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J/A+A/603/A3     VLT/NaCo Large program. IV. Statistical analysis (Vigan+, 2017)

The VLT/NaCo large program to probe the occurrence of exoplanets and brown dwarfs at wide orbits. IV. Gravitational instability rarely forms wide, giant planets. Vigan A., Bonavita M., Biller B., Forgan D., Rice K., Chauvin G., Desidera S., Meunier J.-C., Delorme P., Schlieder J. E., Bonnefoy M., Carson J., Covino E., Hagelberg J., Henning T., Janson M., Lagrange A.-M., Quanz S. P., Zurlo A., Beuzit J.-L., Boccaletti A., Buenzli E., Feldt M., Girard J. H. V., Gratton R., Kasper M., Le Coroller H., Mesa D., Messina S., Meyer M., Montagnier G., Mordasini C., Mouillet D., Moutou C., Reggiani M., Segransan D., Thalmann C. <Astron. Astrophys. 603, A3 (2017)> =2017A&A...603A...3V (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Fundamental catalog ; Stars, nearby ; Stars, ages ; Stars, distances Keywords: techniques: high angular resolution - methods: statistical - infrared: planetary systems - planetary systems - planets and satellites: formation Abstract: Understanding the formation and evolution of giant planets (>1MJup) at wide orbital separation (>5AU) is one of the goals of direct imaging. Over the past 15 years, many surveys have placed strong constraints on the occurrence rate of wide-orbit giants, mostly based on non-detections, but very few have tried to make a direct link with planet formation theories. In the present work, we combine the results of our previously published VLT/NaCo large program with the results of 12 past imaging surveys to constitute a statistical sample of 199 FGK stars within 100 pc, including three stars with sub-stellar companions. Using Monte Carlo simulations and assuming linear flat distributions for the mass and semi-major axis of planets, we estimate the sub-stellar companion frequency to be within 0.75-5.70% at the 68% confidence level (CL) within 20-300AU and 0.5-75MJup, which is compatible with previously published results. We also compare our results with the predictions of state-of-the-art population synthesis models based on the gravitational instability (GI) formation scenario with and without scattering. We estimate that in both the scattered and non-scattered populations, we would be able to detect more than 30% of companions in the 1-75MJup range (95% CL). With the three sub-stellar detections in our sample, we estimate the fraction of stars that host a planetary system formed by GI to be within 1.0-8.6% (95% CL). We also conclude that even though GI is not common, it predicts a mass distribution of wide-orbit massive companions that is much closer to what is observed than what the core accretion scenario predicts. Finally, we associate the present paper with the release of the Direct Imaging Virtual Archive (DIVA), a public database that aims at gathering the results of past, present, and future direct imaging surveys. Description: Ages, spectral types and distances of 199 nearby stars. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file tablea1.dat 124 199 Full NaCo-LP sample (table A.1)
See also: J/A+A/573/A126 : VLT/NaCo Large program I. Sample (Desidera+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 17 A17 --- Target Star name 19- 20 I2 h RAh Right ascension (J2000.0) 22- 23 I2 min RAm Right ascension (J2000.0) 25- 29 F5.2 s RAs Right ascension (J2000.0) 31 A1 --- DE- Declination sign (J2000.0) 32- 33 I2 deg DEd Declination (J2000.0) 35- 36 I2 arcmin DEm Declination (J2000.0) 38- 42 F5.2 arcsec DEs Declination (J2000.0) 44- 50 A7 --- SpType MK spectral type 52- 75 A24 --- Surveys Previous direct imaging surveys (1) 77- 88 A12 --- MG Name of the moving group or association (2) 90- 94 I5 Myr Age Optimal age 96-100 I5 Myr b_Age Minimum age 102-106 I5 Myr B_Age Maximum age 108-112 F5.1 pc Dist Distance of the star 114-120 F7.2 --- [Fe/H] ? Metalicity 122-124 F3.1 Msun Mass Stellar mass
Note (1): Previous direct imaging surveys abbreviation as follows: M05 = Masciadri et al., 2005ApJ...625.1004M L05 = Lowrance et al., 2005AJ....130.1845L S06 = Song et al., unpublished (HST, cycle 13, GO10176) K07 = Kasper et al., 2007A&A...472..321K B07 = Biller et al., 2007ApJS..173..143B L07 = Lafreniere et al., 2007ApJ...670.1367L, Cat. J/ApJ/670/1367 C10 = Chauvin et al., 2010A&A...509A..52C, Cat. J/A+A/509/A52 H10 = Heinze et al., 2010ApJ...714.1551H V12 = Vigan et al., 2012A&A...544A...9V, Cat. J/A+A/544/A9 R13 = Rameau et al., 2013A&A...553A..60R B13 = Biller et al., 2013ApJ...777..160B, Cat. J/ApJ/777/160 B14 = Brandt et al., 2014ApJ...786....1B C15 = Chauvin et al., 2015A&A...573A.127C Note (2): Young moving group or association membership as follows: AB Dor = AB Doradus Arg = Argus Beta Pic = Beta Pictoris Car = Carina Cas = Castor Col = Columba Her/Lyr = Hercules/Lyrae LA = Local association LCC = Lower Centaurus Crux Tuc/Hor = Tucana/Horlogium UCL = Upper Centaurus Lupus UMa = Ursa Major US = Upper Scorpius
Acknowledgements: Arthur Vigan, arthur.vigan(at) References: Desidera et al., Paper I 2015A&A...573A.126D, Cat. J/A+A/573/A126 Chauvin et al., Paper II 2015A&A...573A.127C Reggiani et al., Paper III 2016A&A...586A.147R
(End) Arthur Vigan [CNRS/LAM, France], Patricia Vannier [CDS] 20-Mar-2017
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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