IX/9 SAS-2 Gamma-Ray Observations (Fichtel+ 1990)
Catalog of SAS-2 Gamma-Ray Observations Fichtel C.E., Hartman R.C., Hunter S.D., Kniffen D.A., Thompson D.J., Oegelman H.B., Oezel M.E. <Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1990)>
ADC_Keywords: Gamma rays Mission_Name: SAS-2 Description: This catalog contains fluxes measured with the high-energy gamma-ray telescope flown aboard the second NASA Small Astronomy Satellite. The objects measured included various types of galaxies, QSOs, BL Lacertae objects, and pulsars. There are separate files for various types of objects, plus additional files for notes and references. The data cover about 60 percent of the sky and 89 percent of the galactic plane for gamma rays having energies >35 MeV. The data reported vary according to the types of objects. The galaxy file contains object designation and type, equatorial coordinates (B1950.0), 35-100 MeV emission limit, >100 MeV emission limit, and luminosity limit. The pulsar file contains object designation, period, period change (dP/dt), approximate distance, pulsed flux and luminosity limits, and notes. There is also a file containing data for miscellaneous other sources (SNRs, X-ray, and binary X-ray sources, etc.), but this file is not uniformly formatted because of its inhomogeneous data content. The primary sources for the data are Bignami et al. (1979ApJ...232..649B), Fichtel et al. (1975ApJ...198..163F, 1990), and Oegelman et al. (1976ApJ...209..584O). File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file galaxy.dat 60 32 Galaxy Data pulsrdat.dat 50 113 pulsar Data pulsrnte.dat 78 14 pulsar Notes othsrc.txt 75 57 *Other Sources
Note on othsrc.txt: This file contains data for miscellaneous other sources, such as supernova remnants, X-ray and binary X-ray, and miscellaneous sources. The data come from the papers of Fichtel et al. (1975ApJ...198..163F), Thompson et al. (1977ApJ...213..252T), and Fichtel, Thompson, and Lamb (1987ApJ...319..362F). The file has not been uniformly formatted because of the inhomogeneity of the information given; thus, it is a simple text file with column headings. This file includes also the notes related to these other sources.
Introduction: This catalog summarizes final results for high-energy gamma-ray observations obtained with the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-2) flown in an equatorial orbit by NASA from 1972 November through 1973 June. The data from the SAS-2 gamma-ray experiment cover about 60 percent of the sky and 89 percent of the galactic plane for gamma rays with energies >35 MeV. The experiment (also see Derdeyn et al. 1972) was a picture-type high-energy (>35 MeV) gamma-ray telescope using a 32-level wire-grid, magnetic-core spark chamber assembly covered by an anticoincidence scintillator and triggered by any one of four independent directional scintillator Cerenkov counter telescopes in anticoincidence with the outer scintillator. Thin tungsten (W) plates, 0.03 of a radiation length thick, were interleaved between the spark-chamber modules, which had an active area of approximately 640 sq cm. The large number of W plates and spark chambers served the dual purpose of providing material for the gamma rays to be converted to electron pairs that could then be clearly identified and from which their arrival directions could be determined; plus, they provided a means of ascertaining the energies of the electrons in a pair by measuring their Coulomb scattering. The full width at half-maximum field of view (FOV) was 35deg., and within the FOV the average angular uncertainty for determining the arrival direction of an individual gamma ray projected on one plane was about 2.6 deg. at 100 MeV and varied with energy approximately as E**1/2 in the energy range 35-200 MeV. For descriptions of the instrument calibration, data analysis procedures, and in-flight performance checks, see Fichtel et al. (1975ApJ...198..163F) and Hartman et al. (1979ApJ...232..649B). Byte-by-byte Description of file: galaxy.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 13 A13 --- ID *Object designation 15 A1 --- Type *Object type 18- 23 F6.3 h RAhr *Right ascension B1950 26- 30 F5.1 deg DEdeg *Declination B1950 33- 40 E8.1 keV/cm2/s EmLimit1 *? 35-100 MeV emission limit 43- 50 E8.1 ct/cm2/s EmLimit2 *>100 MeV emission limit in photons/cm2/s 53- 60 E8.1 10-7W LumLimit *? Luminosity limit in units of ergs s-1
Note on ID: Common name or abbreviation for the observed object. Note on Type: A letter code that designates the following object types: S = Seyfert galaxy N = N-type galaxy B = BL Lacertae object Q = Quasi-stellar object E = Sharp emission-line galaxy O = Other type of galaxy Note on RAhr, DEdeg: Equatorial coordinates - Decimal hours and degrees for equinox B1950.0. Note on EmLimit1, EmLimit2: Upper limits in the 35-100 MeV and >100 MeV energy ranges, as determined by using the diffuse gamma-ray emission level based on the analysis of Fichtel, Simpson, and Thompson (1978ApJ...222..833F). These are 95% confidence upper limits calculated using the statistical analysis techniques of Hearn (1969), equations (12) and (13). Note on LumLimit: The 95% confidence upper limit to the gamma-ray luminosity for E >100 MeV.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: pulsrdat.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 7 A7 --- Pulsar *Pulsar designation 10- 15 F6.4 s Period The pulsar period 18- 26 F9.3 10-15s/s Pchange *Period change in units of 10-15 s.s-1 28- 32 F5.2 kpc Dist *Distance 35- 38 F4.1 10-6/cm2/s FxLimit *Pulsed flux limit in units of 10-6/cm2/s 41- 45 F5.2 ct/s LumLimit *Luminosity limit in units of photon/s 48- 50 A3 --- note *Notes and references (see pulsrnte.dat)
Note on Pulsar: Standard pulsar coordinate designation (PSR) in hours and minutes of right ascension and degrees of declination. Note on Pchange: Derivative of the period, which is the rate of pulsar spin up or spin down, in units of 10-5/s Note on Dist: The approximate distance of the object, as taken from Taylor and Manchester (1975AJ.....80..794T). Note on FxLimit: The 2-sigma. upper limit of the pulsed gamma-ray flux above 35 MeV in units of 10-6/sq cm/s. For most of the pulsars, this limit was calculated based on the highest single peak in the pulsar phase plot (see Oegelman et al. 1976ApJ...209..584O for details). Note on LumLimit: Upper limit to the gamma-ray luminosity, as determined from the upper limit to the flux and the distance estimates of Taylor and Manchester (1975AJ.....80..794T). An emission solid angle of 1 steradian was assumed; the luminosity was calculated as: L = F*d**2 where F is the observed flux and d is the distance. Note that these upper limits do not truly reflect actual upper limits in the sense that neither the distance nor the emission solid angle is accurately known for any pulsar. Note on note: Numerical key(s) to the notes and references given in file pulsrnte.dat, of the catalog.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: pulsrnte.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 --- Note [1,10] Note number 3 A1 --- --- [.] 5- 78 A74 --- Text Text of note
History: The original ADC documentation by Wayne H. Warren (1990) was used to create this ReadMe file. The machine-readable galaxies and pulsars data files of the catalog were initially produced at the Astronomical Data Center from published papers supplied by Drs. Carl E. Fichtel and David L. Bertsch of the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics (LHEA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), following a meeting with them in April 1988 that was arranged by Dr. J. M. Mead of GSFC. The newly created files were supplied to Dr. Stanley D. Hunter, also of the LHEA, who updated and added data to the existing files as well as creating the files for other sources. Further modifications were made in consultation with the above-mentioned authors. This document should be used only to supplement the information contained in the published papers. In addition to the primary source reference, those papers include Bigman et al. (1979ApJ...232..649B), Fichtel et al. (1990), Fichtel et al. (1975ApJ...198..163F), Thompson (1976ApJ...209..584O), Lamb et al. (1977ApJ...212L..63L), Thompson et al. (1977ApJ...213..252T, 1977ApJ...214L..17T, 1983A&A...127..220T), and Fichtel, Thompson, and Lamb (1987ApJ...319..362F). * 02-Aug-2004: Catalog changed its ID from VII/130 to IX/9. References: Bignami, G. F., Fichtel, C. E., Hartman, R. C., and Thompson, D. J. 1979, Astrophy. J. 232, 649-658. (1979ApJ...232..649B) Derdeyn, S. M., Ehrmann, C. H., Fichtel, C. E., Kniffen, D. A., and Ross, R. W. 1972, Nuclear Instrum. & Meth. 98, 557-566. Fichtel, C. E., Hartman, R. C., Hunter, S. D., Kniffen, D. A., Thompson, D. J., Oegelman, H. B., Tuemer, T., and Oezel, M. E. 1990, Catalog of SAS-2 Gamma-Ray Observations, Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Fichtel, C. E., Hartman, R. C., Kniffen, D. A., Thompson, D. J., Bignami, G. F., Oegelman, H., Oezel, M. E., and Tuemer, T. 1975, Astrophy. J. 198, 163-182. (1975ApJ...198..163F) Fichtel, C. E., Simpson, G. A., and Thompson, D. J. 1978, Astrophy. J. 222, 833-849. (1978ApJ...222..833F) Fichtel, C. E., Thompson, D. J., and Lamb, R. C. 1987, Astrophy. J. 319, 362-366. (1987ApJ...319..362F) Hearn, D. 1969, Nuclear Instrum. & Methods 70, 200-204. Lamb, R. C., Fichtel, C. E., Hartman, R. C., Kniffen, D. A., and Thompson, D. J. 1977, Astrophy. J. Let. 212, L63-L66. (1977ApJ...212L..63L) Oegelman, H., Fichtel, C. E., Kniffen, D. A., and Thompson, D. J. 1976, Astrophy. J. 209, 584-591. (1976ApJ...209..584O) Taylor, J. H. and Manchester, R. N. 1975, Astron. J. 80, 794-806. (1975AJ.....80..794T) Thompson, D. J., Bertsch, D. L., Hartman, R. C., and Hunter, S. D. 1983, Astron. & Astrophy. 127, 220-223. (1983A&A...127..220T) Thompson, D. J., Fichtel, C. E., Hartman, R. C., Kniffen, D. A., and Lamb, R. C. 1977a, Astrophy. J. 213, 252-262. (1977ApJ...213..252T) Thompson, D. J., Fichtel, C. E., Kniffen, D. A., and Oegelman, H. B., 1977, Astrophy. J. Let., 200, L17-L18. (1977ApJ...214L..17T) Thompson, D. J. 1976, Astrophy. J. 209, 584-591.
(End) C.-H. Joseph Lyu & Paul Kuin [Hughes STX/NASA] 27-Jan-1997
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