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J/MNRAS/460/4150    JCMT Gould Belt Survey: W40 complex      (Rumble+, 2016)

The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex. Rumble D., Hatchell J., Pattle K., Kirk H., Wilson T., Buckle J., Berry D.S., Broekhoven-Fiene H., Currie M.J., Fich M., Jenness T., Johnstone D., Mottram J.C., Nutter D., Pineda J.E., Quinn C., Salji C., Tisi S., Walker-Smith S., Di Francesco J., Hogerheijde M.R., Ward-Thompson D., Bastien P., Bresnahan D., Butner H., Chen M., Chrysostomou A., Coude S., Davis C.J., Drabek-Maunder E., Duarte-Cabral A., Fiege J., Friberg P., Friesen R., Fuller G.A., Graves S., Greaves J., Gregson J., Holland W., Joncas G., Kirk J.M., Knee L.B.G., Mairs S., Marsh K., Matthews B.C., Moriarty-Schieven G., Mowat C., Rawlings J., Richer J., Robertson D., Rosolowsky E., Sadavoy S., Thomas H., Tothill N., Viti S., White G.J., Wouterloot J., Yates J., Zhu M. <Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 460, 4150-4175 (2016)> =2016MNRAS.460.4150R (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: H II regions ; YSOs ; Photometry, millimetric/submm ; Stars, masses Keywords: radiative transfer - catalogues; stars: formation; H II regions - submillimetre: general Abstract: We present SCUBA-2 450µm and 850µm observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by constructing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity spectral index, β=1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.8-arcsec resolution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36K with a mean temperature of 20±3K. Clump temperature is strongly correlated with proximity to the external OB association and there is no evidence that the embedded protostars significantly heat the dust. We identify 31 clumps that have cores with densities greater than 105cm-3. 13 of these cores contain embedded Class 0/I protostars. Many cores are associated with bright-rimmed clouds seen in Herschel 70µm images. From JCMT HARP observations of the 12CO 3-2 line, we find contamination of the 850µm band of up to 20 per cent. We investigate the free-free contribution to SCUBA-2 bands from large-scale and ultracompact HII regions using archival VLA data and find the contribution is limited to individual stars, accounting for 9 per cent of flux per beam at 450µm or 12 per cent at 850µm in these cases. We conclude that radiative heating has potentially influenced the formation of stars in the Dust Arc sub-region, favouring Jeans stable clouds in the warm east and fragmentation in the cool west. Description: Aquila was observed with SCUBA-2 (Holland et al., 2013MNRAS.430.2513H) between 2012 April 21 and July 5 as part of the JCMT GBS MJLSG33 SCUBA-2 Serpens Campaign. Four separate fully sampled 30 arcmin diameter circular continuum observations (PONG1800 mapping mode) were taken simultaneously at 850um and 450um, and subsequently combined into mosaics. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table2.dat 60 267 *Our composite YSO catalogue table5.dat 312 82 Submillimetre clumps and their respective SCUBA-2 and Herschel fluxes and properties in the W40 complex table7.dat 114 31 Dense cores in the W40 complex
Note on table2.dat: produced from the combined SGBS (Dunham et al., 2015, Cat. J/ApJS/220/11), the Mallick et al. (2013, Cat. J/ApJ/779/113) Spitzer catalogue, the Maury et al. (2011A&A...535A..77M) MAMBO catalogue, the Kuhn etal. (2010, Cat. J/ApJ/725/2485) X-ray catalogue, and the Rodriguez et al. (2010, Cat. J/AJ/140/968) catalogue of radio YSOs.
See also: J/ApJ/725/2485 : X-rays from the star-forming complex W40 (Kuhn+, 2010) J/AJ/140/968 : A cluster of compact radio sources in W40 (Rodriguez+, 2010) J/ApJ/779/113 : IR photometry of YSOs in the W40 region (Mallick+, 2013) J/ApJS/220/11 : SEDs of Spitzer YSOs in the Gould Belt (Dunham+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 22 A22 --- Name 2MASS or CXO name (2MASSHHMMSSss+DDMMSSss, or position (HH:MM:SS-DD:MM:SS.s) 24 I1 --- Class [0/4] YSO class 26- 36 F11.7 deg RAdeg Right ascension (J2000) 38- 49 F12.9 deg DEdeg Declination (J2000) 51- 55 F5.2 --- alphaE ? Spectroscopic index (1) 57- 60 I4 K TbolE ? Bolometric temperature (1)
Note (1): as published by Dunham et al. (2015, Cat. J/ApJS/220/11)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 --- Seq [1/82] Sequential number 4- 11 F8.4 deg RAdeg Right ascension (J2000) 13- 19 F7.4 deg DEdeg Declination (J2000) 21- 25 F5.2 Jy F450 Integrated SCUBA-2 flux at 450um over the clump properties (1) 27- 32 F6.3 Jy F850 Integrated SCUBA-2 flux at 850um over the clump properties (2) 34- 49 F16.11 MJy/sr FH70 Mean Herschel 70um intensity. 51- 67 E17.15 Jy F21cm Mean VLA 21cm intensity at 15 arcsec pixels 69- 84 F16.13 Msun Mass Mass (3) 86-100 F15.13 Msun e_Mass rms uncertainty on Mass 102-114 F13.10 K Temp Mean temperature as calculated from the temperature maps 116-129 F14.12 K e_Temp rms uncertainty on Temp (4) 131-147 F17.11 10+21cm-2 CD Peak column density of the clump (in 1021H2/cm2) 149-162 F14.11 10+21cm-2 e_CD rms uncertainty on CD (in 1021H2/cm2) (5) 164-179 F16.14 pc Diam Flux weighted effective diameter 181-194 F14.7 cm-3 Dens Average volume density of a dense core along the line of sight 196-211 F16.12 pc-2 YSOD YSO density (YSO per pc2) (6) 213-227 F15.13 pc-2 e_YSOD rms uncertainty on YSO 229 I1 --- sumPROTO Number of protostars per clump (6) 231-245 F15.12 Msun MJ Jean mass (7) 247-260 F14.12 Msun e_MJ rms uncertainty on MJ 262-276 F15.13 --- M/MJ Mass ratio 278-292 F15.13 --- e_M/MJ rms uncertainty on M/MJ 294-308 F15.13 pc Dist Projected distance between clump and OS1a, the primary ionizing star in the W40 complex OB association 310-312 I3 pix Area Clump area
Note (1): The uncertainty at 450um is 0.017Jy/pix. There is an additional systematic error in calibration of 10.6 per cent at 450um. Note (2): The uncertainty at 850um is 0.0025Jy/pix. There is an additional systematic error in calibration of 3.4 per cent at 850um. Note (3): As calculated with equation (5). These results do not include the systematic error in distance (10 per cent) or opacity (up to a factor of 2). Note (4): Uncertainty is the mean pixel standard deviation, as propagated through the method. Where no temperature data are available an arbitrary value of 15±2K is assigned that is consistent with previous authors (Johnstone et al., 2000ApJ...545..327J; Kirk et al., 2006, Cat. J/ApJ/646/1009; Rumble et al., 2015, Cat. J/MNRAS/448/1551). Note (5): These results do not include the systematic error in distance or opacity . Note (6): calculated from the composite YSO catalogue outlined in Section 2.3 Note (7): as calculated with equation (7). These results do not include the systematic error in distance.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 --- Seq [1/62] Sequential number (Clump ID, W40-SMM), as in table 5 4- 11 F8.4 deg RAdeg Right ascension (J2000) 13- 19 F7.4 deg DEdeg Declination (J2000) 21- 35 F15.12 Msun Mass Mass 37- 51 F15.13 Msun e_Mass rms uncertainty on Mass 53- 67 F15.13 pc Diam Flux weighted effective diameter (1) 69- 81 F13.6 cm-3 Dens Average volume density of a dense core along the line of sight (2) 83 I1 --- sumPROTO ?=- Number of protostars per clump (3) 85- 98 F14.12 --- M/MJ Mass ratio 100-114 F15.13 --- e_M/MJ Mass ratio
Note (1): Flux weighted effective diameter as calculated by the clump-finding algorithm FELLWALKER (values were not deconvolved with respect to the JCMT beam). Note (2): Each observation is a lower limit as effective size of the cloud is typically larger than a core. A dense core is defined where the density limit is greater than 105cm-3, a value five times greater than the typical density of a star forming filament (2x104cm-3, Andre et al., 2014, in Protostars and Planets VI, Tuscon, Univ. Arizona Press, 27) and where the gas and dust temperatures are well coupled (Goldsmith, 2001ApJ...557..736G). Note (3): - for clumps beyond the coverage of our composite YSO catalogue.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 24-Nov-2017
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