III/168 General Catalog of S Stars, second edition (Stephenson 1984)
General Catalog of S Stars, second edition Stephenson, C.B. <Publ. Warner & Swasey Observatory, 3, no. 1, 1 (1984)>
ADC_Keywords: Stars, late-type ; Stars, S Description: This catalog is intended to list all Galactic S stars having known positions of at least roughly the precision of the Henry Draper catalog. An S star is a star in whose spectrum the bands of the ZrO molecule are detectable, ordinarily without needing sufficient spectral resolution to resolve the individual rotational lines of a band. In addition, stars exhibiting readily detectable LaO in the photographic infrared, where there is no significant ZrO, are known to form a subset of S stars (more extreme in abundances or low temperature), and this catalog includes stars classified only from the infrared. The majority of the stars were, however, discovered on the basis of the (0,0) band, with head near 6474Angstroem, of the red system of ZrO. Nomenclature Note: There are three catalogues of S stars by Stephenson, each being numbered from 1. Care should therefore be taken to make a clear distinction between a) The first Edition (1976, Publ. Warner & Swasey Obs. 2, No. 2; Catalog III/60); these objects are designated "GCSS" b) This second edition published in 1984; these objects are designated "CSS" c) A complement to the Second Edition published in 1990 (=1990AJ....100..569S), designated by "CSS2" Ahthor's Introduction: Ahthor's Introduction: The first edition of this catalog, published more than eight years ago, contained little more than half of the present number of stars, but nearly half of those were previously unpublished although lists of Henize's discoveries had been widely circulated. The principal additions since then come from three sources: (1) A low-dispersion infrared survey of the southern Milky Way by Westerlund, the S stars from which are hitherto unpublished; (2) a relatively high-dispersion red survey by MacConnell, also of the southern Milky Way, published in two lists here catalog-coded as MacCon79 and MacCon82; and (3) an unpublished and just-completed intermediate-dispersion red survey by Stephenson, covering the sky north of declination -25d and outside of galactic latitudes ±10d. This last survey was intended to create for such red surveys a degree of completeness for the entire sky that was wholly lacking in the first edition. As remarked in the first edition, a logical reason for undertaking this catalog is the author's access to the Observatory's extensive collection of blue, red, and infrared objective prism plates, which covers the entire northern sky (though not in all wavelength regions) plus the southern Milky Way. As before, this collection was used not only for new discoveries, but also to resolve many cases of confusion in the literature. Previous objective prism surveys that were capable of identifying S stars have been summarized by Stephenson in the first edition of this catalog (Stephenson 1976), and also by Yorka and Wing (1979). The best combination of limiting magnitude (mostly 11.5 to 12, visual) and completeness has been achieved in the red spectral region, using the ZrO band with head at 6474 A. The entire northern sky north of declination -25d, plus the southern Milky Way, has been surveyed by Stephenson or N. Sanduleak (who did about 40% of the southern Milky Way), at 1,000 A/mm at H alpha (about 700 A/mm at the D lines). The rest of the southern sky has been done to 10th mag. by K. Henize, using 300 A/mm at the D lines. When the first edition of the S-star catalog was published, there had been no satisfactory red survey (that is, one that was capable of finding S stars consistently) of the sky north of declination -25d and outside of galactic latitudes ±10d. The author has since remedied this lack, using the Burrell Schmidt telescope. The survey was begun at the old site in Ohio, using improved telescope optics (new corrector plus refigured mirror), but all but some 140 of the nearly 1300 required fields were taken at the Schmidt's new location on Kitt Peak. Also, additional surveys have turned up numbers of S stars in the southern Milky Way. B. Westerlund has used the infrared region at 2100 A/mm to search between galactic latitudes ±5d and longitudes 235d to 7d, to a limiting infrared magnitude of 12.5. The comparable northern infrared surveys stop about 3 mags. brighter than this, but the author hopes to remedy this situation within a few years. Westerlund's new S stars are published for the first time in the present catalog. MacConnell's new S stars were found with 420 A/mm at H alpha; his plates have the highest spectral resolution of any of the red surveys, and so include the weakest S stars. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file catalog.dat 138 1347 The S Star catalog notes.dat 124 440 Notes to catalog refs.txt 86 83 References reject.dat 72 56 *Suggested S stars rejected reject.txt 100 48 Notes for reject.dat
Note on reject.dat: reject.dat contains a number of stars which have been announced to be S or possible S stars, and for which there is good reason for believing the original announcement to have been in error.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: catalog.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- CSS *[1/1347]+ Number 7- 8 I2 h RAh *Right ascension hour (1900) 10- 11 I2 min RAm *Right ascension minute (1900) 13- 16 F4.1 s RAs *Right ascension second (1900) 19 A1 --- DE- *Sign of declination 20- 21 I2 deg DEd *Declination degree (1900) 23- 24 I2 arcmin DEm *Declination minute (1900) 26- 27 I2 arcsec DEs *Declination second (1900) 30- 33 F4.1 mag bmag *?=0.0 b magnitude 35- 38 F4.1 mag vmag *?=0.0 v magnitude 40- 43 F4.1 mag imag *?=0.0 i magnitude 46- 50 F5.1 deg GLON *Galactic longitude 52- 56 F5.1 deg GLAT *Galactic latitude 59- 63 A5 mag bmag_pub *Published b magnitude 65- 69 A5 mag vmag_pub *Publsihed v magnitude 71- 75 A5 mag imag_pub *Published i magnitude 78- 93 A16 --- SpType *Spectral type 96-127 A32 --- Names *Designations 130-135 A6 --- Notes *Notes 138 I1 --- PosFlag *Position accuracy flag
Notes on CSS: The running number in file 1 is newly assigned, but numbers used in the first edition (Catalog III/60) are given in the Designations column. Note on RAh, RAm, RAs, DE-, DEd, DEm, DEs: Equatorial coordinates, referred to the equinox and equator which is standard in most spectroscopic tabulations to date, given with varying precision. The coordinates are taken from the various finding lists, and averaged by the author in cases of dual or more determinations of nominally comparable precision. In unresolvable cases of disagreement, the quoted number of significant figures, have been downgraded but the original sources also vary in quoted precision. For many of the objective prism surveys -- including all that have been done at the Warner and Swasey Observatory since 1958 -- the coordinates came from measurements of objective prism plates, using methods described in the Warner and Swasey Observatory Publs. Vol. 2, pp. 74-76. Almost all of the stars for which Stephenson is listed among the designations have independent coordinate determinations from his plates, usually to ±1" - ±2". Note on bmag, vmag, imag: These are, as available, blue (photographic, sometimes B), visual (sometimes red-biased), and infrared magnitudes. The infrared magnitudes refer generally to the 6800- 8800 A region. For known variable stars, the variable star catalog (GCVS) magnitudes at mid-range are cited under the type of magnitude that was given in the GCVS; other quoted magnitude types for known variables are from survey plates taken at unknown phases. No general statements can be made about the survey-magnitudes at large, and the original papers must be consulted for details. For Stephenson's surveys, blue magnitudes are based upon individually-calibrated plates, and visual ones are based upon an average calibration used for the whole survey; the former may carry ±0.3 mag. probable error, the latter ±l mag. In all cases, a value of 0.0 implies no value was available. These values are NOT included in the published catalog, but were tabulated along with the published data. Caveat emptor. Note on bmag_pub, vmag_pub, imag_pub: These magnitude string values are the values published in the Catalog. Some contain the ":" character that indicates that the value given is more uncertain than most. Note on SpType: This column furnishes, as available, spectral types in various systems. Omitting sources that are either rare or also used under Designations, the abbreviations define their sources as follows: Bid57 Bidelman (1957) Bid65 Bidelman (1965) CatchF Catchpole & Feast (1971) De Dean (1972) F66 Feast (1966) Houk HD reclassification K Keenan (1954) KB Keenan & Boeshaar (1980) K66 Keenan (1966) K74 Keenan (1974) Merr Merrill (1940) Sanf41 Sanford (1941) Sanf49 Sanford (1949) Sharp Sharpless (1964) WPB Bidelman (1954a) The stars that have been called MS on objective prism plates are in general stronger S stars than those called MS from slit spectrograms, and also -- at least the ones found by Stephenson and colleagues -- are stronger than the weaker S stars published by MacConnell and Henize, who used the highest spectral dispersions of any of the modern surveys. Other spectral symbols may be familiar to most, but will be defined here for completeness: e or E, line emission; p, peculiar; r, uncommonly red; wk or vwk, weak or very weak; S! (used only in Stephenson's surveys), outstanding ZrO strength; colon, uncertainty. Paired numerals flanking either a comma, slash, or asterisk are TiO temperature class and a ZrO strength measure (left to right), in various authors' systems. C-S or SC refer to stars that spectroscopically are nearly intermediate between S-type and carbon stars, due (among other things) to closely comparable abundances of carbon and oxygen. The C-S type was introduced by Stephenson and means stars which in the red spectral region at about 1000 A/mm are very red with strong CN, like an N-type carbon star, but show no definite C2 although they sometimes give the appearance of showing weak-to-moderate 6474 ZrO, which however is uncertain because of the strong CN and low dispersion. In general, given sufficient spectral resolution they can be classified as weak S or weak carbon, although they share many properties of both groups. The SC nomenclature was introduced slightly later and has been used in two ways: to denote all the C-S stars, or alternately those that just fall on the S side, in which convention the carbon S-like group becomes CS. See the discussion in Keenan and Boeshaar (1980). In the present catalog the intent has been to include only the C-S stars that are likely S types. Note on Names: Here are listed the star's occurrence in various spectroscopic (and some other) finding lists. These are mainly surveys of one kind or another; exceptions will be listed shortly. The author has tried to cite first the earliest survey calling the star an S star (or equivalent, in the case of the HD catalog), Not included here are slit spectrograph observations of known or suspected S stars; those go in the "spectrum" column. Independent spectral classifications are cited here (but not repeated, if already under "spectrum") either if they are quantitative or partially so, or if the star has ever been called a non-S star. The HD number, if one exists, is given without the identifying letters "HD", almost always before anything else. Non-spectroscopic finding list numbers cited are: the HR number, labelled HR; the B.D. or Co.D. numbers, in an obvious notation; and the GCVS (General Catalog of Variable Stars; catalog II/139) or CSV (Catalog of Stars Suspected of Being Variable; catalog II/140) numbers. CSV numbers are from the editions prior to the 1982 one; they have not been compared with the newest edition of the CSV, partly because of the different equinoxes of that catalog and this one, and partly because it is never particularly noteworthy that an S star has been suspected of variability. Coding of sources: Sources are labelled by the abbreviations given below, with numbers assigned by the corresponding discoverer separated from his abbreviation by a single space. Numbers not separated from the abbreviation are part of the abbreviation, and hyphens if any separate a numbered published table from numbers within the table. The abbreviations mean the following: Bid65 Bidelman (1965). BidK Bidelman and Krumenaker (1972). Bidun Bidelman, unpublished, usually from a slit spectrogram. BidMac Bidelman and MacConnell (1973). BlancN Blanco and Nassau (1957). BM Blanco and Munch (1955). BSD Bergedorfer Spektraldurchmusterung (Schwassmann and Van Rhijn 1935). CatchF Catchpole and Feast (1971). Cra83 Craine et al (1983). D Lee et al (1943, 1944, 1947). The present catalog has not been fully compared with the 44,000 stars of the D lists, except for the stars called S, Sp, or S? De Dean (1972). Dol61 Dolidze (1961). Dol62a " (1962a). Dol62b " (1962b). Dol65 " (1965). Dol68 " (1968). Dol70a " (1970a). Dol70b " (1970b). Dol70c " (1970c). Dol71 " (1971). In most of the lists of this series the coordinates seem to be uncertain by 5' - 10'. Charts for the stars of this series are in Abastumani Bull. Vol. 47, 10, 1975. DolJim Dolidze and Jimsheleishvili (1966). Harw Harwood (1962). Hen60 Henize (1960). Henun Henize, unpublished. These stars are from a list dated 1965, and are in fact published in that they appear in the first edition of the present catalog. Hetzler Hetzler (1937). KB Keenan and Boeshaar (1980). Krum Krumenaker (1975). MacCon MacConnell, unpublished. MacCon67 " (1967). MacCon79 " (1979). MacCon82 " (1982). MacRae MacRae (1952). Merr Merrill (1940). MSB Merrill, Sanford, and Burwell (1933,1942). Without a number, unpublished other than in the first edition of this catalog. Nass54 Nassau, Blanco, and Morgan (1954). NassCam Nassau and Cameron (1956). NassSte Nassau and Stephenson (1961). Without a number, unpublished except for the first ed. of the S-star catalog. Nass64 Nassau, Stephenson and Caprioli (1964). Perr59 Perraud (1959). Perr61 " (1961). Pes Pesch, unpublished (or only in 1st ed. this catalog). Rust Rust (1938). S First edition of this catalog. Sndlk Sanduleak, unpublished (or only in 1st ed. this catalog). Ste Stephenson, " " " " " " " " Ste65 " (1965). Ste73 " (1973). SteTerr Stephenson and Terrill (1967). Sto Stock and Wroblewski (1972). S-WS Two Case lists of S stars: Nassau, Blanco and Morgan (1954); Blanco and Nassau (1957). The68 The (1968). VB Blanco, unpublished except for 1st ed. this catalog. Vys Vyssotsky (1942), Janssen and Vyssotsky (1943), Vyssotsky and Miller (1946), always with a star number. Without a number, Vyssotsky unpublished. VysBalz Vyssotsky and Balz (1958). West'd Westerlund (unpublished). Wray Wray (1966). Numbers are from his combined table of carbon and S stars. His type SE means S with H alpha emission. The various lists occasionally identify with one another, but, except for the BD numbers, most identifications of the stars of one list with those of another have been made by the author. Additional identifications are often given in the Remarks to "notes" file; unlike the first edition, in the present edition the main catalog allots only one line to a given star. If the star was in the first edition of this catalog, its number there is always given here, coded as "S". Note on GLON, GLAT: Galactic longitude and latitude, computed by Stephenson. Note on Notes: Several symbols are used here, as follows. An asterisk means that two or more sources included under "designations" contradict each other as to the star's identity, including cases where a star in an earlier list was published as new in a later list. A single asterisk means that the author's revision of the identification was done without specially examining an objective prism plate, while a double asterisk means the case was specially checked. A plus sign represents a new identification with a GCVS star, done by the author by comparing a plate of the sky with a published identification chart. WPB stands for Bidelman (1954). An R means that there are remarks in the Notes to file 1 in notes.txt. References to Case plates in the Notes mean Warner & Swasey Observatory objective prism plates, with the plate examiner almost always being Stephenson Stephenson is always an independent source of uncredited remarks, though not always the earliest such source. Note on PosFlag: The position accuracy is described by the following codes: 1 hh mm ss.s dd mm ss 2 hh mm ss dd mm.m 3 hh mm dd mm
Byte-by-byte Description of file: reject.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- RAa *Right ascension (
1900) 14- 22 A9 --- DEa *Declination ( 1900) 26- 48 A23 --- name Designations 50- 72 A23 --- note *Notes
Note on RAa, DEa: The position accuracy in this file varies. For stars with the higher accuracy, the minutes of right ascension are in bytes 4-5, the seconds of right ascension are in bytes 7-10 and the seconds of declination are in bytes 20-21. For stars whose position accuracy is more crude, the minutes of right ascension are in bytes 7-10 and bytes 20-21 are blank. Note on note: Numerals in parentheses have the following meaning: 1. No candidate star could be found by Stephenson on a blue-region objective prism plate. 2. No candidate star could be found by Stephenson on a red-region objective prism plate. 3. No candidate star could be found by Stephenson on a infrared-region objective prism plate. 4. Candidate star classified by Stephenson on a blue-region objective prism plate. 5. Candidate star classified by Stephenson on a red-region objective prism plate. 6. Candidate star classified by Stephenson on a infrared-region objective prism plate. 7. Slit spectrogram by Stephenson.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: notes.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- CSS [1/1347]+= Number 8-124 A117 --- note Notes
Ackowledgements: Most of the 1291 fields of my mid-to-high latitude red survey were taken by Warner and Swasey's Kitt Peak resident observer Richard Hill, without whom the survey would have been impossible. For not only the author's own discoveries but also many hundreds of previously-known stars, this catalog incorporates position determinations from Warner and Swasey objective prism plates. Only to mention work done since the first edition, upwards of a dozen undergraduate and graduate students have participated in the measurement and reduction of these plates. The bulk of the appreciable labour of transferring the catalog from file cards to magnetic disk was performed by graduate student Stephen Hulbert. The author is grateful to observers who have communicated unpublished or prepublication discoveries. and for the continued support of the National Science Foundation, without which there would have been no Warner and Swasey surveys and no catalog.
(End) C. B. Stephenson and N. G. Roman [NASA/NSSDC/ADC] 1994-05-19
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