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J/MNRAS/414/940     ATLAS3D project. IV.                     (Young+, 2011)

The ATLAS3D project. IV. The molecular gas content of early-type galaxies. Young L.M., Bureau M., Davis T.A., Combes F., McDermid R.M., Alatalo K., Blitz L., Bois M., Bournaud F., Cappellari M., Davies R.L., de Zeeuw P.T., Emsellem E., Khochfar S., Krajnovic D., Kuntschner H., Lablanche P.-Y., Morganti R., Naab T., Oosterloo T., Sarzi M., Scott N., Serra P., Weijmans A.-M. <Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414, 940 (2011)> =2011MNRAS.414..940Y
ADC_Keywords: Surveys ; Galaxy catalogs ; Spectroscopy ; Carbon monoxide Keywords: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: ISM - galaxies: structure - radio lines: galaxies Abstract: We have carried out a survey for CO J=1-0 and J=2-1 emission in the 260 early-type galaxies of the volume-limited ATLAS3D sample, with the goal of connecting their star formation and assembly histories to their cold gas content. This is the largest volume-limited CO survey of its kind and is the first to include many Virgo cluster members. Sample members are dynamically hot galaxies with a median stellar mass ∼3x1010M; they are selected by their morphology rather than colour, and the bulk of them lie on the red sequence. The overall CO detection rate is 56/259=0.22±0.03, with no dependence on the K luminosity and only a modest dependence on the dynamical mass. There are a dozen CO detections among the Virgo cluster members; statistical analysis of their H2 mass distributions and their dynamical status within the cluster shows that the cluster's influence on their molecular masses is subtle at best, even though (unlike spirals) they seem to be virialized within the cluster. We suggest that the cluster members have retained their molecular gas through several Gyr residences in the cluster. Description: The IRAM 30-m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain, was used for simultaneous observations of the 12CO(1-0) and (2-1) emission during 2007 July, 2008 March and 2008 November. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 88 272 CO intensities and H2 masses table2.dat 102 55 Fitted properties of detected lines
See also: J/MNRAS/413/813 : ATLAS3D project. I. (Cappellari+, 2011) J/MNRAS/414/888 : ATLAS3D project. III. (Emsellem+, 2011) J/MNRAS/416/1680 : ATLAS3D project. VII (Cappellari+, 2011) J/MNRAS/433/2812 : ATLAS3D project. XXIII (Krajnovic+, 2013) J/MNRAS/446/120 : ATLAS3D project. XXIX (Duc+, 2015) J/MNRAS/448/3484 : ATLAS3D Project. XXX (McDermid+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- n_Gal [O] O: Observed, but not member of the ATLAS3D sample 3- 12 A10 --- Gal Galaxy name 14- 17 F4.2 mK rms(1-0) ?=- rms noise level at CO(1-0) (1) 19- 23 F5.2 mK rms(2-1) ?=- rms noise level at CO(2-1) (1) 25- 30 F6.1 km/s Vel1 ?=- Velocity range (2) 32- 37 F6.1 km/s Vel2 ?=- Velocity range (2) 39- 44 F6.3 I(1-0) ?=- Intregrated intensity at CO(1-0), quoted as main beam brightness temperature Tmb 46- 50 F5.3 e_I(1-0) ?=- rms uncertainty on I(1-0) 52- 58 F7.3 I(2-1) ?=- Intregrated intensity at CO(2-1), quoted as main beam brightness temperature Tmb 60- 64 F5.3 e_I(2-1) ?=- rms uncertainty on I(2-1) 66 A1 --- l_Ratio Limit flag on Ratio (3) 67- 70 F4.2 --- Ratio ?=- Intensity ratio CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) 72- 75 F4.2 --- e_Ratio ?=- rms uncertainty on Ratio 77 I1 --- Ref Data source (5) 79 A1 --- l_logMH2 Limit flag on logMH2 (3σ limit) 80- 83 F4.2 [Msun] logMH2 H_2_ mass (4) 85- 88 F4.2 [Msun] e_logMH2 ? rms uncertainty on logMH2
Note (1): The rms noise values are for channels binned to 31km/s. Note (2): The velocity range is either 300km/s (for non-detections) or the actual range used in the sums (for detections). Note (3): Where the line ratio is a limit, it is computed using the 3σ upper limit on the undetected line. Note (4): H2 masses assume the distances listed in Paper I (Cappellari et al., 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/413/813). For galaxies taken from the literature, we give only the H2 mass corrected to our assumed distance and other quantities may be found in the original sources. Note (5): Data sources as follows: 1 = this paper 2 = Combes et al. (2007MNRAS.377.1795C) 3 = Welch & Sage (2003ApJ...584..260W) 4 = Sage et al. (2007ApJ...657..232S) 5 = Wiklind et al. (1995A&A...297..643W) 6 = Young (2002AJ....124..788Y) 7 = Welch et al. (2010ApJ...725..100W)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- n_Gal [O] O: Observed, but not members of the ATLAS3D sample 3- 12 A10 --- Gal Galaxy name 14- 18 F5.2 I(1-0) ?=- Line area in CO(1-0) 20- 23 F4.2 e_I(1-0) ?=- rms uncertainty on I(1-0) 25- 29 F5.2 I(2-1) ?=- Line area in CO(2-1) 31- 34 F4.2 e_I(2-1) ?=- rms uncertainty on I(2-1) 36- 41 F6.1 km/s V(1-0) ?=- Central velocity in CO(1-0) 43- 46 F4.1 km/s e_V(1-0) ?=- rms uncertainty on V(1-0) 48- 53 F6.1 km/s V(2-1) ?=- Central velocity in CO(2-1) 55- 58 F4.1 km/s e_V(2-1) ?=- rms uncertainty on V(2-1) 60- 64 F5.1 km/s DV(1-0) ?=- FWHM in CO(1-0) 66- 69 F4.1 km/s e_DV(1-0) ?=- rms uncertainty on DV(1-0) 71- 75 F5.1 km/s DV(2-1) ?=- FWHM in CO(2-1) 77- 80 F4.1 km/s e_DV(2-1) ?=- rms uncertainty on DV(2-1) 82- 86 F5.1 mK Tmb(1-0) ?=- Peak brightness temperature in CO(1-0) 88- 92 F5.1 mK Tmb(2-1) ?=- Peak brightness temperature in CO(2-1) 94-102 A9 --- Com Comments (1)
Note (1): Comments as follows: a = line profile is notably asymmetric a* = line is sufficiently asymmetric that the peak brightness temperature (and area, systemic velocity and width for NGC 3665 in 2-1) has been measured directly off the profile rather than with a fit. 2h = double-horned line profile 2h? = possibly double-horned line profile Notes on specific galaxies: * NGC 1266: the 1-0 line is, formally speaking, adequately fitted with one Gaussian component but the 2-1 line has broad, low-level wings which require two Gaussian components of the same centre and different widths * NGC 6014: the line profile is neither a double horn nor a Gaussian, but the central dip suggests a ringlike CO distribution * NGC 4281, 5638 and 7454: the spectrum shows hints of two peaks. The peaks were fitted independently and both velocities are listed. Formally, the Gaussian fit detects each of these with an integrated area greater than 3σ, but as there is no emission within 300km/s of the optical velocity it is a non-detection in Table 1 and it is NOT counted as a detection in the rest of the analysis. * NGC 4643 is formally detected via the integrated intensity in the central 300km/s of the 2-1 spectrum and its line is also suggestive of two peaks. As for NGC 4281, the two velocities listed are those of the two peaks (rather than the systemic velocity that one would infer from assuming that those are double horned).
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Cappellari et al., Paper I 2011MNRAS.413..813C, Cat. J/MNRAS/413/813 Krajnovic et al., Paper II 2011MNRAS.414.2923K Emsellem et al., Paper III 2011MNRAS.414..888E, Cat. J/MNRAS/414/888 Davis et al., Paper V 2011MNRAS.414..968D Bois et al., Paper VI 2011MNRAS.416.1654B Cappellari et al., Paper VII 2011MNRAS.416.1680C, Cat. J/MNRAS/416/1680 Khochfar et al., Paper VIII 2011MNRAS.417..845K Duc et al., Paper IX 2011MNRAS.417..863D Davis et al., Paper X 2011MNRAS.417..882D Crocker et al., Paper XI 2012MNRAS.421.1298C Lablanche et al., Paper XII 2012MNRAS.424.1495L Serra et al., Paper XIII 2012MNRAS.422.1835S Krajnovic et al., Paper XIV 2013MNRAS.432.1768K Cappellari et al., Paper XV 2013MNRAS.432.1709C Bayet et al., Paper XVI 2013MNRAS.432.1742B Krajnovic et al., Paper XVII 2013MNRAS.432.1768K Alatalo et al., Paper XVIII 2013MNRAS.432.1796A Sarzi et al., Paper XIX 2013MNRAS.432.1845S Cappellari et al., Paper XX 2013MNRAS.432.1862C Scott et al., Paper XXI 2013MNRAS.432.1894S Martig et al., Paper XXII 2013MNRAS.432.1914M Krajnovic et al., Paper XXIII 2013MNRAS.433.2812K, Cat. J/MNRAS/433/2812 Davis et al., Paper XXIV 2013MNRAS.429..534D Cappellari et al., Paper XXV 2013MNRAS.432.1709C Bayet et al., Paper XXVI 2013MNRAS.432.1742B Krajnovic et al., Paper XXVII 2013MNRAS.432.1768K Alatalo et al., Paper XXVIII 2013MNRAS.432.1796A Duc et al., Paper XXIX 2015MNRAS.446..120D McDermid et al., Paper XXX 2015MNRAS.448.3484M, Cat. J/MNRAS/448/3484
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 23-Jan-2012
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