J/A+A/538/A36       Lithium abundances along the RGB        (Lebzelter+, 2012)
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Beginning of ReadMe : J/A+A/538/A36 Lithium abundances of bulge RGB stars (Lebzelter+, 2012) ================================================================================ Lithium abundances along the RGB: FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra of a large sample of low-mass bulge stars. Lebzelter T., Uttenthaler S., Busso M., Schultheis M., Aringer B. <Astron. Astrophys. 538, A36 (2012)> =2012A&A...538A..36L ================================================================================ ADC_Keywords: Stars, late-type ; Abundances ; Photometry, infrared ; Radial velocities Keywords: stars: late-type - stars: evolution - stars: abundances Abstract: A small number of K-type giants on the red giant branch (RGB) is known to be very rich in lithium (Li). This fact is not accounted for by standard stellar evolution theory. The exact phase and mechanism of Li enrichment is still a matter of debate. Our goal is to probe the abundance of Li along the RGB, from its base to the tip, to confine Li-rich phases that are supposed to occur on the RGB. For this end, we obtained medium-resolution spectra with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT in GIRAFFE mode for a large sample of 401 low-mass RGB stars located in the Galactic bulge. The Li abundance was measured in the stars with a detectable Li 670.8 nm line by means of spectral synthesis with COMARCS model atmospheres. A new 2MASS J-K-Teff calibration from COMARCS models is presented in the Appendix. Thirty-one stars with a detectable Li line were identified, three of which are Li-rich according to the usual criterion (logepsilon_Li_>1.5). The stars are distributed all along the RGB, not concentrated in any particular phase of the red giant evolution (e.g. the luminosity bump or the red clump). The three Li-rich stars are clearly brighter than the luminosity bump and red clump, and do not show any signs of enhanced mass loss. We conclude that the Li enrichment mechanism cannot be restricted to a clearly defined phase of the RGB evolution of low-mass stars (M 1M_sun_), contrary to earlier suggestions from disk field stars. Description: The table presents the coordinates (J2000) and J-, H-, and K-band magnitudes from the 2MASS catalogue, the radial velocities measured from the spectra, their estimated temperature and surface gravity log g, general metal and lithium abundances for the Li-detected stars, as well as a flag for foreground star candidates. The foreground star candidates were selected by their proper motion in the SPM4 catalogue. All stars are located in a 25 arcmin diameter field centred on the Galactic coordinates (l,b)=(0,-10).