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I. Introduction

This is the fifth of a projected seven volumes in a program of systematic reclassification of the Henry Draper stars on the MK system and contains all HD stars between δ1900=–12.0 and δ1900=+5.0 . The previous volumes [VOL1-4] cover from δ1900=–90.0 and δ1900=–12.0 . It is recommended that users read the accompanying text before utilizing the catalogue in order to take full advantage of its contents and to learn the notation and practices followed.

The stars were classified visually on objective-prism plates taken with the Michigan Curtis Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The 4+ 6 prisms yield a dispersion at Hγ of 108 Å/mm, and the average resolution is about 2 Å/mm, comparable to that of the original MK system [MKK]. The spectra were taken on IIaO plates and widened to 0.8 mm, with 20m, 4m, and 1m exposures being obtained. The high quality of the spectra is illustrated in our second Atlas [HN]. In order to maintain a uniform, consistent system, all the spectral classification was done by one person (Houk).

Over 170 standard stars were used. (See Tables 1-3 and section III). The HD stars were identified using computer-generated plots to the scale of the Schmidt plates [HC]. Of the 31,075 HD stars in the catalogue, 30,235 or over 97% were classifiable. Previously published types are listed for the 3% not classifiable on our plates. Over 96% of the stars in the catalogue have both temperature and luminosity types. Many of those that do not are peculiar stars. Internal classification errors were obtained using the 11% of the stars classified independently on more than one plate. Both the internal and external errors are similar to those usually obtained in classification of slit spectra. 16% of the stars have remarks in the back of the volume giving further information.

Sections below include II Acknowledgments, III. Spectral Classification, IV. Description of Catalogue, V. Description of Remarks, and References

II. Acknowledgments

A project of this scope, involving eventual reclassification of all the HD stars, necessarily involves the dedicated efforts of large numbers of people. These have contributed to the project in such substantial ways that it was decided the acknowledgments should hold the place of honor at the beginning, rather than appearing at the end as is customary.

First we acknowledge our enormous debt to Annie J. Cannon and the Harvard College Observatory for the Henry Draper Catalogue [CP], upon which our work is largely based. The present project scarcely would have been possible without the Henry Draper Catalogue as a foundation. Even with our present-day advantage of electronic computers and high-quality spectra the undertaking is proving a formidable one, and we appreciate and marvel more than ever at what Miss Cannon was able to do with the resources she had on hand.

We owe much to W. W. Morgan and P. C. Keenan for their encouragement and advice especially in the early stages of the project.

The role of William P. Bidelman in this undertaking is a large and critical one. For many years he had urged that such a project be carried out and he ultimately started it himself, while at the University of Michigan. He and Orren Mohler were instrumental in getting the Michigan Curtis Schmidt telescope moved to the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory with the aid of a grant from the National Science Foundation. Bidelman also directed the southern observing program from 1967 through 1969. We thank him for much advice and help.

The reclassification itself might never have gotten under way if C. R. Cowley had not consented to become principal investigator and project director, obtaining the original grant from the National Science Foundation (with Anne Cowley as co-principal investigator). We thank them both very much for their support and input.

For day-to-day help on many phases of producing Volume 5 , including the training of assistants, but especially the computer programming and documentation, headed by graduate student and co-author Carrie Swift, we are deeply indebted to undergraduates Michael Allinger, James Barta, Clair Branch, Michelle Cornog, Aimee D'Onofrio, Aaron Evans, David Frankel, Carla Goodnoh, Robert Piontek, and Sarah Winfrey who all did fine work and went far beyond the call of duty, often under time pressure.

The sheer amount of data involved produced a plethora of tedious but vital clerical and proofreading tasks and a great deal of data entry. This work was mainly done by students in the University of Michigan Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) and Work-Study Program. Almost everything was done or checked by two people to cut down on errors. We thank the following for their contributions: Richard Algra, Jena Baker, Jay Beeber, Charles Boulard, Luis Buitragn, Omar Cantu, Richard Carrera, Jean Chang, Scott Cramer, Raffy Davessia, Chaitanya Diwadkar, Michael Dojka, Adam R. Duncan, Dan Durda, Nicolas Fernandez, Rafael Francisco, Benjamin Graetz, Christopher Groesbeck, Margaret Grunow, Eric Hall, Jennifer Hippert, Angela Holt, Jason Hurley, Daniel Kocevski, Julie Lanyon (for last-minute herioc efforts), Madelene Means, Dina Mirijanian, Rafael Jose Mora, Megan Nesbitt, Thuyduong Nguyen, Jeremy J. Ortwine, Peter Rose, Erika Sandor, Elizabeth Sturgis-Doutre, Naomi Taylor, Joan Wang, A. White, Mark Wilson, Sherry Winkelman, and Joei Wroten. Names of others were lost in the mists of time, since neither UROP nor our project maintained complete records, but we are also grateful for the contributions of AB, SB, KJ, BL, SL, JHM, DN, Felipe F, SRP, CDR and JES, with apologies.

The earlier work of Wayne Fullerton, who produced the computer-generated plots of the HD stars to Schmidt scale for the whole sky, and of D. J. MacConnell, who did much early planning, observing, and training of observers, is still contributing to the success of the project.

Thanks also to the following observers, who took the high-quality plates so vital to good results: Klaus Czuia, Arturo Gomez, Gabriel Martin, Daniel Muturana, Mauricio Navarrete, and Mario Zemelman. We gratefully acknowledge the staff of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory for their help and cooperation during the 11 years that the southern survey was under way.

I am indebted to Robert F. Garrison for again kindly providing unpublished spectral types for most of the stars too overexposed to classify on Michigan plates.

The Goddard Space Flight Center has been very helpful, distributing both tape and CD-ROM versions of Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, and Volume 4 of the Michigan Spectral Catalogue for us. Also Goddard's SkyView utility was very useful in identifing stars which were either on plates which had lost the matching Fullerton plots, or which were so closely spaced that identification from the plots was difficult.

We are also deeply grateful to Francois Ochsenbein and the Centre de Données Stellaires de Strasbourg for furnishing an extensive tape, which not only provided the more accurate values of right ascension and declination used in this catalogue, from the Proper Motion Catalogue, but also the CPD and SAO numbers and indication of the existence of the stars in several other catalogues, including an indication of all visual doubles. Also thanks to them for providing improved magnitudes for nearly all of the stars in this volume.

Many other people, too numerous to mention, have aided this project in various ways, and we thank everyone involved.

Finally we are especially grateful to the National Science Foundation for its continuing wholehearted support of this research, which has made the project possible. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 8913683 and 9422318. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

III. Spectral Classification

A. Standards

The similarity in resolution of our spectra to that of the original work by Morgan and Keenan [MKK] allowed us to classify on a system which is a good approximation to the MK system. We used MK standards when they were available and supplemented with others as necessary. (See Tables 1-3). Objective-prism classification differs from slit classification in that often the spectrum is not of optimum density. Almost all of our standards had from 4 to 8 widely varying exposures so a fairly good match could almost always be found with one of the 3 exposures we had of each program star. Because the appearance of the hydrogen wings varies strongly with exposure, Houk did not rely on memory but directly compared virtually all the B and A stars with one or more standards. Many stars of later type were similarly compared; it is estimated that nearly half of the classifications in the catalogue were made by direct comparison with standards. This procedure will also be followed in future volumes to avoid any drift in the system.

The primary standards are listed in Table 1 below. The MK standards were supplemented by types by Bidelman in order to get an adequate representation of supergiants. Table 2 lists 20 other stars used as standards for which plates already were available at Michigan or which were sought out in the course of the classification to fill gaps in the primary standard grid.

The vast majority of the standard spectra fit very well into a consistent scheme, but a few did not and these 5 are listed in Table 3. We do not suggest that other classifiers use the types we have assigned as these are based only on one plate. Others may well come to different conclusions. If we are wrong about these stars, then the early G dwarfs in the catalogue may be systematically slightly late since several standards are involved.

1Table 1 Primary Table of Standards
1

 1

1Name 1HR No.1HD No. 1Spectral Type 1Source1 1 1Name 1HR No.1HD No. 1Spectral Type 1Source1 1

1τ CMa 12782 157061 1O9 Ib 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 116 Sgr 16823 1167263 1O9 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 1ι Ori 11899 137043 1O9 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1— 1— 152266 1O9 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1— 16347 1154368 1O9.5 Iab 1B (1954) 1 1 1ζ Ori 11948 137742 1O9.5 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1δ Ori 11852 136486 1O9.5 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1σ Ori 11931 137468 1O9.5 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 11 1** 115 Sgr 16822 1167264 1B0 Ia 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1— 16219 1150898 1B0 Iab 1B (1954) 1 1** 1— 12479 148434 1B0 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1δ Sco 15953 1143275 1B0.3 IV [B0.5 IV] 1+ MK (1953) [H,G,S (1969)] 1 1 1τ Sco 16165 1149438 1B0 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1κ Ori 12004 138771 1B0 .5 Ia 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1— 16142 1148688 1B1 Ia 1B (1954) 1 1*1ρ Leo 14133 191316 1B1 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1*1σ Sco 16084 1147165 1B1 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1ω1 Sco 15993 1144470 1B1 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1χ2 Ori 12135 141117 1B2 Ia 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1ε CMa 12618 152089 1B2 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1π4 Ori 11552 130836 1B2 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1γ Peg 139 1886 1B2 IV 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 122 Sco 16141 1148605 1B2 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 13 Gem 12173 142087 1B2.5 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1σ Sgr 17121 1175191 1B2.5 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1o2 CMa 12653153138 1B3 Ia 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1— 13654 179186 1B3 Ia 1B (1954) 1 1** 1κ Cru 1— 1111973 1B3 Iab 1B (1954) 1 1 1ι Cma 12596151309 1B3 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1ν Ori 12159141753 1B3 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1— 16450 1157038/9 1B4 Ia 1B (1954) 1 1* 1η CMa 12827 158350 1B5 Ia 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1— 13456 174371 1B5 Iab 1B (1954) 1 1** 167 Oph 16714 1164353 1B5 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 1τ Ori 11735 134503 1B5 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1ι Aql 17447 1184930 1B5 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1κ Hya 13849 183754 1B5 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1ψ2 Aqr 18858 1219688 1B5 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1— 1— 1183143 1B7 Ia 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1— 13708 180558 1B7 Iab 1B (1954) 1 1** 1β Ori 11713 134085 1B8 Ia 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1γ CMa 12657 153244 1B8 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1 118 Tau 11144 123324 1B8 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1— 14338 196919 1B9 Ia 1B (1954) 1 1 1— 11804 135600 1B9 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1γ Lyr 17178 1176437 1B9 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1134 Tau 12010 138899 1B9 IV 1J+M (1953) 1 11 1** 1— 14169 192207 1A0 Ia 1B (1954) 1 1** 113 Mon 12385 146300 1A0 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 1γ Gem 12421 147105 1A0 IV 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1γ UMa 14554 1103287 1A0 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1— 14876 1111613 1A1 Ia 1B (1954) 1 1 1ι Ser 15842 1140159 1A1 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1β Ser A 15867 1141003 1A2 IV 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1β Eri 11666 133111 1A3 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1β Leo 14534 1102647 1A3 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1α PsA 18728 1216956 1A3 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1δ Leo 14357 197603 1A4 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1— 1825 117378 1A5 Ia 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1— 12874 159612 1A5 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 1o Sco 16081 1147084 1A5 II 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1— 13739 181471 1A7 Iab 1B (1954) 1 1** 1— 16144 1148743 1A7 Ib 1B (1951) 1 1 1θ2 Tau 11412 128319 1A7 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1 121 LMi 13974 187696 1A7 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1γ Her 16095 1147547 1A9 III 1J+M (1953) 1 11 1** 1— 14110 190772 1F0 Ia 1B (1954) 1 1 1α Lep 11865 136673 1F0 Ib 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1ζ Leo 14031 189025 1F0 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1µ Cet 1813 117094 1F0 IV 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1ρ Gem 12852 158946 1F1A9 [F0 V] 1G, unpubl. [J+M (1953)] 1 1** 189 Her 16685 1163506 1F2 Ia 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1— 13496 175276 1F2 Iab 1B (1954) 1 1** 1ν Agl 17387 1182835 1F2 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1ν Her 16707 1164136 1F2 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 114 Ari 1623 113174 1F2 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 1σ Boo 15447 1128167 1F2 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 146 Tau 11309 126690 1F3 IV/V [F3 V] 1M, unpubl. [J+M (1953)] 1 1** 1— 12957 161715 1F4 Iab 1B (1951) 1 1** 1— 1— 1172052 1F5 Ib 1B (1951) 1 1* 141 Cyg 17834 1195295 1F5 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 1β Del 17882 1196524 1F5 III 1B (1951) 1 1 145 Boo 15634 1134083 1F5 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1— 17308 1180583 1F6 II 1B (1951) 1 1 1— 16577 1160365 1F6 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1α Tri 1544 111443 1F6 IV 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1γ Ser 15933 1142860 1F6 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1ι Psc 18969 1222368 1F7 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1δ CMa 12693 154605 1F8 Ia 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1γ1 Nor 16058 1146143 1F8 Iab 1B (1954) 1 1** 111 Pup 13102 165228 1F8 II 1B (1951) 1 1 1υ Peg 18905 1220657 1F8 IV 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1β Vir 14540 1102870 1F9 V [F8 V] 1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1** 1— 14511 1101947 1G0 Ia 1B (1954) 1 1 1— 18752 1217476 1G5 var 0 [G0 Ia] 1MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1β Aqr 18232 1204867 1G0 Ib 1+ MK (1973) 1 1* 131 Com 14883 1111812 1G0 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1* 1η Boo 15235 1121370 1G0 IV 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1ε Leo 13873 184441 1G1 II [G0 II] 1MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1— 1— 127836 1G1 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1ζ Mon 13188 167594 1G2 Ib 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1Sun (Uranus) 1— 1— 1G2 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1ξ Pup 13045 163700 1G3 Ib 1B (1951) 1 1** 19 Peg 18313 1206859 1G5 Ib 1+ MK (1973) 1 1* 125 Gem 12453 147731 1G5 Ib 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 1ω Gem 12630 152497 1G5 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1— 11327 127022 1G4 III [G5 III] 1MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1µ Her 16623 1161797 1G5 IV 1MK (1973) 1 1** 1κ1 Cet 1996 120630 1G5 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1ε Gem 12473 148329 1G8 Ib 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1ζ Cyg 18115 1202109 1G8 II CN 1 [G8 II]1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1η Psc 1437 19270 1G8 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1κ Gem 12985 162345 1G8 IIIa [G8 III] 1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1β Aql 17602 1188512 1G8 IV 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1ξ Boo (A) 15544 1131156 1G8 V 1J+M (1953) 1 11 1** 112 Peg 18321 1207089 1K0 Ib 1MK (1973) 1 1 1θ1 Tau 11411 128307 1K0 III 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1δ Eri 11136 123249 1K0 IV 1J+M (1953) 1 1* 154 Psc 1166 13651 1K0 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1ζ Cep 18465 1210745 1K1.5 Ib 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1— 12334 145416 1K1 II 1J+M (1953) 1 1 11 Peg 18173 1203504 1K1 III 1MK (1973) 1 1 1γ Cep 18974 1222404 1K1 IV 1MK (1973) 1 1 1107 Psc 1493 110476 1K1 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1ε Peg 18308 1206778 1K2 Ib 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 156 Ori 12037 139400 1K1.5 IIb [K2 II] 1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1** 1σ Oph 16498 1157999 1K2 II [K3 II] 1+ MK (1973) [M,C,W (1955)] 1 1** 1β Oph 16603 1161096 1K2 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1α Ari 1617 112929 1K2 IIIab 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1α Ser 15854 1140573 1K2 V 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1— 16806 1166620 1K2 III CN 1.5 1J+M (1953) 1 1** 1o1 CMa 12580 150877 1K2.5 Iab [K3 Iab] 1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1η Per A 1834 117506 1K3-Ib-IIa [K3 Ib] 1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1θ Del 17892 1196725 1K3 Ib 1B (1951) 1 1* 1γ Aql 17525 1186791 1K2 II 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1π Her 16418 1156283 1K3 IIab 1+ MK (1973) 1 1* 1δ And 1165 13627 1K3 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1β Cnc 13249 169267 1K4 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1ξ Cyg 18079 1200905 1K4.5 Ib-II [K5 Ib]1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1α Tau 11457 129139 1K5 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1γ Dra 16705 1164058 1K5 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1— 1— 1154363 1K5 V 1J+M (1953) 1 11 1 1ν Gem 12905 160522 1M0 III 1MK (1973) 1 1 16 Gem 12197 142543 1M1-M2 Ia-Iab [M1 Ia] 1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1 1α Ori 12061 139801 1M1-M2 Ia-Ib [M2 Iab] 1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1** 1119=CE Tau 11845 136389 1M2 Iab-Ib [M2 Ib] 1+ MK (1973) [J+M (1953)] 1 1* 1— 1— 195735 1M2 V 1J+M (1953) 1 1 1µ Gem 12286 144478 1M3 IIIab 1+ MK (1973) 1 1 1η Gem 12216 142995 1M3 III 1MKK (1943) 1 1 145=RZ Ari 1867 118191 1M6 III 1+ MK (1973) 1 1** 1— 1— 1207076 1M7 III 1MK (1973) 1 11 1* 1in First Atlas only1 1** 1in Second Atlas1 11 1(A dagger(+) in front of this reference indicates that the spectral type has undergone re-examination by Morgan for self-consistency).1

1Table 2 Secondary Standards
1
 11Name 1HR No.1HD No.1Spectral Type1Source1
11—1—1936191B1 Iab1H+C (1975)1
11—123601457961B6 V1H,G,S (1969)1
11—138981853551B7 III1H,G,S (1969)1
11—1—11490191B9/A0 Iab1H+C (1975)1
11
11—142181935261A0 III1CCJJ (1969)1
11—139811878871A0 III1CCJJ (1969)1
11o Peg1864112149941A1 IV1CCJJ (1969)1
11—1—12692/31A3 Ia1H+C (1975)1
11τ Peg1888012200611A5 IV1H+C (1975)1
11σ2 Tau114791294881A5 V1CCJJ (1969)1
11
11—1—1967461G2 Iab1H+C (1975)1
11δ CrB1588911417141G5 III/IV1R (1952)1
11
11θ Psc1891612209541K1 III1R (1952)1
11—1—11844671K1 V1R (1955)1
11—17531161601K3 V1R (1955)1
11—1600511448891K4 III1R (1955)1
11—1763311892761K5 II/III1R (1952)1
11
11—1—179210/11M0 V + M0 V1R (1952)1
11—14278151291M2 III1R (1955)1
11—143331968131M4 III1H+C (1975)1
11


1

Table 3 Revised Standards1 11 1111Spectral1Standard11 1Name 1HR No.1HD No.1Type Used1Spec. Type1Source1 1* β Com 1498311147101G2 V1G0 V 1+MK (1973)1 1ζ Her 1621211506801G3 IV1G1 IV 1+MK (1973)1 1ξ Pup130451637001G3 Iab/Ib1G3 Ib1J-M (1953)1 185 Peg1908812249301G3/5 V1G2 V1M,H,J (1953)1 1 1 1 11G3 V 1R(1955)1 1π Leo139501866631M1 III 1M2 IIIab[M2 III] 1+MK (1973)1 11 1Sources1 11 1B(1951) 1Bidelman, W. P. 1951, Ap. J.,113,304.1 1B(1954) 1 Bidelman, W. P. 1954, Pub. A.S.P.,75,226.1 1CCJJ (1969) 1Cowley, A. P.,Cowley, C. R., Jaschek, M., and Jaschek, C. 1969, A. J.,74,375.1 1H+C (1975) 1Houk, N., and Cowley, A. P. 1975, University of Michigan Catalogue1 11of Two-Dimensional Spectral Types, for the HD Stars1 11(Astronomy Dept.,Univ. of Mich.,Ann Arbor, Michigan).1 1H,G,S(1969) 1 Hiltner, W. A., Garrison, R. F., and Schild, R. E. 1969, Ap. J.,157,313.1 1J+M(1953) 1 Johnson, H. L., and Morgan, W. W. 1953, Ap. J.,117,313.1 1M,C,W(1955) 1 Morgan, W. W., Code, A. D., Whitford, A. E. 1955, Ap. J. Suppl.,2,41.1 1M,H,J (1953)1Morgan, W. W., Harris, D. L., and Johnson, H. L., 1953, Ap. J.,118,92.1 1MK(1973) 1 Morgan, W. W., and Keenan, P. C. 1973,Ann Rev Astr and Ap.,11,29.1 1MKK (1943) 1 Morgan, W. W., Keenan, P. C. and Kellman, E. 1943, An Atlas of Stellar Spectra (University of Chicago Press)1 1R (1952)1Roman, N. G. 1952, Ap. J.,116,122.1 1R (1955)1Roman, N. G. 1955, Ap. J. Suppl.,2,195.1 11 1

B. Spectral Qualities and
Averaging

At the time each spectrum was classified it was assigned a quality ranging from 1 to 4. Quality 1 spectra are of near-optimum exposure and unoverlapped by other spectra. Quality 2 spectra may be slightly under or overexposed or slightly overlapped. An error analysis shows that quality 2 types are very nearly as accurate as quality 1's. Quality 3 spectra are usually quite overlapped or underexposed and quality 4 are worse, though still probably better than the HD type. About three quarters of the spectra have qualities of 1 or 2, and it is recommended that statistical studies be restricted to these stars when practicable. About 9% of the stars were classified independently on two or more plates. A total of 34,085 independent spectra were classified to yield the 30,235 spectral types by Houk in this catalogue. These multiple classifications for a single star were combined to produce a single spectral type, in most cases via a computer program. When a single classification was of quality 1 or 2, any quality 3 or 4 classifications were discarded and the quality 1 or 2 classification was used. These cases are not designated as averages in the catalogue. When more than one quality 1 or 2 classification was present, any quality 3 or 4 classifications were discarded and an average spectral type was formed from the quality 1 or 2 classifications. If only quality 3 or 4 classifications were available, they were averaged to form a single spectral type. To form the averages the temperature and luminosity types were converted to numerical codes. These codes were then combined in a weighted average and reconverted to normal spectral notation. Quality 1's were assigned weight 1.5 and quality 2's weight 1. Likewise, when no quality 1 or 2 classifications were available, quality 3's were assigned weight 1.5 and quality 4's weight 1. In the numerical codes the temperature types that are not used in the present classification system (Fl, F4, F9, G4, G7, G9, K6, K7, K8, and K9) were treated as non-existent. For example, the difference on the numerical scale between K5 and M0 is the same as that between M0 and Ml. The types O9.5, B0.5, and B9.5 were treated as half-temperature subtypes. Luminosity type Iab was also treated as a half type, but Ia and Ib were treated as full luminosity types. Cases in which one or more of the classifications to be averaged were peculiar could not be handled by the computer and were averaged by hand, sometimes after reexamining the spectra. Whenever the classification used in the catalogue is an average, the quality assigned it is the highest of the qualities used in forming the average and the quality is prefixed with an "A". The plate codes (see section IV) of all plates used to form the average are included in the catalogue.

C. Notation

A major deviation from normal notation in the catalogue is that hyphenated types (ex., B8-9 IV-V) were not used. The hyphen was avoided because it might be thought to imply a type intermediate between those given, whereas in this catalogue often one type is as likely as the other and the double type is an indication of uncertainty. Therefore we used the slash (B8/9 IV/V). In general, the slashed spectra of quality 1 and spectral type later than B are probably truly intermediate. Note that many of the slashes were the result of the averaging process.

The other major innovation has been in the notation for spectra of peculiar stars such as weak-line stars and strong or weak CN stars. These will be discussed in detail in part E below. The general idea is to indicate the degree of the peculianty by giving `normal' temperature or luminosity types determined from different lines, such as hydrogen line vs. metal line, or CN vs. Sr. With this scheme there is no need to introduce a verbal (strong, moderate, weak) or numerical scale which requires peculiar `standards' for its definition.

Uncertain types or uncertain parts of spectral types were enclosed in parentheses - ex., AO (V). The usual convention of denoting broad-lined stars with `n', very broad-lined stars with `nn', and sharp-lined stars with `s' was followed. Most of the broad or sharp-lined stars are of type B or A. In general the spectral notation is that traditionally used in MK classification.

D. Classification Criteria

Nearly all the temperature and luminosity criteria outlined by Morgan, Keenan, and Kellman [MKK] and Johnson and Morgan [JM] are applicable to our spectra, so the criteria will not be outlined again here. A few problem areas are discussed in part E. Almost all the spectral lines labeled in our Atlas [HIR] and Second Atlas [HN] are temperature and luminosity criteria. In addition to these and other MK criteria, the general appearance of the spectrum was an important factor in arriving at the final spectral type. Much of the classifier's previous experience had been with low-dispersion spectra where the overall appearance of the spectrum was of paramount interest. This approach was carried over into the present work as much as possible, and the unknown and standard spectra were considered as a whole in getting the best match.

E. Problems, Notation, and
Miscellaneous Comments

O Stars

There are 22 O stars in the catalogue. Many O stars occur in tight clusters where the overlap problems on objective prism plates are so bad that they preclude discovery or at least lower the quality of the type given. Because of such classification uncertainties Walborn's system [W] of designating Of stars was not used for the few found. However, since the lines in emission are listed in the remarks, such types may be estimated.

B Stars

There are about 3000 B stars. The main classification problem was luminosity separation of giants and dwarfs for the mid-B stars. Even for good quality spectra, the differences are subtle on our plates. For example, compare π Ori and κ Hya on the B5 sheet of the Atlas. An area which may have been somewhat inadequately covered is the problem of moderately He-rich or He-poor stars. Only fairly strong cases would have been noticed. B stars are not designated as `e' unless the emission is above continuum level. When a line is totally, partially, or possibly filled in, a remark is made to that effect. Finally, a matter of notation: although most peculiar Si stars are really of type B, all such peculiar stars were designated Ap stars. Any exceptionally early cases have remarks.

A Stars

There are about 5800 A stars including ~300 Am and Ap stars. The notation used for the Am stars (ex., A2mA5-F0) gives three types. The first gives the type indicated by the Ca K line strength. The second, and least accurate, gives the type indicated by the hydrogen lines. The problem here is that in Am stars the hydrogen wings are suppressed. Hence comparing with ordinary dwarf standards gives too late a type. The third type is that indicated by the metal strength. Am stars have giant-like metals, and giant standards were used to get this type. For the Ap stars the elements (ex., ApCrEuSr) are listed in order of the strengths of the lines. Ap stars of the HgMn type are not usually detected at the resolution used here.

F Stars

There are nearly 7300 F stars. Note that peculiar stars are all called `Ap' even though a few are as late as FO or F2. There are a very few unusually late metallic-line stars called Fm which have G bands but also have line strengths (strong Sr λ4077 and λ4150, λ4416 << λ4481) similar to Am stars. There is a larger intermediate group which is called `Fm δDel' since the characteristics are more similar to Am's than Ap's.

G Stars

There are about 6100 G stars. The following notation is used for weak-metal stars (ex., G5wFO): temperature type based on the H lines followed by a `w' and then the type based on the metal lines. Sometimes a luminosity type is also included. The difference between the two types indicates the degree of metal weakening. This notation breaks down in the case of extremely metal-weak or early stars where no metal type can be derived. For these the H-line type followed by a `w' is given in the catalogue accompanied by a remark in the back of the volume. Stars with no G-band or a very weak G-band are given no special designation but the type is followed by a `p' and a remark is included. A similar procedure is followed for stars with strong CH.

K Stars

There are about 7600 K stars including stars having noticeably weak or strong CN. In the catalogue the CN strength is indicated by a `pseudo-luminosity' as determined from the CN break and CN band strength (ex., K2 IIICNII and K1 IIICNIV). Stars which showed a strong Ba λ4554 line are designated with a `p' and `Ba' (ex., KOp Ba). These stars usually also have strong Sr and strong CN. In some cases C2 bands can be seen. The K spectra were often too faint at the blue end for the Sr λ4077/λ4063 ratio to be observed. In such cases the luminosity is determined from the CN and is parenthesized. No such spectrum is ever assigned a quality higher than 3.

M and C Stars

There are about 700 M stars and 20 C stars. C stars were not assigned subtypes.

Emission Stars and Other Miscellaneous Types

Stars which showed hydrogen lines in emission are designated with an `e'. A remark usually indicates what lines were seen in emission. Following the traditional practice, stars with Ca H + K but not hydrogen in emission are designated with a `p'. All of these stars have remarks indicating that Ca H + K are in emission.

Wolf-Rayet stars were classified `WN' or `WC'. No attempt was made to subdivide the Wolf-Rayet stars further.

The type `NEBULA' includes any spectrum, either emission or continuous, which looked extended rather than stellar. Thus it includes H II regions, planetary nebulae, and globular clusters. When the nebulae were identified on the tape provided by the Centre de Données Stellaires de Strasbourg, these identifications were included in the remarks.

IV. Description of Catalogue

Column:

  1. HD number
  2. Spectral type
  3. Average indicated
    Quality: 1 (best) to 4 (worst)
    Remarks code: V,B,L,R,D
  4. Photographic magnitude if not otherwise indicated
  5. α1900 from Centre de Données Stellaires de Strasbourg
  6. δ1900 from Centre de Données Stellaires de Strasbourg
  7. Δα= 100 yr. precession in α
  8. Δδ= 100 yr. precession in δ
  9. Galactic longitude (`l')
  10. Galactic latitude (`b')
  11. DM or CSI number
  12. SAO number
  13. Plate Codes

Further explanation of some columns in the catalogue:

Column 1. HD number. All stars in the Henry Draper Catalogue having δ1900 south of (and including) +5.00 and north of –12.00 are included, whether a new spectral type is available or not. It seemed unnecessary and unwise to introduce a consecutive running number since all the stars in these volumes will be HD stars. Note that due to an error in the HD Catalogue, HD numbers 91169 and 109005 represent the same star. It has been listed twice in the volume for the user's convenience.

Column 2. Spectral type. A dagger (+) in front of the type indicates it is taken from another source. For each such type there is a remark in the back of the volume. For an explanation of spectral notation please read section III above.

Column 3. If the spectral type is the average from two or more plates (see plate code column 13), then an A indicates this (see section III ). See section III B for a description of the quality, and Section V below for a description of the remark codes.

Column 4. Unless otherwise noted, the magnitude given is photographic, and was supplied by the Centre de Données Stellaires de Strasbourg. Other magnitudes are noted by V (Visual) or B (Blue). Magnitudes from the HD catalogue were only used if no other magnitude was available. ***** in the magnitude column indicates the star is a variable with an amplitude equal to or greater than 1.0 magnitude. All known variables are indicated by a 'V' in the remarks column, and for small amplitude variables the maximum magnitude, as given in the Variable Star Catalogue, is listed.

Column 5-8. The coordinates given are based on the Epoch 2000 coordinates supplied by Strasbourg, from the proper motion catalogue. Following tradition and to maintain consistency with previous volumes, we list the Epoch 1900 coordinates and the precession to 2000.

Column 11. The declination zone of Volume 5 is north of the dividing line between the CoD catalogue in the south and the BD(SD) catalogue in the north. Therefore these numbers are from the BD catalogue. For stars with out a DM number, the CSI number is listed (CSI - Catalogue of Stellar Indentification - maintained by Centre de Données Stellaires de Strasbourg). These numbers are indicated by a 'C' preceeding the number.

Column 13. Plate Code(s). Each plate has been assigned an identification code. By use of Table 4, knowing the plate code, the plate number and date the plate was taken can be obtained. These columns also serve to indicate the number of plates used in obtaining the average spectral type given. Plates whose codes start with 3 or 4 are the short-exposure plates of 3m + 1m or 4m + 1m exposure, respectively. Codes starting with 8 or 9 are 20m exposures at slightly different centers which are used only for stars not on the main plate.


1

Table 4 Plate List 1 1Plate1Plate 11Plate1Plate 11Plate1Plate 11 1Code1Number 1Date 1Code1Number 1Date1Code1Number 1Date1 11 1Plate1Plate1 1Plate1Plate11Plate1Plate1 1Code1Number 1Date1Code1Number 1Date 1Code1Number 1Date1 11 1 YE 11334 1Dec. 2/3 '67 1ZH 11323 1Dec. 1/2 '67 1ZL 11355 1Dec. 3/4 '67 1 1ZN 11325 1Dec. 1/2 '67 1ZO 11326 1Dec. 1/2 '67 1ZP 117304 1Dec. 12/13 '741 1ZQ 11327 1Dec. 1/2 '67 1ZR 11344 1Dec. 2/3 '67 1ZS 11328 1Dec. 1/2 '671 1ZT 11345 1Dec. 2/3 '67 1ZU 11346 1Dec. 2/3 '67 1ZV 11331 1Dec. 1/2 '671 1ZW 11347 1Dec. 2/3 '67 1ZX 11332 1Dec. 1/2 '67 1ZZ 11348 1Dec. 2/3 '671 1AAA 13563 1Jan. 16/17 '69 1AAB 115546 1Jan. 24/25 '74 1AAD 115547 1Jan. 24/25 '741 1AAE 117291 1Dec. 11/12 '74 1ABF 13565 1Jan. 16/17 '69 1ABG 13600 1Jan. 21/22 '691 1ABH 13615 1Jan. 22/23 '69 1ABI 120232 1Dec. 27/28 '76 1ABJ 121732 1June 1/2 '781 1ABM 17915 1Jan. 30/31 '71 1ABN 14759 1July 7/8 '69 1ABQ 14819 1July 15/16 '691 1ABR 17880 1Jan. 27/28 '71 1ABS 17881 1Jan. 27/28 '71 1ABT 14582 1June 15/16 '691 1ABU 18454 1Mar. 29/30 '71 1ABX 18455 1Mar. 29/30 '71 1ABY 16117 1Mar. 10/11 '701 1ACA 18456 1Mar. 29/30 '71 1ACB 18457 1Mar. 29/30 '71 1ACC 18458 1Mar. 29/30 '711 1ACH 14594 1June 16/17 '69 1ACI 14739 1July 5/6 '69 1ACN 116551 1Aug. 11/12 '741 1ACR 14740 1July 5/6 '69 1ACS 14596 1June 16/17 '69 1ACT 14597 1June 16/17 '69 1 1ACU 14574 1June 15/16 '69 1ACV 14595 1June 16/17 '69 1ADE 18428 1Mar. 26/27 '711 1ADL 16114 1Mar. 10/11 '70 1ADR 12505 1June 23/24 '68 1ADY 113522 1May 31/June 1 '731 1ADZ 12503 1June 23/24 '68 1AEC 12504 1June 23/24 '68 1AEE 116550 1Aug. 11/12 '741 1AEF 14579 1June 15/16 '69 1AEH 14580 1June 15/16 '69 1AEJ 14760 1July 7/8 '691 1AEK 14761 1July 7/8 '69 1AEN 14577 1June 15/16 '69 1AFD 14817 1July 15/16 '691 1AFH 14818 1July 15/16 '69 1AFI 14820 1July 15/16 '69 1AFJ 14821 1July 15/16 '691 1AFM 14762 1July 7/8 '69 1AFN 113567 1June 2/3 '73 1AFV 11329 1Dec 1/2 '671 1AFW 17253 1Aug. 28 '70 1AFX 17254 1Aug. 28 '70 1AFY 17276 1Aug. 30 '70 1 1AFZ 17256 1Aug. 28 '70 1AGA 17257 1Aug. 28 '70 1AGB 17258 1Aug. 28 '701 1AGC 11208 1Nov. 19/20 '67 1AGD 11209 1Nov. 19/20 '67 1AGE 11210 1Nov. 19/20 '671 1AGF 11315 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1AGG 11309 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1AGH 11308 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '671 1AGI 113569 1June 2/3 '73 1AGJ 117307 1Dec. 12/13 '74 1AGK 17255 1Aug. 28 '701 1AGL 11330 1Dec. 1/2 '67 1AGM 11300 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1AGN 11304 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1 1AGO 11305 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1AGP 11306 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1AGQ 11307 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '671 1AGR 11317 1Dec. 1/2 '67 1AGS 117309 1Dec. 12/13 '74 1AGT 11312 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '671 1AGU 11311 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1AGV 11301 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1AGW 11219 1Nov. 20/21 '671 1AGX 11220 1Nov. 20/21 '67 1AGY 11227 1Nov. 20/21 '67 1AGZ 11302 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '671 1AHA 11229 1Nov. 21/22 '67 1AHB 11303 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1AHC 19713 1Oct. 14/15 '711 1AHD 116790 1Aug. 17/18 '74 1AHE 116789 1Aug. 17/18 '74 1AHF 116792 1Aug. 17/18 '741 1AHG 117294 1Dec. 12/13 '74 1AHH 17914 1Jan. 30/31 '71 1AHI 17911 1Jan. 30/31 '711 1AHJ 117178 1Dec. 5/6 '74 1AHK 116793 1Aug. 17/18 '74 1AHL 116795 1Aug. 17/18 '741 1AHM 116796 1Aug. 17/18 '74 1AHN 19526 1Sept. 21/22 '71 1AHO 11310 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '67 1 1AHP 17272 1Aug. 29 '70 1AHQ 17273 1Aug. 29 '70 1AHR 11316 1Nov. 30/Dec. 1 '671 1AHS 13469 1Jan. 8/9 '69 1AHT 13493 1Jan. 11/12 '69 1AHU 13474 1Jan. 9/10 '691 1AHV 13470 1Jan. 8/9 '69 1AHW 19714 1Oct. 14/15 '71 1AHX 13475 1Jan. 9/10 '691 1AHY 13494 1Jan. 11/12 '69 1AHZ 13477 1Jan. 9/10 '69 1AIA 13476 1Jan. 9/10 '691 1AIB 13512 1Jan. 13/14 '69 1AIC 117265 1Dec. 11/12 '74 1AID 117292 1Dec. 11/12 '741 1AIE 117176 1Dec. 5/6 '74 1AIF 13478 1Jan. 9/10 '69 1AIG 117175 1Dec. 5/6 '741 1AIH 15867 1Feb. 4/5 '70 1AII 13616 1Jan. 22/23 '69 1AIJ 13561 1Jan. 16/17 '691 1AIK 15866 1Feb. 4/5 '70 1AIL 17910 1Jan. 30/31 '71 1AIM 17912 1Jan. 30/31 '711 1AIN 17894 1Jan. 28/29 '71 1AIO 16131 1Mar. 12/13 '70 1AIP 16132 1Mar. 12/13 '701 1AIQ 18314 1Mar. 20/21 '71 1AIR 18315 1Mar. 20/21 '71 1AIS 18316 1Mar. 20/21 '711 1AIT 18328 1Mar. 21/22 '71 1AIU 18329 1Mar. 21/22 '71 1AIV 18327 1Mar. 21/22 '711 1AIW 19715 1Oct. 14/15 '71 1AIX 19716 1Oct. 14/15 '71 1AIY 19527 1Sept. 21/22 '711 1AIZ 19566 1Sept. 23/24 '71 1AJA 16145 1Mar. 13/14 '70 1AJB 17284 1Aug. 30 '701 1AJC 17285 1Aug. 30 '70 1AJD 116852 1Aug. 25/26 '70 1AJE 17286 1Aug. 30 '701 1AJF 121734 1June 1/2 '70 1AJG 118239 1May 5/6 '75 1AJH 118240 1May 5/6 '75 1 1AJI 117180 1Dec. 5/6 '74 1AJJ 120224 1Dec. 22/23 '76 1AJK 115585 1Jan. 28/29 '741 1AJL 17916 1Jan. 30/31 '71 1AJM 16135 1Mar. 12/13 '70 1AJN 13545 1Jan. 15/16 '691 1AJO 13490 1Jan. 11/12 '69 1AJP 13508 1Jan. 13/14 '69 1AJQ 13509 1Jan. 13/14 '691 1AJR 13523 1Jan. 14/15 '69 1AJS 13510 1Jan. 13/14 '69 1AJT 16133 1Mar. 12/13 '701 1AJU 13511 1Jan. 13/14 '69 1AJV 13544 1Jan. 15/16 '69 1AJW 17895 1Jan. 28/29 '711 1AJX 16134 1Mar. 12/13 '70 1AJY 17897 1Jan. 28/29 '71 1AJZ 16124 1Mar. 11/12 '701 1AKA 13633 1Jan. 24/25 '69 1AKB 13489 1Jan. 11/12 '69 1AKC 13481 1Jan. 10/11 '691 1AKD 13612 1Jan. 22/23 '69 1AKE 13488 1Jan. 1/2 '69 1AKF 13482 1Jan. 10/11 '691 1AKG 18320 1Mar. 20/21 '71 1AKH 13471 1Jan. 8/9 '69 1AKI 13495 1Jan. 12/13 '691 1AKJ 16136 1Mar. 12/13 '70 1AKK 18170 1Mar. 1/2 '71 1AKL 18313 1Mar. 20/21 '711 1AKM 18152 1Feb. 28/Mar. 1 '71 1AKN 18149 1Feb. 28/Mar. 1 '71 1AKO 18148 1Feb. 28/Mar. 1 '711 1AKP 18169 1Mar. 1/2 '71 1AKQ 17920 1Jan. 30/31 '71 1AKR 18104 1Feb. 25/26 '711 1AKS 18171 1Mar. 1/2 '71 1AKT 18153 1Feb. 28/Mar. 1 '71 1AKU 118199 1May 4/5 '751 1AKV 13562 1Jan. 16/17 '69 1AKW 18154 1Feb. 28/Mar. 1 '71 1AKX 13487 1Jan. 11/12 '691 1AKY 16146 1Mar. 13/14 '70 1AKZ 14602 1June 16/17 '69 1ALA 16147 1Mar. 13/14 '701 1ALB 18150 1Feb. 28/Mar. 1 '71 1ALC 18151 1Feb. 28/Mar. 1 '71 1ALD 16137 1Mar. 12/13 '70 1 1ALE 16138 1Mar. 12/13 '70 1ALF 18337 1Mar. 21/22 '71 1ALG 118241 1May 5/6 '751 1ALH 120710 1June 14 '77 1ALI 113158 1April 25/26 '73 1ALJ 18136 1Feb. 27/28 '711 1ALK 14783 1July 14/15 '69 1ALL 16125 1Mar. 11/12 '70 1ALM 16126 1Mar. 11/12 '701 1ALN 14641 1June 18/19 '69 1ALO 116613 1Aug. 13/14 '74 1ALP 14752 1July 7/8 '691 1ALQ 14643 1June 18/19 '69 1ALR 14642 1June 18/19 '69 1ALS 14621 1June 17/18 '691 1ALT 116612 1Aug. 13/14 '74 1ALU 14622 1June 17/18 '69 1ALV 14598 1June 16/17 '691 1ALW 116771 1Aug. 17/18 '74 1ALX 14784 1July 14/15 '69 1ALY 14806 1July 15/16 '691 1ALZ 120685 1June 13/14 '77 1AMA 14807 1July 15/16 '69 1AMB 14808 1July 15/16 '691 1AMC 14785 1July 14/15 '69 1AMD 14809 1July 15/16 '69 1AME 14810 1July 15/16 '691 1AMF 14788 1July 14/15 '69 1AMG 116773 1Aug. 17/18 '74 1AMH 113571 1June 2/3 '731 1AMI 14794 1July 14/15 '69 1AMJ 14793 1July 14/15 '69 1AMK 120724 1July 14 '771 1AML 19737 1Oct. 15/16 '71 1AMM 19669 1Oct. 12/13 '71 1AMN 19668 1Oct. 12/13 '711 1AMO 19667 1Oct. 12/13 '71 1AMP 19738 1Oct. 15/16 '71 1AMQ 19717 1Oct. 14/15 '711 1AMR 19661 1Oct. 11/12 '71 1AMS 19567 1Sept. 23/24 '71 1AMT 117266 1Dec. 11/12 '741 1AMU 13520 1Jan. 14/15 '69 1AMV 117268 1Dec. 11/12 '74 1AMW 13517 1Jan. 14/15 '691 1AMX 18173 1Mar. 1/2 '71 1AMY 13543 1Jan. 15/16 '69 1AMZ 18317 1Mar. 20/21 '711 1ANA 113151 1April 25/26 '73 1ANB 13522 1Jan. 14/15 '69 1ANC 120231 1Dec. 27/28 '761 1AND 18331 1Mar. 21/22 '71 1ANE 117270 1Dec. 11/12 '74 1ANF 110889 1April 9/10 '721 1ANG 18330 1Mar. 21/22 '71 1ANH 18353 1Mar. 22/23 '71 1ANI 13521 1Jan. 14/15 '691 1ANJ 120211 1Dec. 20/21 '76 1ANK 13611 1Jan. 22/23 '69 1ANL 117345 1Dec. 14/15 '74 1 1ANM 18350 1Mar. 22/23 '71 1ANN 18351 1Mar. 22/23 '71 1ANO 18352 1Mar. 22/23 '711 1ANP 110988 1April 15/16 '72 1ANQ 110990 1April 15/16 '72 1ANR 13519 1Jan. 14/16 '691 1ANS 13498 1Jan. 12/13 '69 1ANT 13497 1Jan. 12/13 '69 1ANU 13518 1Jan. 14/15 '691 1ANV 13537 1Jan. 15/16 '69 1ANW 13496 1Jan. 12/13 '69 1ANX 14792 1July 14/15 '691 1ANY 18332 1Mar. 21/22 '71 1ANZ 14790 1July 14/15 '69 1AOA 14813 1July 15/16 '691 1AOB 117436 1Dec. 19/20 '74 1AOC 120210 1Dec. 20/21 '76 1AOD 110868 1April 8/9 '721 1AOE 14644 1June 18/19 '69 1AOF 118169 1May 3/4 '75 1AOG 14645 1June 18/19 '691 1AOH 14646 1June 18/19 '69 1AOI 14755 1July 7/8 '69 1AOJ 14647 1June 18/19 '691 1AOK 120688 1June 13 '77 1AOL 14603 1June 16/17 '69 1AOM 17252 1Aug. 28 '701 1AON 17275 1Aug. 30 '70 1AOO 18239 1Mar. 5/6 '71 1AOP 116718 1Aug. 16/17 '741 1AOQ 17279 1Aug. 30 '70 1AOR 14624 1June 17/18 '69 1AOS 116712 1Aug. 16/17 '741 1AOT 116727 1Aug. 16/17 '74 1AOU 17291 1Aug. 31 '70 1AOV 116767 1Aug. 17/18 '741 1AOW 17278 1Aug. 30 '70 1AOX 19653 1Oct. 11/12 '71 1AOY 19666 1Oct. 12/13 '711 1AOZ 19733 1Oct. 12/13 '71 1APA 14757 1July 7/8 '69 1APB 113591 1June 3/4 '731 1APC 17243 1Aug. 24 '70 1APD 113570 1June 2/3 '73 1APE 17290 1Aug. 31 '701 1APF 17292 1Aug. 31 '70 1APG 17293 1Aug. 31 '70 1APH 17277 1Aug. 30 '701 1API 19648 1Oct. 11/12 '71 1APJ 17280 1Aug. 30 '70 1APK 19664 1Oct. 12/13 '711 1APL 19665 1Oct. 12/13 '71 1APM 14625 1June 17/18 '69 1APN 14626 1June 17/18 '691 1APO 113547 1June 1/2 '73 1APP 116686 1Aug. 15/16 '74 1APQ 116688 1Aug. 15/16 '741 1APR 116690 1Aug. 15/16 '74 1APS 15015 1Aug. 12/13 '69 1APT 15016 1Aug. 12/13 '691 1APU 14811 1July 15/16 '69 1APV 14789 1July 14/15 '69 1APW 14812 1July 15/16 '691 1APX 113551 1June 1/2 '73 1APY 113552 1June 1/2 '73 1APZ 113572 1June 2/3 '731 1AQA 19776 1Oct. 20/21 '71 1AQB 19777 1Oct. 20/21 '71 1AQC 19778 1Oct. 20/21 '711 1AQD 19729 1Oct. 15/16 '71 1AQE 19730 1Oct. 15/16 '71 1AQF 19649 1Oct. 11/12 '711 1AQG 19650 1Oct. 11/12 '71 1AQH 19651 1Oct. 11/12 '71 1AQI 19652 1Oct. 11/12 '711 1AQJ 110893 1April 9/10 '72 1AQK 110895 1April 9/10 '72 1AQL 18251 1Mar. 6/7 '711 1AQM 18252 1Mar. 6/7 '71 1AQN 18253 1Mar. 6/7 '71 1AQO 113274 1May 5/6 '731 1AQP 113559 1June 2/3 '73 1AQQ 113560 1June 2/3 '73 1AQR 113561 1June 2/3 '73 1 1AQS 120690 1June 13 '77 1AQT 113562 1June 2/3 '73 1AQU 113563 1June 2/3 '731 1AQV 120742 1June 16 '77 1AQW 17251 1Aug. 28 '70 1AQX 120728 1June 14 '771 1AQY 118377 1May 15/16 '75 1AQZ 120747 1June 18 '77 1ARA 19800 1Oct. 21/22 '711 1ARB 19799 1June 13 '77 1ARC 113574 1June 2/3 '73 1ARD 113553 1June 1/2 '731 1ARE 120705 1June 13 '77 1ARF 113573 1June 2/3 '73 1ARG 113607 1June 3/4 '731 1ARH 120707 1June 13 '77 1ARI 110891 1April 9/10 '72 1ARJ 118242 1May 5/6 '751 1ARK 118243 1May 5/6 '75 1ARL 120694 1June 13 '77 1ARM 111038 1April 22/23 '721 1ARN 116715 1Aug. 16/17 '74 1ARO 120741 1June 16 '77 1ARP 17250 1Aug. 28 '701 1ARQ 19801 1Oct. 21/22 '71 1ARR 113608 1June 3/4 '73 1ARS 119958 1Aug. 27/28 '761 1ART 19731 1Oct. 15/16 '71 1ARU 19732 1Oct. 15/16 '71 1ARV 118200 1May 4/5 '751 1ARW 16148 1Mar. 13/14 '70 1ARX 120862 1Aug. 15 '77 1ARY 14623 1June 17/18 '691 1ARZ 17249 1Aug. 28 '70 1ASA 18155 1Feb. 28/Mar. 1 '71 1ASB 113550 1June 1/2 '731 1ASC 17244 1Aug. 24 '70 1ASE 19789 1Oct. 20/21 '71 13AJH 110688 1Mar. 19/20 '721 13ALB 110687 1Mar. 19/20 '72 13ALG 110691 1Mar. 19/20 '72 13ALI 110694 1Mar. 19/20 '721 13ANF 110890 1April 9/10 '72 13AOD 110869 1April 8/9 '72 14ZS 117157 1Dec. 4/5 '741 14ZT 117158 1Dec. 4/5 '74 14ZU 117159 1Dec. 4/5 '74 14ZV 117161 1Dec. 4/5 '741 14ZX 117162 1Dec. 4/5 '74 14ZZ 117163 1Dec. 4/5 '74 14AAB 112310 1Jan. 3/4 '731 14AAD 112312 1Jan. 3/4 '73 14ABG 115536 1Jan. 23/24 '74 14ABH 113167 1April 26/27 '731 14ABR 113174 1April 27/28 '73 14ABX 113177 1April 27/28 '73 14ABY 113171 1April 26/27 '731 14ACS 115741 1Feb. 15/16 '74 14ACU 115844 1Feb. 22/23 '74 14ADL 113168 1April 26/27 '731 14AFX 116653 1Aug. 14/15 '74 14AGE 116783 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14AGF 117192 1Dec. 5/6 '741 14AGH 117188 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AGL 112306 1Jan. 3/4 '73 14AGP 113966 1Oct. 3/4 '731 14AGS 112308 1Jan. 3/4 '73 14AGT 117191 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AGU 117165 1Dec. 4/5 '741 14AGW 116787 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14AGY 116755 1Aug. 16/17 '74 14AHA 113962 1Oct. 3/4 '731 14AHC 116781 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14AHD 116782 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14AHE 116788 1Aug. 17/18 '741 14AHF 116791 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14AHG 116847 1Aug. 25/26 '74 14AHH 115537 1Jan. 23/24 '741 14AHI 117195 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AHJ 117179 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AHK 116794 1Aug. 17/18 '741 14AHL 116797 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14AHM 113975 1Oct. 4/5 '73 14AHN 113976 1Oct. 4/5 '731 14AHP 113977 1Oct. 4/5 '73 14AHQ 117169 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AHR 115721 1Feb. 15/16 '741 14AHS 113987 1Oct. 6/7 '73 14AHT 117193 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AHU 113988 1Oct. 6/7 '731 14AHV 113989 1Oct. 6/7 '73 14AHW 116849 1Aug. 25/26 '74 14AHX 113991 1Oct. 6/7 '731 14AHY 117194 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AHZ 117172 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AIA 117171 1Dec. 5/6 '741 14AIB 117183 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AIC 116848 1Aug. 25/26 '74 14AID 115604 1Feb. 1/2 '741 14AIE 112303 1Jan. 3/4 '73 14AIF 117173 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AIG 117174 1Dec. 5/6 '741 14AIH 117182 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AII 115705 1Feb. 14/15 '74 14AIJ 115719 1Feb. 15/16 '741 14AIK 117234 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AIL 115846 1Feb. 23/24 '77 14AIM 115704 1Feb. 14/15 '741 14AIN 115515 1Jan. 21/22 '74 14AIO 113360 1May 21/22 '73 14AIP 113361 1May 21/22 '731 14AIQ 115852 1Feb. 23/24 '74 14AIR 115853 1Feb. 23/24 '74 14AIS 115711 1Feb. 14/15 '741 14AIU 115851 1Feb. 23/24 '74 14AIV 115849 1Feb. 23/24 '74 14AIW 116850 1Aug. 25/26 '741 14AIX 116851 1Aug. 25/26 '74 14AIZ 117220 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AJA 113264 1May 5/6 '731 14AJB 117225 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AJC 117226 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AJD 116853 1Aug. 25/26 '741 14AJE 117227 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AJF 126559 1Feb. 29/Mar. 1 '84 14AJG 115518 1Jan. 21/22 '741 14AJI 117181 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AJJ 117285 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14AJK 115519 1Jan. 21/22 '741 14AJL 115775 1Feb. 18/19 '74 14AJN 115720 1Feb. 15/16 '74 14AJO 117235 1Dec. 8/9 '741 14AJP 117236 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AJQ 117237 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AJR 117240 1Dec. 8/9 '741 14AJS 117238 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AJT 113362 1May 21/22 '73 14AJU 117239 1Dec. 8/9 '741 14AJV 117241 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AJW 115516 1Jan. 21/22 '74 14AJX 115517 1Jan. 21/22 '741 14AJY 113211 1May 2/3 '73 14AJZ 113212 1May 2/3 '73 14AKA 115848 1Feb. 23/24 '741 14AKB 117233 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AKC 117231 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AKD 115847 1Feb. 23/24 '741 14AKE 117230 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AKF 117232 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AKG 113263 1May 5/6 '731 14AKH 117170 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AKI 117228 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AKJ 113210 1May 2/3 '731 14AKK 115708 1Feb. 14/15 '74 14AKL 115706 1Feb. 14/15 '74 14AKM 115714 1Feb. 14/15 '741 14AKN 115710 1Feb. 14/15 '74 14AKO 115709 1Feb. 14/15 '74 14AKP 115707 1Feb. 14/15 '741 14AKQ 110689 1Mar. 19/20 '72 14AKR 126560 1Feb. 29/Mar. 1 '74 14AKT 113399 1May 24/25 '731 14AKU 110690 1Mar. 19/20 '72 14AKV 117186 1Dec. 5/6 '74 14AKW 113262 1May 5/6 '731 14AKX 117229 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AKY 113265 1May 5/6 '73 14AKZ 116713 1Aug. 16/17 '741 14ALA 113266 1May 5/6 '73 14ALB 115540 1Jan. 23/24 '74 14ALC 115713 1Feb. 14/15 '741 14ALD 113213 1May 2/3 '73 14ALE 113214 1May 2/3 '73 14ALF 113215 1May 2/3 '731 14ALJ 113455 1May 27/28 '73 14ALK 113456 1May 27/28 '73 14ALL 113216 1May 2/3 '731 14ALN 120776 1June 21 '77 14ALO 118326 1May 11/12 '75 14ALP 115808 1Feb. 20/21 '741 14ALQ 115809 1Feb. 20/21 '74 14ALS 115785 1Feb. 18/19 '74 14ALT 121778 1June 7/8 '781 14ALU 115810 1Feb. 20/21 '74 14ALW 116772 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14ALY 113270 1May 5/6 '731 14ALZ 113458 1May 27/28 '73 14AMA 113271 1May 5/6 '73 14AMC 113273 1May 5/6 '731 14AMF 120717 1June 14 '77 14AMG 116774 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14AMH 120752 1June 19 '771 14AMI 120703 1June 13 '77 14AML 117216 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AMN 117214 1Dec. 8/9 '741 14AMO 117213 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AMP 117217 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AMQ 117218 1Dec. 8/9 '741 14AMS 117222 1Dec. 8/9 '74 14AMU 117287 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14AMV 117269 1Dec. 11/12 '741 14AMW 117272 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14AMX 113401 1May 24/25 '73 14AMY 117290 1Dec. 11/12 '741 14AMZ 115731 1Feb. 15/16 '74 14ANB 117289 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14ANC 117325 1Dec. 13/14 '741 14AND 117374 1Dec. 16/17 '74 14ANE 117271 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14ANH 117372 1Dec. 16/17 '741 14ANI 117288 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14ANL 117368 1Dec. 16/17 '74 14ANM 117369 1Dec. 16/17 '741 14ANN 117370 1Dec. 16/17 '74 14ANO 117371 1Dec. 16/17 '74 14ANS 117277 1Dec. 11/12 '741 14ANT 117276 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14ANV 117273 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14ANY 117375 1Dec. 16/17 '741 14ANZ 120750 1June 19 '77 14AOA 120751 1June 19 '77 14AOB 113400 1May 24/25 '731 14AOC 117327 1Dec. 13/14 '74 14AOE 120714 1June 14 '77 14AOG 116759 1Aug. 17/18 '741 14AOL 116714 1Aug. 16/17 '74 14AOP 118323 1May 11/12 '75 14AOQ 116733 1Aug. 16/17 '741 14AOS 120693 1June 13 '77 14AOT 116768 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14AOY 117263 1Dec. 11/12 '741 14APB 116765 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14APC 116766 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14APD 120699 1June 13 '771 14APF 118704 1Aug. 31 '70 14APJ 116777 1Aug. 17/18 '74 14APK 116778 1Aug. 17/18 '741 14APN 116710 1Aug. 16/17 '74 14APO 118174 1Aug. 15/16 '74 14APS 116654 1Aug. 14/15 '741 14APT 116655 1Aug. 14/15 '74 14APU 120718 1June 14 '77 14APV 120748 1June 17 '77 1 14APY 118343 1May 11/12 '75 14APZ 118344 1May 11/12 '75 14AQA 120754 1June 19 '771 14AQB 120755 1June 19 '77 14AQD 118348 1May 11/12 '75 14AQG 118710 1Aug. 10/11 '751 14AQI 117262 1Dec. 11/12 '74 14AQQ 120782 1June 21 '77 14AQS 120691 1June 13 '771 14AQT 120784 1June 21 '77 14AQU 118229 1May 4/5 '95 14AQW 118322 1May 11/12 '751 14AQX 118376 1May 15/16 '75 14AQY 120729 1June 14 '77 14ARB 120032 1Oct. 22/23 '761 14ARC 113554 1June 1/2 '73 14ARD 120880 1Aug. 17 '77 14ARM 120865 1Aug. 17 '771 14ARN 118173 1May 3/4 '75 14ARV 113269 1May 5/6 '73 14ARW 113268 1May 5/6 '731 14ASA 113267 1May 5/6 '73 14ASB 120698 1June 13 '77 14ASC 118335 1May 11/12 '75 1 19ALV 14575 1June 15/16 '69 19ALZ 14751 1July 7/8 '69 19ARC 120726 1June 14 '771

V. Description of Remarks

Further information about 4906 stars is given at the back of the catalogue. To aid the user in deciding whether to consult the remarks of a particular star, the following notation is used in Column 3 of the catalogue:

B indicates that the remark contains the HR (from The Bright Star Catalogue) number and the Bayer or Flamsteed designations where applicable. (1164 stars)

L indicates that information from the astronomical literature is given. Remarks designated O (other) in previous Volumes are now included as L remarks. In most cases individual literature references are not given; references systematically searched are listed at the end of this section. Remarks were generally limited to those relevant to the spectral appearance, such as rotation, variablity, and duplicity, and generally have included only information about the star which might affect the spectral classification. However, for the first time proper motions of LHS stars are given. The entry `Emission Catalogue' refers to Wackerling's catalogue. (1121 stars)

R 846 of the stars in the remarks section have remarks of this type. All `R' remarks were written by NH in the course of the spectral classification and all are related in some way to the spectrum. The other remark types (i.e. V,D etc.) were not available to NH during classification. The symbols and notation are self-explanatory. We discuss some of the more frequent types of `R' remarks.

283 stars in the catalogue have composite spectra or possibly composite spectra and each of these has a remark so that it can be easily differentiated from known double stars which also sometimes have two types listed in the catalogue.

In 290 cases the fact that the star was visually double was deduced from the appearance of the spectrum. Most of these clearly showed early and late components. The rest were suspected to be double because they were fuzzy, double-lined, or closely overlapped. The following data were listed (taken from [IDS], prior to 1996; from 1996 on [WDS] was used): position angle p, angular distance d, and magnitudes of components. Sometimes a rough spectral type for the secondary component is also listed in the remarks, but often only a single type is listed in the catalogue, and it may actually be an average of the two components in some cases.

Remarks are made for all stars (~ 75) showing emission or filled-in lines, and the lines in emission are identified in the remark. For nebulae the lines in emission are often not listed.

The great majority of Am stars do not have remarks, but ~ 50 do. Similarly some 40 of the Ap stars have `R' remarks. For both Am and Ap stars these are mainly weak or questionable cases, and the spectral type listed in the catalogue may not indicate the possible metallic-line or peculiar nature of the star. Unusual and extremely strong cases are also included among the remarks.

About 20 of the `R' remarks pertain to fuzzy or closely overlapped spectra some of which are probably new visual doubles.

About 40 of the weak-metal stars have `R' remarks. In many cases the spectral type indicated by the G band is given to supplement the H-line and metallic-line types given in the catalogue. Slight or questionable and extreme cases are also noted.

Other smaller categories of `R' remarks include: substantial disagreements with the HD catalogue, mainly with respect to spectral types; possible Fm δ Del types; stars with strong CH - these are not indicated in the catalogue spectral types; star with weak CH, strong CN or weak CN.

D The Centre de Données Stellaires de Strasbourg provided a listing of visual double stars from the Index Catalogue of Double Stars (commonly referred to as the Lick Catalogue). Remarks beginning `undetected visual double' were included for doubles not discovered in the course of the spectral classification, the others having `R' remarks. `D' remarks were included for the 1904 doubles having a separation of < 30" and a Δ magnitude of < 4.0 mag, since for these the spectral appearance, and hence the assigned spectral type might be affected.

V All variables (337 stars) are indicated by a 'V' remark. Each has a remark in the back of the catalogue giving variable star designation, type of variablity, magnitude range and period, when these are known.

+ All spectral types in the catalogue taken from other sources are preceded by a dagger. Each such star has a remark giving the reason the star could not be classified on Michigan plates, and the source of the classification. Many are taken from the HD catalogue. Classifications of many bright stars were provided by R. F. Garrison, and are listed as `Garrison types'. W. Warren provided types for stars that were overlapped on our plates, where available. These are listed as `Warren types', and are followed by a number which indicates which references were used by Warren to obtain the type. Please see the references section. All stars that did not have a Garrison or Warren type were researched using the SIMBAD utility of the Centre de Données Stellaires de Strasbourg. Those stars with MK types on SIMBAD are listed as `SIMBAD types'.

References

References for the preface:

  • [CP] Cannon, A. J. and Pickering, E. C. 1918-24, `The Henry Draper Catalogue', Harvard Annals, 91-99 (See Cat. III/135)

  • [HC] Houk, N. and Cowley, A. 1973, Spectral Classification and Multicolour Photometry, ed. Ch. Fehrenbach and B.E. Westerlund, (Dordrecht-Holland: Reidel Publishing Company), 70

  • [HIR] Houk, N., Irvine, N. J., and Rosenbush, D. 1974, An Atlas of Objective-Prism Spectra, (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan)

  • [HN] Houk, N. and Newberry, M. V. 1984, A Second Atlas of Objective-Prism Spectra, (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan)

  • [VOL1] Houk, N. and Cowley, A. 1975, University of Michigan Catalogue of Two-Dimensional Spectral Types for the HD Stars, Volume 1, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan) (See Cat. III/31)

  • [VOL2] Houk, N. 1978, Michigan Catalogue of Two-Dimensional Spectral Types for the HD Stars, Volume 2, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan) (See Cat. III/51)

  • [VOL3] Houk, N. 1982, Michigan Catalogue of Two-Dimensional Spectral Types for the HD Stars, Volume 3, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan) (See Cat. III/80)

  • [VOL4] Houk, N. and Smith-Moore, M. 1988, Michigan Catalogue of Two-Dimensional Spectral Types for the HD Stars, Volume 4, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan) (See Cat. III/133)

  • [JM] Johnson, H. L. and Morgan, W. W. 1953, Ap. J., 117, 313 (1953ApJ...117..313J)

  • [MKK] Morgan, W. W., Keenan, P. C., and Kellman, E. 1943, An Atlas of Stellar Spectra, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press)

  • [MK] Morgan, W. W. and Keenan, P. C. 1973, Ann Rev Astr and Ap., 11, 29 (1973ARA&A..11...29M)

  • [W] Walborn, N. R. 1971, Ap. J. Suppl., 23, 257 (1971ApJS...23..257W)

References for the Remarks:

G = general reference for the Catalogue
L = reference for L remarks
V = reference for V remarks
B = reference for B remarks
D = reference for D remarks
+ = reference for + remarks
W = reference for Warren types
S = reference for SIMBAD types

  • [L] Bidelman, W. P. 1954, `Catalogue and Bibliography of Emission-Line Stars of Types Later than B', Ap. J. Suppl., 1, 175

  • [+LG] Cannon, A. J. and Pickering, E. C. 1918-24, `The Henry Draper Catalogue', Harvard Annals, 91-99 (See Cat. III/133)

  • [B] Hoffleit, D. 1982, Catalogue of Bright Stars, 4th ed., (New Haven: Yale University Observatory)
  • [IDS D ] Jeffers, H. M., van den Bos, W. H., and Greeby, F. M. 1961, Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, (Mount Hamilton: University of California) (See Cat. I/237)

  • [V] Sumus, N. N., ed., 1990, General Catalogue of Variable Stars, 4th ed., (Moscow: Sternberg State Astronomical Institute) (See Cat. II/214)

  • [G] NASA Skyview http://skyview.gsfc.nasa.gov

  • [L] Luyten, W. J. 1955, A Catalogue of 1849 Stars with Proper Motions Exceeding 0''.5 Annually (LHS), Lund Press (Cat. I/87)

  • [+GS] SIMBAD http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Simbad.html/

  • [L] Uesugi, A. and Fukuda, I. 1970, A Catalog of Rotational Velocities of the Stars, Contr. Inst. Ap. and Kwasan Obs., Kyoto, No.189 (Cat. III/63)

  • [L] Wackerling, L. R. 1970, `Catalogue of Early-Type Stars Whose Spectra Have Shown Emission Lines', Mem. R.A.S., 73, 153 (Cat. III/17)
  • [WDS D] Worley, C. E. and Douglass, G. G. 1997, A.& A. Suppl., 125, 523 (Cat. I/237)

  • [+ W 2] McCuskey 1949, Ap. J., 109 426 (1949ApJ...109..426M)
  • [+ W 4] Wenzel 1951, Veroeffent. Sonnenberg, 5, 1 (1951VeSon...5....1W)
  • [+ W 5] Sharpless 1952, Ap. J., 116, 251 (1952ApJ...116..251S)
  • [+ W 12] Hiltner and Iriarte 1955, Ap. J., 122, 185 (1955ApJ...122..185H)
  • [+ W 13] Morgan, Code, and Whitford 1955, Ap. J. Supp., 2, 41 (1955ApJS....2...41M)
  • [+ W 14] Johnson H.L. and Hiltner 1956, Ap. J., 123, 267 (1956ApJ...123..267J)
  • [+ W 16] van P. Smith 1956, Ap. J., 124, 43 (1956ApJ...124...43V)
  • [+ W 19] Hiltner 1956, Ap. J. Supp., 2, 389 (1956ApJS....2..389H)
  • [+ W 21] Strand 1958, Ap. J., 128, 14 (1958ApJ...128...14S)
  • [+ W 22] Kukarkin, et al. 1958, GCVS, 2nd edition
  • [+ W 25] Hoag and Smith 1959, PASP, 71, 32 (1959PASP...71...32H)
  • [+ W 26] Borgman 1960, BAN, 15, 255 (1960BAN....15..255B)
  • [+ W 31] Buscombe 1962, Mt Stromlo Mim, 4 (1962MtSOM...4....1B)
  • [+ W 33] Shiukashvili 1968, Abastumani Bull., 38, 153 (1968AbaOB..38..153S)
  • [+ W 34] Lesh 1968, Ap. J. Supp., 17, 371 (1968ApJS...17..371L)
  • [+ W 35] Guetter 1968, PASP, 80, 197 (1968PASP...80..197G)
  • [+ W 36] Murphy 1969, A. J., 74, 1082 (1969AJ.....74.1082M)
  • [+ W 37] McClure 1970, A. J., 75, 41 (1970AJ.....75...41M)
  • [+ W 41] Walborn 1972, A. J., 77, 312 (1972AJ.....77..312W)
  • [+ W 42] Smith 1972, Ap.J., 175, 765 (1972ApJ...175..765S)
  • [+ W 43] Chuadze 1973, Abastumani Bull., 44, 105 (1973AbaOB..44..105C)
  • [+ W 48] Blaauw, et al. 1976, A.&A.S., 23, 393 (1976A&AS...23..393B)


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