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J/ApJS/229/28      SFiNCs: X-ray & IR catalogs & membership      (Getman+, 2017)

Star Formation in Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs): X-ray and infrared source catalogs and membership. Getman K.V., Broos P.S., Kuhn M.A., Feigelson E.D., Richert A.J.W., Ota Y., Bate M.R., Garmire G.P. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 229, 28-28 (2017)> =2017ApJS..229...28G (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: X-ray sources ; Photometry, infrared ; YSOs ; H II regions ; Cross identifications Keywords: infrared: stars; open clusters and associations: general; stars: early-type; stars: formation; stars: pre-main sequence; X-rays: stars Abstract: The Star Formation in Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs) project is aimed at providing a detailed study of the young stellar populations and of star cluster formation in the nearby 22 star-forming regions (SFRs) for comparison with our earlier MYStIX survey of richer, more distant clusters. As a foundation for the SFiNCs science studies, here, homogeneous data analyses of the Chandra X-ray and Spitzer mid-infrared archival SFiNCs data are described, and the resulting catalogs of over 15300 X-ray and over 1630000 mid-infrared point sources are presented. On the basis of their X-ray/infrared properties and spatial distributions, nearly 8500 point sources have been identified as probable young stellar members of the SFiNCs regions. Compared to the existing X-ray/mid-infrared publications, the SFiNCs member list increases the census of YSO members by 6%-200% for individual SFRs and by 40% for the merged sample of all 22 SFiNCs SFRs. Description: Sixty five X-ray observations for the 22 Star Formation in Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs) star-forming regions (SFRs) (see tables 1 and 2), made with the imaging array on the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), were pulled from the Chandra archive (spanning 2000 Jan to 2015 Apr; see table 2). Our final Chandra-ACIS catalog for the 22 SFiNCs SFRs comprises 15364 X-ray sources (Tables 3 and 4 and section 3.2). To obtain MIR photometry for X-ray objects and to identify and measure MIR photometry for additional non-Chandra disky stars that were missed in previous studies of the SFiNCs regions (typically faint YSOs), we have reduced the archived Spitzer-IRAC data by homogeneously applying the MYStIX-based Spitzer-IRAC data reduction methods of Kuhn+ (2013, J/ApJS/209/29) to the 423 Astronomical Object Request (AORs) data sets for the 22 SFiNCs SFRs (Table 5). As in MYStIX, here the SFiNCs IRAC source catalog retains all point sources with the photometric signal-to-noise ratio >5 in both [3.6] and [4.5] channels. This catalog covers the 22 SFiNCs SFRs and their vicinities on the sky and comprises 1638654 IRAC sources with available photometric measurements for 100%, 100%, 29%, and 23% of these sources in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um bands, respectively (see table 6 and section 3.4). Source position cross correlations between the SFiNCs Chandra X-ray source catalog and an IR catalog, either the "cut-out" IRAC or 2MASS, were made using the steps described in section 3.5. Tables 7 and 8 provide the list of 8492 SFINCs probable cluster members (SPCMs) and their main IR and X-ray properties (see section 4). File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 99 22 Star Formation in Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs) star-forming regions table2.dat 99 65 Log of SFiNCs Chandra-ACIS observations table3.dat 125 15364 SFiNCs X-ray sources and basic properties table4.dat 138 15364 SFiNCs X-ray fluxes table5.dat 136 437 Log of SFiNCs Spitzer-IRAC observations table6.dat 123 1638654 SFiNCs IRAC sources and photometry table7.dat 176 8492 SFiNCs probable cluster members: IR photometry table8.dat 262 8492 SFiNCs probable cluster members: main X-ray and other properties refs.dat 69 38 Literature references to the previous Spitzer and Chandra studies of the region
See also: B/chandra : The Chandra Archive Log (CXC, 1999-2014) IX/45 : The Chandra Source Catalog, Release 1.1 (Evans+ 2012) J/ApJ/833/193 : MYStIX candidate protostars (Romine+, 2016) J/ApJ/827/52 : Census of YSOs in IC 348 and NGC 1333 (Luhman+, 2016) J/A+A/593/A7 : NH and AV Towards YSOs in the ONC (Hasenberger+, 2016) J/ApJS/220/11 : SEDs of Spitzer YSOs in the Gould Belt (Dunham+, 2015) J/ApJ/802/60 : Structure of young stellar clusters. II. (Kuhn+, 2015) J/ApJS/213/1 : The MSFRs Omnibus X-ray Catalog (MOXC) (Townsley+, 2014) J/ApJ/787/107 : Spatial structure of young stellar clusters. I. (Kuhn+, 2014) J/ApJS/209/32 : Probable young stars in the MYStIX project (Broos+, 2013) J/ApJS/209/31 : The MYStIX IR-Excess Source catalog (MIRES) (Povich+, 2013) J/ApJS/209/29 : MYStIX: Mid-IR observations and catalogs (Kuhn+, 2013) J/ApJS/209/27 : MYStIX: the Chandra X-ray sources (Kuhn+, 2013) J/A+A/537/A135 : X-ray view of IC348 (Stelzer+, 2012) J/ApJ/750/125 : Spitzer imaging of Cepheus OB3b cluster (Allen+, 2012) J/AJ/144/192 : Spitzer survey of Orion A & B. I. YSO catalog (Megeath+, 2012) J/AJ/144/101 : Multiwavelength data of IRAS 20050+2720 (Guenther+, 2012) J/ApJS/194/2 : Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP) catalog (Broos+, 2011) J/AJ/140/266 : NGC 1333 X-ray luminous YSOs properties (Winston+, 2010) J/ApJ/715/671 : X-ray and IR emission from YSOs (Wolk+, 2010) J/ApJ/708/1760 : Flux estimations of faint X-ray sources (Getman+, 2010) J/ApJ/694/425 : A Chandra X-ray observation of L1251B (Simon, 2009) J/ApJS/184/18 : Spitzer survey of young stellar clusters (Gutermuth+, 2009) J/MNRAS/383/1241 : UBVIc photometry of cluster Berkeley 59 (Pandey+, 2008) J/ApJ/669/493 : Spitzer/Chandra YSOs in Serpens cloud core (Winston+, 2007) J/ApJ/660/1462 : Abundances of ONC X-ray PMS stars (Maggio+, 2007) J/A+A/472/835 : JHKs and GLIMPSE photometry of RCW 120 (Zavagno+, 2007) J/A+A/463/275 : Chandra obs. of Serpens star-forming region (Giardino+, 2007) J/ApJ/638/897 : IR photom. in Trumpler 37 & NGC 7160 (Sicilia-Aguilar+, 2006) J/ApJS/163/306 : Chandra study of the Cep B star-forming region (Getman+, 2006) J/ApJS/160/319 : COUP: observations and source lists (Getman+, 2005) J/AJ/128/787 : Chandra Orion flanking fields data (Ramirez+, 2004) J/PASJ/55/635 : Chandra observations of Monoceros R2 (Nakajima+, 2003) J/ApJ/566/974 : CHANDRA obs. of YSOs in OMC-2 and OMC-3 (Tsujimoto+, 2002) http://cxc.cfa.harvard.edu/cda/ : Chandra data archive http://astro.psu.edu/mystix : MYStIX & SFiNCs home page Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Reg SFiNCs star forming region name 17- 21 A5 --- OName Other name 23- 24 I2 h RAh Hour of right ascension (J2000) 26- 27 I2 min RAm Minute of right ascension (J2000) 29- 33 F5.2 s RAs Second of right ascension (J2000) 35 A1 --- DE- Sign of declination (J2000) 36- 37 I2 deg DEd Degree of declination (J2000) 39- 40 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of declination (J2000) 42- 45 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of declination (J2000) 47- 54 F8.4 deg GLON Galactic longitude 56- 63 F8.4 deg GLAT Galactic latitude 65- 68 I4 pc Dist [235/1400] Distance from the Sun 70- 78 A9 --- r_Dist Reference for Dist (see refs.dat file) 80- 84 A5 --- OB* Earliest OB star (1) 86- 89 A4 --- RefIR Spitzer reference (see refs.dat file) 91- 99 A9 --- RefX Chandra reference(s) (see refs.dat file)
Note (1): The earliest OB star within the Chandra field from the catalogs of Skiff (Cat. B/mk) and SIMBAD.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Reg SFiNCs star forming region name 17- 21 I5 --- ObsID [606/17643] Chandra observation ID 23- 28 I6 --- Seq Chandra sequence number 30- 45 A16 --- Date UT start time of Chandra observation 47- 51 I5 s Exp [1841/97485] Exposure time (1) 53- 54 I2 h RAh Hour of right ascension (J2000) (2) 56- 57 I2 min RAm Minute of right ascension (J2000) 59- 63 F5.2 s RAs Second of right ascension (J2000) 65 A1 --- DE- Sign of declination (J2000) (2) 66- 67 I2 deg DEd Degree of declination (J2000) (2) 69- 70 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of declination (J2000) 72- 75 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of declination (J2000) 77- 79 I3 deg Roll [7/355] Roll angle of Chandra observation 81- 86 A6 --- Mode Chandra-ACIS observing mode (3) 88- 99 A12 --- PI Principal investigator of a Chandra observation
Note (1): Exposure time is the net usable time after various filtering steps are applied in the data reduction process. Note (2): The aimpoint of a Chandra observation is obtained from the satellite aspect solution before astrometric correction is applied. Note (3): The ACIS modes are described in Section 6.12 of Chandra Proposers' Observatory Guide, http://asc.harvard.edu/proposer/POG/.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Reg Star Formation Region identifier 17- 20 I4 --- Seq [1/2196] X-ray catalog sequence number within Reg; RA sorted 22- 39 A18 --- CXOU CXOU identifier (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 41- 50 F10.6 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in Right Ascension (J2000) 52- 61 F10.6 deg DEdeg Declination in Right Ascension (J2000) 63- 65 F3.1 arcsec PosErr [0/3.5] Estimated standard deviation in position (1) 67- 70 F4.1 arcmin theta [0/21] Off-axis angle 72- 78 F7.1 ct NCts [-13/21921] Total band (0.5-8keV) net counts 80- 84 F5.1 ct e_NCts [1/149]? The 1σ error in NCts (2) 86- 90 F5.1 ct BCts [0/715] Total band background counts 92- 98 F7.1 ct HCts [0/10189] Hard band (2-8keV) net counts 100-103 F4.2 --- PSF [0.3/1] Fraction of PSF (3) 105-109 F5.1 --- SNR [-0.8/146.5] Photometric significance (4) 111 A1 --- l_logPB Limit flag on logPB 112-115 F4.1 [-] logPB [-5/-1.3] Log probability (5) 117-119 A3 --- Anom Source anomalie(s) (6) 121 A1 --- Var [a-c] Variability characterization (7) 123-125 F3.1 keV EMed [0.5/7.7]? Background-corrected total band median photon energy
Note (1): Estimated standard deviation of the random component of the position error, (σx2y2)^0.5. The single-axis position errors, σx and σy, are estimated from the single-axis standard deviations of the PSF inside the extraction region and the number of counts extracted. Note (2): Average of the upper and lower 1σ errors. Note (3): (at 1.497keV) enclosed within the extraction region. A reduced PSF fraction (significantly below 90%) may indicate that the source is in a crowded region. Note (4): Computed as net counts divided by the upper error on net counts. Note (5): that extracted counts (total band) are solely from background. Some sources have PB values above the 1% threshold that defines the catalog because local background estimates can rise during the final extraction iteration after sources are removed from the catalog. Note (6): Anomalies as follows: g = fractional time that source was on a detector (FRACEXPO from mkarf) is <0.9; e = source on field edge; p = X-ray properties may be biased due to photon pile-up; s = source on readout streak; a = photometry and spectrum may contain >10% afterglow events. Note (7): Based on K-S statistic (total band) from the single ObsId showing the most variability. Variabilitiy flag as follows: a = no evidence for variability (0.05<PKS); b = possibly variable (0.005<PKS<0.05); c = definitely variable (PKS<0.005). No value is reported for sources with fewer than four counts or for sources in chip gaps or on field edges.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Reg Star Formation Region identifier 17- 20 I4 --- Seq [1/2196] X-ray catalog sequence number within Reg; RA sorted 22- 39 A18 --- CXOU CXOU identifier (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 41- 47 F7.3 [ct/cm2/s] logPFh [-11/-3]? AE log hard band (2-8keV) photon flux (1) 49- 54 F6.3 [ct/cm2/s] logPFt [-8/-2]? AE log total band (0.5-8keV) photon flux (1) 56- 62 F7.3 [mW/m2] logFh [-16/-11]? XPHOT log apparent hard band flux (2) 64- 68 F5.3 [mW/m2] e_logFh [0.01/2.2]? The 1σ error in logFh 70- 76 F7.3 [mW/m2] logFt [-16/-11]? XPHOT log apparent total band flux (2) 78- 82 F5.3 [mW/m2] e_logFt [0.007/1.4]? The 1σ error in logFt 84- 88 F5.2 [cm-2] logNH [20/24]? XPHOT log Hydrogen column density (2) 90- 93 F4.2 [cm-2] e_logNH [0.01/1.1]? logNH 1σ statistical error 95- 98 F4.2 [cm-2] s_logNH [0.02/1.2]? logNH 1σ systematic error 100-106 F7.3 [mW/m2] logFhc [-16/-11]? XPHOT log corrected hard band flux (2) 108-112 F5.3 [mW/m2] e_logFhc [0.01/2.2]? logFhc 1σ statistical error 114-118 F5.3 [mW/m2] s_logFhc [0/2.2]? logFhc 1σ systematic error 120-126 F7.3 [mW/m2] logFtc [-16/-11]? XPHOT log corrected hard band flux (2) 128-132 F5.3 [mW/m2] e_logFtc [0.007/1.4]? logFtc 1σ statistical error 134-138 F5.3 [mW/m2] s_logFtc [0.001/5.1]? logFtc 1σ systematic error
Note (1): Produced by AE (Broos et al. 2010ApJ...714.1582B). Note (2): Produced by XPHOT (Getman+ 2010, J/ApJ/708/1760). XPHOT assumes X-ray spectral shapes of young, low-mass stars. Intrinsic XPHOT quantities will be unreliable for high-mass stellar members of the SFiNCs SFRs as well as for non-members, such as Galactic field stars and extragalactic objects.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Reg Star Formation Region identifier 16- 26 A11 --- Reg2 Overlapping Star Formation Region identifier 28- 35 I8 --- AOR Spitzer Astronomcail Object Request number 37- 41 I5 --- PID Spitzer program identification number 43- 52 A10 "Y/M/D" st.date UT date of observation start 54- 61 A8 "h:m:s" st.time Time of observation start 63- 72 A10 "Y/M/D" end.date UT date of observation end 74- 81 A8 "h:m:s" end.time Time of observation end 83- 92 F10.6 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in Right Ascension (J2000) (1) 94-103 F10.6 deg DEdeg Declination in Right Ascension (J2000) (1) 105-115 A11 --- Mode IRAC mode (2) 117-136 A20 --- PI Principal investigator
Note (1): Approximate center of the observation. Note (2): The PC (Post-Cryo) mode has been introduced during the warm mission of the Spitzer observatory with only two shortest-wavelength IRAC modules in operation.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Reg Star Formation Region identifier 16- 26 A11 --- Reg2 Overlapping Star Formation Region identifier 28- 44 A17 --- IRAC Source identifier (GLLL.llll+BB.bbbb) 46- 56 F11.7 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 58- 68 F11.7 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 70- 75 F6.3 mag 3.6mag [4.7/20.4] Spitzer/IRAC 3.6um band magnitude 77- 81 F5.3 mag e_3.6mag [0.001/0.3] The 1σ uncertainty in 3.6mag 83- 88 F6.3 mag 4.5mag [4.2/20] Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 micron band magnitude 90- 94 F5.3 mag e_4.5mag [0.001/0.3] The 1σ uncertainty in 4.5mag 96-101 F6.3 mag 5.8mag [2.3/17.5]? Spitzer/IRAC 5.8um band magnitude 103-107 F5.3 mag e_5.8mag [0.001/0.3]? The 1σ uncertainty in 5.8mag 109-114 F6.3 mag 8.0mag [2.4/17.5]? Spitzer/IRAC 8.0um band magnitude 116-120 F5.3 mag e_8.0mag [0.001/0.3]? The 1σ uncertainty in 8.0mag 122-123 I2 --- Ap [-1/4] Aperture size flag (1)
Note (1): 2, 3, and 4 = 2, 3, and 4-pixel aperture with contaminating flux <10% of source flux; -1 = 2-pixel aperture with contaminating flux >10% of source flux.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Reg Star Formation Region identifier 17- 34 A18 --- CXOU CXOU identifier (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 36- 45 F10.6 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 47- 56 F10.6 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 58- 74 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS identifier (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) 76- 80 F5.2 mag Jmag [5.3/19]? 2MASS J band magnitude 82- 85 F4.2 mag e_Jmag [0.02/0.8]? Uncertainty in Jmag 87- 91 F5.2 mag Hmag [5/18]? 2MASS H band magnitude 93- 96 F4.2 mag e_Hmag [0.01/0.7]? Uncertainty in Hmag 98-102 F5.2 mag Ksmag [3/16.5]? 2MASS Ks band magnitude 104-107 F4.2 mag e_Ksmag [0.01/9.99]? Uncertainty in Kmag 109-114 A6 --- Flag 2MASS flags (1) 116-132 A17 --- IRAC IRAC source identifier (GLLL.llll+BB.bbbb) 134-138 F5.2 mag 3.6mag [4.9/19]? Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 micron band magnitude 140-143 F4.2 mag e_3.6mag [0/0.3]? The 1σ uncertainty in 3.6mag 145-149 F5.2 mag 4.5mag [4/17.1]? Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 micron band magnitude 151-154 F4.2 mag e_4.5mag [0/0.3]? The 1σ uncertainty in 4.5mag 156-160 F5.2 mag 5.8mag [2.5/15.7]? Spitzer/IRAC 5.8um band magnitude 162-165 F4.2 mag e_5.8mag [0/0.3]? The 1σ uncertainty in 5.8mag 167-171 F5.2 mag 8.0mag [2.4/15]? Spitzer/IRAC 8.0 micron band magnitude 173-176 F4.2 mag e_8.0mag [0.01/0.3]? The 1σ uncertainty in 8.0mag
Note (1): The first 3 bytes are the JHK photometry quality codes. See http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/2mass/releases/allsky/doc/sec1_6b.html#phqual for details. The next 3 bytes are the JHK confusion/contamination codes. See http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/2mass/releases/allsky/doc/sec4_7.html for details.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table8.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Reg Star Formation Region identifier 17- 34 A18 --- CXOU CXOU identifier (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 36- 40 A5 --- ACIS ACIS source label 42 A1 --- XFOV [0/1] XFOV flag (1) 44- 50 F7.1 ct NCts [1/21921]? Total band (0.5-8keV) net counts 52- 55 F4.2 keV EMed [0.6/6.7]? Background-corrected total band median photon energy 57- 61 F5.2 [ct/cm2/s] logPFt [-7.6/-2.9]? AE log total band photon flux 63- 66 F4.1 [cm-2] logNH [20/24]? XPHOT log Hydrogen column density 68- 72 F5.2 [10-7W] logLtc [27.6/32.6]? log total band luminosity 74- 78 F5.2 --- alpha [-5.2/5.5]? Apparent SED slope (2) 80- 83 F4.2 --- e_alpha [0.01/1.2]? Error in alpha 85- 91 A7 --- Class YSO class(es) (3) 93- 96 F4.1 mag Av [0/34.5]? The V band extinction (4) 98-100 F3.1 --- AgeJX [0.1/5]? Stellar age (4) 102-145 A44 --- Note Know OB-type star note (5) 147-262 A116 --- X-IR X-ray-IR source match note (6)
Note (1): A flag indicating whether the source is located inside (XFOV= 1) or outside (XFOV=0) the Chandra ACIS-I field of view. Note (2): Measured in the IRAC wavelength range from 3.6 to 8.0 microns. Note (3): Class as follows: NOD = diskless (2532 occurrences); DSK = disky (5628 occurrences); PMB = possible member without a disk class (303 occurrences); FRG = source could be a foreground star or a YSO member of the region (29 occurrences). Note (4): Using the methods of Getman et al. (2014ApJ...787..108G). Note (5): The related information on the OB star' name, spectral type, and primary catalog of origin. Note (6): A note indicates that the X-ray-IR source match was rejected by the tool match xy but was reinstated as a legitimate match upon the visual inspection. Such cases are often associated with source' binarity and multiplicity. Related comments are provided.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- Ref Reference code 6- 24 A19 --- BibCode Bibcode of the reference 26- 47 A22 --- Auth First author's name 49- 69 A21 --- Comm VizieR catalog reference
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 14-Jun-2017
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