11 | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St11 | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St11 | |       AN 2661.
St11 |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St12 | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St12 | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St12 | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St12 | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St12 | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St12 | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St12 | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St12 | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St12 | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St12 | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St12 | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St12 | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St12 | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St12 | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St12 | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St12 | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St12 | |       AN 2661.
St12 |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
St13 | |E. Stephan's original lists, n = 1 - 13.  Micrometric positions,
St13 | |re-reduced wrt GSC/SAO/PPM/Tycho-2 etc, or precessed.
St13 | |St1 = AN 76, xxx, 18xx = AN 1810; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St13 | |St2 = AN 78, xxx, 18xx = AN 1867; and MNRAS 32, 23, 18xx
St13 | |St3 = AN 79, xxx, 18xx = AN 1876; and MNRAS 32, 231, 18xx
St13 | |St4 = AN 81, xxx, 18xx = AN 1939; and MNRAS 33, 433, 18xx
St13 | |St5 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1972; and MNRAS 34, 75, 18xx
St13 | |St6 = AN 83, xxx, 18xx = AN 1977
St13 | |St7 = CR 83, 328, 18xx
St13 | |St8 = MNRAS 37, 334, 18xx
St13 | |St9 = CR 87, 869, 18xx
St13 | |St10 = CR 90, 837, 18xx
St13 | |St11 = CR 92, 1128, 18xx; ibid p. 1183; ibid p. 1260; and AN 100,
St13 | |       xxx, 18xx = AN 2390.
St13 | |St12 = CR 94, 546; 18xx; ibid p. 609; and AN 105, xxx, 18xx = AN 2502.
St13 | |St13 = CR 100, 1043, 18xx; ibid p. 1107; and AN 111, 321, 1885 =
St13 | |       AN 2661.
St13 |*|Standard deviation about 2-3 arcsec.
Sxy  | |Carl Seyfert's dx, dy measurements refered to mean position of NGC
Sxy  | |6027 for other members in the group (PASP 63, 72, 1951).  N = 5
Sxy  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
Sw1  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw1  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw1  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw2  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw2  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw2  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw3  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw3  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw3  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw4  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw4  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw4  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw5  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw5  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw5  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw6  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw6  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw6  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw7  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw7  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw7  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw8  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw8  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw8  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw9  | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw9  | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw9  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw10 | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw10 | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw10 |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw11 | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw11 | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw11 |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Sw12 | |Lewis Swift's original lists, n = 1 - 12.  Adopted only when the
Sw12 | |object in question is not found by me.  Nominal positions only.
Sw12 |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
SAO  | |SAO position adopted.  Used for a few non-stellar objects, primarily
SAO  | |planetaries or stars in clusters or in the center of diffuse nebulae.
SAO  | |Also used for a few stars thought by the original observer to be
SAO  | |nebulous -- nebulae may or may not be present on modern photographs.
SAO  |*|Standard deviation 0.3 to 1.0 arcsec.
SAO  |=|Cat. I/131
SBC  | |J.L. Sersic, E. Bajaja, and R. Colomb.  A&A 59, 19, 1977.  N2915.
SBC  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec (N.B. Sec of RA is wrong in SBC's
SBC  | |Table 2.)
SBC  |=|1977A&A....59...19S
SBG1 | |N. Santagata, L. Basso, M. Gottardi, G. Palumbo, and G. Vettolani.
SBG1 | |A&AS 70, 189, 1987.  CGCG galaxies, Paper 2 (see VPS).  From machine
SBG1 | |readable files sent by G. Palumbo.
SBG1 |*|Standard deviation depends on size of galaxy, varies from 1 arcsec to
SBG1 | |5 arcsec.
SBG1 |=|1987A&AS...70..189S
SBG2 | |N. Santagata, L. Basso, M. Gottardi, G. Palumbo, G. Vettolani, and
SBG2 | |M. Vigotti.  A&AS 70, 191, 1987.  CGCG galaxies, Paper 3 (see VPS).
SBG2 | |From machine readable files sent by G. Palumbo.
SBG2 |*|Standard deviation depends on size of galaxy, varies from 1 arcsec to
SBG2 | |5 arcsec.
SBG2 |=|1987A&AS...70..191S
SBIB | |D. Sprayberry, G.M. Bernstein, C.D. Impey, G.D. Bothun.  ApJ, 438, 72,
SBIB | |1995.  Low surface brightness galaxies.
SBIB |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
SBIB |=|1995ApJ...438...72S
SC   | |Sidney Coolidge.  AN 1453.  Positions for ``nebulae'', apparently
SC   | |micrometrically measured; or for nebulae not found by me.
SC   |*|Standard deviation looks to be around 5 arcsec (or meaningless if not
SC   | |found).
SCO  | |S.C. Odewahn, PhD thesis, Univ of Texas, 1989.  Position for NGC 2366
SCO  | |from isophotes.
SCO  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec at a guess.
SCOS | |N.C. Hambly, A.C. Davenhall, M.J. Irwin, H.T. MacGillivray.  MNRAS
SCOS | |326, 1315, 2001 and references therein.  Positions from SuperCOSMOS
SCOS | |scans of sky survey plates.  Tycho-2 provided reference stars.
SCOS |*|Standard deviation 0.2 arcsec for B_J brighter than 19, 0.3 arcsec
SCOS | |for B_J brighter than 22 -- for stellar images, of course.
SCOS |=|2001MNRAS.326.1315H
SDP  | |S.D. Peterson.  Astron. J. 78, 811, 1973.  Markarian 1 - 507.
SDP  |*|Standard deviation 6-8 arcsec.
SDP  |=|1973AJ.....78..811P
SESO | |A. Acker, F. Ochsenbein, B. Stenholm, R. Tylenda, J. Marcout, and
SESO | |C. Schohn.  The Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary
SESO | |Nebulae (Garching: ESO), 1992.  A few positions quoted by Condon and
SESO | |Kaplan, ApJS 117, 361, 1998 (source CK, which see), and by Brian
SESO | |Skiff.
SESO |*|Standard deviation unknown, but probably a few arcsec.
SESO |=|Cat. V/84
SGC  | |Southern Galaxy Catalogue (Corwin et al. 1985), not from ESOB:  visual
SGC  | |micrometric measurements (primarily Porter 1911), or my own
SGC  | |measurements on PSS or SSS plates/prints/films.
SGC  |*|Standard deviation 5-6 arcsec or better.
SGC  |=|Cat. VII/116
SGsv | |Steve Gottlieb, private communication.  Positions for a few IC objects
SGsv | |estimated from SkyView images.
SGsv |*|Standard deviation 3-4 arcsec at a guess.
SHM  | |Kathleen Spellman, George Helou, and Barry Madore (PASP 101, 360,
SHM  | |1989).  SGC galaxies without ESO positions.  N = 372
SHM  |*|Standard deviation 6-8 arcsec.
SHM  |=|1989PASP..101..360S
SIB  | |Solon I. Bailey, HA 60, 1908.  List of the 263 largest, brightest
SIB  | |nebulae and clusters.  Several IC objects here.  Positions given to
SIB  | |1 arcmin only; sufficient for identification.
SIB  |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcmin.
SIMB | |SIMBAD's adopted position for planetary nebulae (Acker et al, 1996
SIMB | |version of the Strasbourg Catalogue, CDS catalogue number V/100),
SIMB | |quoted by B.A. Skiff.
SIMB |*|Standard deviation around one arcsec.
SIMB |=|Cat. V/100
SJL  | |A. Sandqvist, S. Jorsater, and P. Lindblad.  A&A 110, 336, 1982.
SJL  | |Position for NGC 1365 quoted in S. Jorsater and G.A. van Moorsel, AJ
SJL  | |110, 2037.
SJL  |*|Standard deviation quoted as 4 arcsec.
SJL  |=|1982A&A...110..336S
SK   | |E.P. Smith and N.E. Kassim.  AJ 105, 46, 1993.  A few optical
SK   | |positions for 20-cm radio sources.
SK   |*|Standard deviation probably around 1-2 arcsec.
SK   |=|1993AJ....105...46S
SL   | |Brian A. Skiff, measured on plates taken by Lampland at Lowell Obs.
SL   | |PPM stars used for astrometric net.
SL   |*|Standard deviation around 0.2-0.3 arcsec.
SMB  | |E. Slezak, G. Mars, A. Bijaoui, C. Balkowski, P. Fontanelli.  A&AS 74,
SMB  | |83, 1988.  Galaxies in the "Coma Supercluster", a Palomar Schmidt
SMB  | |field north-following A1656, but not including it.  Precessed from
SMB  | |equinox 2000.0.
SMB  |*|Standard deviation around 8-10 arcsec.  Large accidental errors have
SMB  | |been seen.
SNp  | |To be recovered.  Probably a supernova parent galaxy.  NGC 673 is one.
SP   | |E.P. Smith et al.  ApJS 104, 287, 1996.  UV positions from UIT on
SP   | |Astro-1 Space Shuttle mission.
SP   |*|Standard deviation 2 arcsec.
SP   |=|1996ApJS..104..287S
SPC  | |Brian A. Skiff, Lowell Observatory PDS scans of 13" Pluto Camera
SPC  | |(astrograph) plates, 1988 - 89.  ESGC galaxies.  Also miscellaneous
SPC  | |positions measured on the same series of plates.
SPC  |*|Standard deviation 2-3 arcsec.
SPF  | |Ditto, but on 18-inch Palomar Schmidt films taken by Gene and
SPF  | |Caroline Shoemaker for their asteroid search.
SPF  |*|Standard deviation is about 1 arcsec.
SPL  | |S.P. Langley in Harvard Annals 8, Part 1, p. 62, 1882.  Nominal
SPL  | |position for NGC 3355; nothing is there.
SPL  |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
SPL  |=|1882AnHar...8...62L
SPP  | |Ditto, but on PSS prints or plates.
SPP  |*|Standard deviation is around 1 arcsec.
STMW | |S.E. Schneider, T.X. Thuan, C. Magri, and J.E. Wadiak.  Ap. J. Suppl.
STMW | |72, 245, 1990.  UGC lsb galaxies.
STMW |*|Standard deviation about 10 arcsec.
STMW |=|1990ApJS...72..245S
STMM | |S.E. Schneider, T.X. Thuan, C. Magri, and J. Miller.  Ap. J. Suppl.
STMM | |81, 5, 1992.  UGC lsb galaxies.  Many positions were apparently taken
STMM | |from DC, FT, RGMH, and STMW without acknowledgment; I've removed
STMM | |these.
STMM |*|Standard deviation about 10 arcsec.
STMM |=|1992ApJS...81....5S
SW   | |Stephen Shawl and Raymond White, A.J. 91, 312, 1986.  Positions of
SW   | |109 galactic globular clusters.
SW   |*|Standard deviation about 1 arcsec.
SW   |=|1986AJ.....91..312S
SWX  | |D.A. Smith and A.S. Wilson.  ApJ, 557, 180, 2001.  X-ray position for
SWX  | |the Circinus galaxy from a Chandra ACIS map.
SWX  |*|Standard deviation = 0.1 arcsec.
SWX  |=|2001ApJ...557..180S
SVD  | |Schuyler Van Dyk, private communication.  NGC 150.
SVD  |*|Standard deviation about 1 arcsec.
T4   | |W. Tempel. n = list number.  Micrometric positions precessed from
T4   | |Tempel's equinox, typically around 1880.
T4   |*|Standard deviation probably a few arcsec.
T5   | |W. Tempel. n = list number.  Micrometric positions precessed from
T5   | |Tempel's equinox, typically around 1880.
T5   |*|Standard deviation probably a few arcsec.
T9   | |W. Tempel. n = list number.  Micrometric positions precessed from
T9   | |Tempel's equinox, typically around 1880.
T9   |*|Standard deviation probably a few arcsec.
TDM  | |Tom DeMary, open cluster positions from USNO A2.0 displayed with
TDM  | |HyperSky, eyeball centers, precessed from J2000.0.
TDM  |*|Standard deviations between about 10 arcsec to 1-2 arcmin, depending
TDM  | |on cluster size.
TE   | |Thomas Espin, MNRAS 54, 327, 1894; and AN No. 3633, 1900.  Fifteen
TE   | |"nebulae" or clusters in MN, seven nebulae in AN.
TE   | |Positions estimated from BD charts, used only for objects not found.
TE   |*|Standard deviations meaningless.
TE   |=|1894MNRAS..54..327E
TH   | |Turner, J.L. and Ho, P.T.P. ApJ, 421, 122, 1994.  2- and 6-cm nuclear
TH   | |continuum sources in 8 spiral galaxies.
TH   |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec, except for NGC 5194 where it is 0.1
TH   | |arcsec.
TH   |=|1994ApJ...421..122T
TH1  | |Turner, J.L. and Ho, P.T.P. ApJ, 268, L79, 1983.  2- and 6-cm nuclear
TH1  | |sources in 3 spiral galaxies.
TH1  |*|Standard deviation about an arcsec.
TH1  |=|1983ApJ...268L..79T
THB  | |Turner, J.L, Ho, P.T.P., and Beck, S.C. AJ 116, 1212, 1998.  2- and
THB  | |6-cm continuum observations of NGC 5253.
THB  |*|Standard deviation a few tenths of an arcsec.
THB  |=|1998AJ....116.1212T
THS  | |T. H. Safford, from IC.  Used only when the object is unrecoverable.
THS  |*|Standard deviation meaningless
TML  | |J.H. Taylor, R.N. Manchester, A.G. Lyme.  ApJS 88, 529, 1993.  Pulsar
TML  | |catalogue.  J2000.0 positions precessed to B1950.0 for a few pulsars
TML  | |associated with SNRs (e.g. Crab pulsar = NGC 1952).
TML  |*|Standard deviation 0.5 arcsec or better.
TML  |=|Cat. VII/156
TVP  | |Tully, R.B., Verheijen, M.A.W., Pierce, M.J., Huang, J.-S., and
TVP  | |Wainscoat, R.J.  Ursa Major Cloud members, from GSC stars on CCD
TVP  | |images.
TVP  |*|Standard deviation about 1 arcsec.
Ty2  | |E. Hog et al.  A&A 355, 27L, 2000.  Tycho-2 positions, primarily for
Ty2  | |individual stars, but some planetaries (courtesy of Brian Skiff), too.
Ty2  |*|Standard deviation 0.007 arcsec for stars brighter than V = 9, 0.06
Ty2  | |for fainter stars.
Ty2  |=|Cat. I/259
UA10 | |USNO-A1.0.  From scans of original sky survey plates by USNO team
UA10 | |headed by D. Monet.
UA10 |*|Standard deviation about 0.3 arcsec for stars, 1-2 arcsec for extended
UA10 | |objects (e.g. galaxies) larger than about an arcmin.
UA10 |=|Cat. I/243
UA20 | |USNO-A2.0.  From scans of original sky survey plates by USNO team
UA20 | |headed by D. Monet; reprocessing of A1.0 to put it on ICRS.
UA20 |*|Standard deviation about 0.2 arcsec for stars, 1-2 arcsec for extended
UA20 | |objects (e.g. galaxies) larger than about an arcmin, probably around
UA20 | |0.4 - 0.5 arcsec for smaller galaxies.
UA20 |=|Cat. I/252
UB10 | |USNO-B1.0.  From scans of original sky survey plates by USNO team
UB10 | |headed by D. Monet.  Pretty much like USNO-A1.0, but includes proper
UB10 | |motions and star/non-star classifications.
UB10 |*|Standard deviation about 0.2 arcsec for stars, 1-2 arcsec for extended
UB10 | |objects (e.g. galaxies) larger than about an arcmin, probably around
UB10 | |0.4 - 0.5 arcsec for smaller galaxies.
UB10 |=|Cat. I/284
UCA1 | |USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (preliminary edition) "UCAC1".
UCA1 | |N. Zacharias, et al, CD-ROM (Washington: USNO), March 2000.  A few
UCA1 | |bright galaxies are included.  This extends from the south equatorial
UCA1 | |pole to about -20 deg, and has now been completely replaced by UCAC2,
UCA1 | |which see.
UCA1 |*|Standard deviation "20 mas for stars in the magnitude range R = 9-14.5
UCA1 | |and about 70 mas at the limiting magnitude of 16."
UCA1 |=|Cat. I/268
UCA2 | |USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (second edition) "UCAC2".  N. Zacharias,
UCA2 | |S.E. Urban, M.I. Zacharias, G.L. Wycoff, D.M. Hall, M.E. Germain, E.R.
UCA2 | |Holdenreid, and L. Winter.  AJ 127, 3043, 2004.  This completely
UCA2 | |replaces UCAC1 and extends it north to at least +40 deg, and up to
UCA2 | |+50 deg at some RAs.
UCA2 |*|Standard deviation "20 mas for stars in the magnitude range R = 9-14.5
UCA2 | |and about 70 mas at the limiting magnitude of 16."
UCA2 |=|Cat. I/294
UGCo | |UGC Notes offset (from UGC galaxies with a precise positions) in
UGCo | |arcmin and position angle converted to delta RA and delta Dec.
UGCo |*|Standard deviation about 6-8 arcsec (also depends on accuracy of
UGCo | |position used as reference).
UJ10 | |UJ 1.0.  From scans of short-exposure IIIa-J POSS-2 plates by USNO,
UJ10 | |courtesy of D. Monet.
UJ10 |*|Standard deviation about 0.3 arcsec for stars, 1-2 arcsec for extended
UJ10 | |objects (galaxies).
UJ10 |=|Cat. I/243
USNO | |See K.J. Johnston, et al, AJ 110, 880, 1995 for background.  The
USNO | |positions actually used come from USNO's 1996-11 solution, downloaded
USNO | |in January 1997 from their public ftp partition.  VLBI radio reference
USNO | |sources.  These define the FK5 radio reference frame.  Precessed from
USNO | |J2000.0 to B1950.0 using J. Bennett's IPAC precession/conversion
USNO | |routines.
USNO |*|Standard deviation better than 3 milliarcseconds in all cases, and
USNO | |better than 1 milliarcsec in most cases.  Accuracy on this level is
USNO | |destroyed by the precession program.  Can ANY precession routine do
USNO | |justice to these positions?
UW   | |J.S. Ulvestad and A.S. Wilson.  ApJ 343, 659, 1989.  2, 6, and 20 cm
UW   | |VLA observations of Seyfert nuclei.  n = 27.
UW   |*|Standard deviation around 0.2 arcsec.
UW   |=|1989ApJ...343..659U
UWS  | |J.S. Ulvestad, A.S. Wilson, and R.A. Sramek. AJ 247, 419, 1981. 1.465
UWS  | |GHz and/or 4.885 GHz VLA observations of Seyfert nuclei.  n = 16.
UWS  |*|Standard deviation 0.1-0.3 arcsec.
UWS  |=|1981ApJ...247..419U
UZC  | |The Updated Zwicky Catalogue.  E. Falco, et al.  PASP, 111, 438, 1999.
UZC  | |GSC or DSS positions for about 19,000 CGCG galaxies with m_p <= 15.5,
UZC  | |plus a few hundred other galaxies.  The original list had many
UZC  | |misidentifications and stars included.  These have been mostly
UZC  | |removed in the published version.
UZC  |*|Standard deviation around 1-1.5 arcsec.
UZC  |=|1999PASP..111..438F
vdH+ | |J.M. van der Hulst, P.C. Crane, and W.C. Keel.  AJ 86, 1175, 1981.
vdH+ | |6 cm VLA observations of spiral galaxy nuclei.
vdH+ |*|Standard deviation 0.3 or 0.8 arcsec.
vdH+ |=|1981AJ.....86.1175V
vdK1 | |P.C. van der Kruit. A&A 15, 110, 1971.  21.2-cm positions for 13
vdK1 | |galaxies.
vdK1 |*|Standard deviation about 2 arcsec.
vdK1 |=|1971A&A....15..110V
vdK2 | |P.C. van der Kruit.  A&A 29, 231 and 249, 1973.  21.2-cm positions for
vdK2 | |bright galaxies.  N3556 position interpolated from contours in Fig. 6
vdK2 | |of vdK3 by me.
vdK2 |*|Standard deviation less than 1 arcsec (except for N3556; that is
vdK2 | |probably 3-4 arcsec).
vdK2 |=|1973A&A....29..231V
vdK3 | |P.C. van der Kruit.  A&A 29, 231 and 249, 1973.  21.2-cm positions for
vdK3 | |bright galaxies.  N3556 position interpolated from contours in Fig. 6
vdK3 | |of vdK3 by me.
vdK3 |*|Standard deviation less than 1 arcsec (except for N3556; that is
vdK3 | |probably 3-4 arcsec).
vdK3 |=|1973A&A....29..249V
Vig  | |Vigotti, M., Grueff, G., Perley, R., Clark, B.G., Bridle, A.H.
Vig  | |AJ 98, 419, 1989.  Radio sources measured on POSS prints w.r.t. AGK3
Vig  | |stars.
Vig  |*|Standard deviations about 0.7 arcsec for stellar images, probably
Vig  | |several arcsec for things like M51.
Vig  |=|1989AJ.....98..419V
V    | |Veron, P. ApJ 144, 861, 1966.  Radio sources.
V    |*|Standard deviation about 1 arcsec.
V    |=|1966ApJ...144..861V
VC   | |de Vaucouleurs and Corwin, ApJ 295, 287, 1985.  M31 from several
VC   | |astrometric sources.
VC   |*|Standard deviation about 0.2 arcsec.
VC   |=|1985ApJ...295..287D
VCC  | |B. Bingelli, A. Sandage, and G. A. Tammann.  A.J. 90, 1681, 1985.
VCC  | |Virgo Cluster Catalog.
VCC  |*|Standard deviation about 10 arcsec.
VCC  |=|1985AJ.....90.1681B
VHSW | |S.D. Van Dyk, S.D. Hyman, R.A. Sramek, and K.W. Weiler.  IAU Circular
VHSW | |6045.  VLA 6- and 20-cm position for NGC 6946.
VHSW |*|Standard deviation probably 0.2-0.3 arcsec.
VHSW |=|1994IAUC.6045....1V
VL   | |G. de Vaucouleurs and R. Leach.  PASP 93, 190, 1981.  M31 and M33.
VL   |*|Standard deviation about 0.2 arcsec.
VL   |=|1981PASP...93..190D
VPC  | |C.K. Young and M.J. Currie.  A&AS 127, 367, 1998.  The Virgo
VPC  | |Photometry Catalogue.  Positions taken from RC3 removed.
VPC  |*|Standard deviation 3-4 arcsec.
VPC  |=|1998A&AS..127..367Y
VPD  | |M.B. Vila, A. Pedlar, R.D. Davies, E. Hummel, and D.J. Axon.  MNRAS
VPD  | |242, 379, 1990.  20- and 6-cm positions for bright Sbc galaxies.
VPD  |*|Standard deviation 0.3 arcsec when given to 0.1 arcsec, 2-3 arcsec
VPD  | |when given to 1 arcsec.
VPD  |=|1990MNRAS.242..379V
VPS  | |G. Vettolani, G. Palumbo, and N. Santagata.  A&AS 64, 247, 1986.
VPS  | |CGCG galaxies, Paper 1.  From machine readable files sent by G.
VPS  | |Palumbo.
VPS  |*|Standard deviation depends on size of galaxy, varies from 1 arcsec to
VPS  | |5 arcsec.
VPS  |=|1986A&AS...64..247V
VPS1 | |Ditto, for CGCG fields 502-5.  Typed by me.
VPS1 |*|Standard deviation depends on size of galaxy, varies from 1 arcsec to
VPS1 | |5 arcsec.
VV1  | |Veron, M.P. and Veron, P.  A&A 42, 1, 1975 and A&AS 29, 149, 1977.
VV1  | |Radio sources.
VV1  |*|Standard deviation about 0.5 arcsec.
VV1  |=|1975A&A....42....1V
VV2  | |Veron, M.P. and Veron, P.  A&A 42, 1, 1975 and A&AS 29, 149, 1977.
VV2  | |Radio sources.
VV2  |*|Standard deviation about 0.5 arcsec.
VV2  |=|1975A&A....42....1V
VVAG | |Veron, M.P., Veron, P., Adgie, R.L., and Gent, H. A&A 59, L19, 1976.
VVAG | |Radio sources.
VVAG |*|Standard deviation about 0.5 arcsec.
VVAG |=|1977A&A....59L..19W
Win  | |A. Winnecke, Strassburg Annals, Vol. 3, 1909.  Micrometric
Win  | |measurements of several hundred NGC objects, re-reduced using modern
Win  | |positions for the reference stars.
Win  |*|Standard deviation 1-2 arcsec at a guess.
Wolf | |Max Wolf, AN 4082 = AN 171, 27, 1906.  Nominal position for IC 1831,
Wolf | |currently a lost object.
Wolf |*|Standard deviation meaningless.
Wolf |=|1906AN....171...27W
WDP  | |W.D. Pence, thesis (1981).  NGC 253.
WDP  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec.
WF   | |Wilhelmina P. Fleming, Harvard Annals 60 and references therein.
WF   | |"Stars" with emission lines; most are PNe or -- in the LMC -- HII
WF   | |regions.  Positions used only when the object cannot be positively
WF   | |identified (e.g. IC 1292).  Original positions were given to 0.1
WF   | |minute and 1 arcmin.  (Also see source WPF.)
WF   |*|Standard deviation meaningless, but the identified nebulae have
WF   | |positions typically good to 1-2 arcmin.
WGT  | |W.G. Tifft, Probably Coma Cluster or double galaxies (I've lost the
WGT  | |reference; check AJ's or ApJ's).
WGT  |*|Standard deviation a few arcsec at a guess.
WH   | |W. Herschel, Collected Papers (ed. Dreyer, 1912).  Offsets reduced
WH   | |w.r.t. modern positions for reference stars.  Used only for objects
WH   | |not recovered on the sky surveys (e.g. NGC 421, NGC 4317, etc).
WH   |*|Standard deviation is meaningless.
WK   | |W. Keel, reported in CCR (which see).  NGC 992.
WK   |*|Standard deviation better than 1 arcsec.
WKF  | |P.A. Woudt, R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, A.P. Fairall, H. Bohringer,
WKF  | |V. Cayatte, and I.S. Glass.  A&A, in press, 1998.
WKF  |*|Standard deviation unknown, probably a few arcsec.
WKF  |=|1998A&A...338....8W
WM   | |A. S. Wilson and E. J. A. Meurs (A&ASuppl. 33, 407, 1978) Seyferts.
WM   | |N = 7.
WM   |*|Standard deviation around 0.2 arcsec.
WM   |=|1978A&AS...33..407W
WMe  | |Wilson and Meurs, as above, but image noted as "large or asymmetric,
WMe  | |so the errors are typically a few arcsec."
WMe  |*|Standard deviation around 3 arcsec at a guess.
WPF  | |Wilhelmina P. Fleming, Harvard Circulars No. 32 and 60.  Various NGC
WPF  | |and IC objects found on Harvard plates.
WPF  |*|Standard deviation 10-15 arcsec.
WR   | |W. Romanishin.  AJ, Aug 1990.  LSB galaxies.
WR   |*|Standard deviation around 3 arcsec.
WR   |=|1990AJ....100..373R
WS   | |Wolfgang Steinicke.  Positions for NGC/IC objects from RealSky.
WS   | |Identifications corrected when known wrong, flagged with a question
WS   | |mark when WS position is different from another position and an
WS   | |investigation is not yet done.  Declinations are systematically south
WS   | |by 2 arcsec.
WS   |*|Standard deviation 3 arcsec or better.
WU1  | |A.S. Wilson and J.S. Ulvestad, ApJ 260, 56, 1982. 6 and 20 cm
WU1  | |position for NGC 5548.
WU1  |*|Standard deviation 0.2 arcsec.
WU1  |=|1982ApJ...260...56W
WU2  | |A.S. Wilson and J.S. Ulvestad, ApJ 275, 8, 1983. 6 and 20 cm position
WU2  | |for NGC 1068.
WU2  |*|Standard deviation 0.2 arcsec.
WU2  |=|1983ApJ...275....8W
WW   | |A.S. Wilson and A.G. Willis, ApJ 240, 429, 1980.  6-cm positions for
WW   | |Seyfert nuclei.
WW   |*|Standard deviation 0.4 arcsec.
WW   |=|1980ApJ...240..429W
WWB  | |Wynn-Williams and E. Becklin.  ApJ 290, 108, 1985.  Optical (Johnson
WWB  | |V) position for NGC 2903 quoted in VPD.
WWB  |*|Standard deviation better than 1 arcsec.
WWB  |=|1985ApJ...290..108W
WWD  | |D. & B. Wills and J. Douglas.  AJ 78, 521, 1973.  Optical positions
WWD  | |for radio sources.
WWD  |*|Standard deviation about 0.5 arcsec.
WWD  |=|1973AJ.....78..521W
WYC  | |A.S. Wilson, Y. Yang, and G. Cecil.  ApJ 560, 689, 2001.  20-cm
WYC  | |nuclear source in NGC 4258.
WYC  |*|Standard deviation 0.1 arcsec.
WYC  |=|2001ApJ...560..689W
YOF  | |N. Yasuda, S. Okamura, and M. Fukugita.  ApJS 96, 359, 1995.
YOF  | |Optical positions for spirals in Virgo.
YOF  |*|Standard deviation 0.9 arcsec.
YOF  |=|1995ApJS...96..359Y
YZYH | |Q.R. Yuan, Z.H. Zhu, Z.L. Yang, and X.T. He, A&AS, 115, 267, 1996.
YZYH | |APM positions for IRAS galaxies in Virgo.
YZYH |*|Standard deviation around 1-2 arcsec.
YZYH |=|1996A&AS..115..267Y
ZGT  | |F. Zwicky, H. Gates, and D. Taylor, unpublished ONR Report, 1955.
ZGT  |*|Standard deviation around 5-7 arcsec at a guess.
ZH   | |F. Zwicky and E. Herzog (CGCG II, p. 319).  Special Coma Cluster map
ZH   | |and table.
ZH   |*|Standard deviation around 10 arcsec.
ZH   |=|Cat.VII/190........
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