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J/ApJ/835/3  218GHz obs. of embedded protostars in Ophiuchus  (Lindberg+, 2017)

Externally heated protostellar cores in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. Lindberg J.E., Charnley S.B., Jorgensen J.K., Cordiner M.A., Bjerkeli P. <Astrophys. J., 835, 3-3 (2017)> =2017ApJ...835....3L (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: YSOs ; Millimetric/submm sources ; Interstellar medium ; Molecular clouds Keywords: astrochemistry; ISM: individual objects: Ophiuchus; ISM: molecules; radiative transfer; stars: formation Abstract: We present APEX 218GHz observations of molecular emission in a complete sample of embedded protostars in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. To study the physical properties of the cores, we calculate H2CO and c-C3H2 rotational temperatures, both of which are good tracers of the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas. We find that the H2CO temperatures range between 16K and 124K, with the highest H2CO temperatures toward the hot corino source IRAS 16293-2422 (69-124K) and the sources in the ρ Oph A cloud (23-49K) located close to the luminous Herbig Be star S1, which externally irradiates the ρ Oph A cores. On the other hand, the c-C3H2 rotational temperature is consistently low (7-17K) in all sources. Our results indicate that the c-C3H2 emission is primarily tracing more shielded parts of the envelope whereas the H2CO emission (at the angular scale of the APEX beam; 3600 au in Ophiuchus) mainly traces the outer irradiated envelopes, apart from in IRAS 16293-2422, where the hot corino emission dominates. In some sources, a secondary velocity component is also seen, possibly tracing the molecular outflow. Description: Our observations were executed with the APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) 12m telescope in August and October 2014 and May 2015. The SHeFI APEX-1 receiver was used to cover the frequency range 216-220GHz toward a complete sample of the 38 deeply embedded protostellar sources in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. The sample consists of all embedded protostellar sources in the region detected by Jorgensen+ (2008, J/ApJ/683/822) and Enoch+ (2009, J/ApJ/692/973); see Table 1 and Figures 1-2. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 103 38 Coordinates and other properties of the observed sources table3.dat 92 47 Measured rotational temperatures, column densities, median line widths, and LSR velocities table4.dat 89 363 Measured line parameters
See also: J/A+A/216/44 : Walraven photometry in Sco-Cen association (De Geus+, 1989) J/A+A/372/173 : ISOCAM obs. of the rho Ophiuchi cloud (Bontemps+, 2001) J/A+A/432/369 : Leiden Atomic and Molecular Database (LAMDA) (Schoeier+, 2005) J/AJ/130/1733 : Optical spectroscopy of ρ Oph stars (Wilking+, 2005) J/A+A/447/609 : 1.2mm continuum observations in rho Oph cloud (Stanke+, 2006) J/ApJ/683/822 : Star formation in Ophiuchus and Perseus II. (Jorgensen+, 2008) J/ApJ/692/973 : Protostars in Perseus, Serpens and Ophiuchus (Enoch+, 2009) J/ApJS/181/321 : Properties of Spitzer c2d dark clouds (Evans+, 2009) J/A+A/532/A23 : TIMASSS. I. (Caux+, 2011) J/A+A/548/A24 : 1.3mm observations of CrA cluster (Lindberg+, 2012) J/A+A/560/A73 : Horsehead H2CO and CH3OH 30m and PdBI maps (Guzman+, 2013) J/A+A/578/A131 : Gas & dust in the star-forming region rho OphA (Liseau+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 A9 --- Cloud Cloud 11- 25 A15 --- Name Source name 27- 28 I2 h RAh [16] Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 30- 31 I2 min RAm [26/33] Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 33- 37 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 39 A1 --- DE- [-] Sign of the Declination (J2000) 40- 41 I2 deg DEd [24] Degree of Declination (J2000) 43- 44 I2 arcmin DEm [1/57] Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 46- 49 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 51- 54 F4.1 mK RMS [10.9/30.5] Measured spectral RMS noise when averaging to 1km/s channels 56 A1 --- l_Tbol Limit Flag on Tbol 57- 60 I4 K Tbol [41/1500]? Bolometric Temperature 62 A1 --- l_Lbol Limit flag on Lbol 63- 69 F7.4 Lsun Lbol [0.009/18]? Luminosity 71- 75 F5.2 --- alpha [-1.3/5.1]? IR SED Slope 77-103 A27 --- OName Other common identifier(s)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- Cloud Cloud 13- 27 A15 --- Name Source name 34 A1 --- m_Name [ms ] main or secondary emission line component 36 A1 --- l_TrH2CO Limit flag for Trot-H2CO 38- 42 F5.1 K TrH2CO [15/292]? H2CO Rotational Temperature (1) 44- 46 F3.1 K e_TrH2CO ? Uncertainty in Trot-H2CO (1) 48- 51 F4.1 10+12cm-2 NH2CO [4/79]? H2CO number density (1) 53- 56 F4.1 10+12cm-2 e_NH2CO ? Uncertainty in N-H2CO (1) 58- 60 F3.1 km/s dvH2CO [0.2/3]? H2CO linewidth, median value (1) 62- 64 F3.1 km/s vlsrH2CO [2/5]? H2CO LSR velocity, median value (1) 66 A1 --- l_TrcC3H2 Limit flag for Trot-cC3H2 67- 70 F4.1 K TrcC3H2 [6.7/17]? c-C3H2 Rotational Temperature 72- 74 F3.1 K e_TrcC3H2 ? Uncertainty in Trot-cC3H2 76- 79 F4.2 10+12cm-2 NcC3H2 [0.4/6.5]? c-C3H2 number density 81- 84 F4.2 10+12cm-2 e_NcC3H2 ? Uncertainty in N-cC3H2 86- 88 F3.1 km/s dvcC3H2 [0.2/2]? c-C3H2 linewidth, median value 90- 92 F3.1 km/s vlsrcC3H2 [2.9/5]? c-C3H2 LSR velocity, median value
Note (1): H2CO column densities were calculated by non-LTE methods assuming nH2=8.9±1.0x105cm-3^; see Section 4.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Name Source name 17 A1 --- m_Name [ms ] main or secondary emission line component (1) 19- 27 F9.2 MHz Freq0 [216112/219950]? Rest Frequency (2) 29- 39 A11 --- Mol Molecule 41- 66 A26 --- Trans Transition 68 A1 --- f_Trans Flag on Transition (3) 71- 73 F3.1 km/s vlsr [0/6.5]? LSR velocity from Gaussian fit 75- 78 F4.1 km/s dv [0.1/10.1]? linewidth from Gaussian fit 80- 84 F5.2 Tmbdv [-9.99/19.5]? Integrated intensity (4) 86- 89 F4.2 e_Tmbdv [0.01/0.07]? Uncertainty in Tmbdv
Note (1): In sources with two components, these are listed as separate sources. Note (2): Rest frequencies from the CDMS (Muller+ 2001A&A...370L..49M) and JPL (Pickett+ 1998JQSRT..60..883P) molecular spectroscopy databases. Note (3): Transition Blend flags as follows: a = Blend of F=9/2-7/2, F=7/2-5/2, and F=5/2-3/2; b = Blend of F=7/2-5/2, F=5/2-3/2, and F=3/2-1/2; c = Blend of F=13/2-11/2 and F=15/2-13/2; d = F_1=2-2, F=2-1; e = F_1=2-1, F=2-1; f = F_1=2-1, F=3-2; g = F_1=3-2, F=2-1; Note (4): For the sources with two components (m_Name not blank), the integrated intensities are from Gaussian fits. Considerable C18O emission in the off-position made the C18O line data unreliable for some sources. Those are indicated by Tmbdv=-9.99. Tmbdv with blank values indicates no emission lines were detected.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 01-Aug-2017
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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