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J/MNRAS/458/3341 42 millisecond pulsars high-precision timing (Desvignes+, 2016)

High-precision timing of 42 millisecond pulsars with the European Pulsar Timing Array. Desvignes G., Caballero R.N., Lentati L., Verbiest J.P.W., Champion D.J., Stappers B.W., Janssen G.H., Lazarus P., Oslowski S., Babak S., Bassa C.G., Brem P., Burgay M., Cognard I., Gair J.R., Graikou E., Guillemot L., Hessels J.W.T., Jessner A., Jordan C., Karuppusamy R., Kramer M., Lassus A., Lazaridis K., Lee K.J., Liu K., Lyne A.G., Mckee J., Mingarelli C.M.F., Perrodin D., Petiteau A., Possenti A., Purver M.B., Rosado P.A., Sanidas S., Sesana A., Shaifullah G., Smits R., Taylor S.R., Theureau G., Tiburzi C., Van Haasteren R., Vecchio A. <Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 458, 3341-3380 (2016)> =2016MNRAS.458.3341D (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Pulsars ; Proper motions ; Stars, distances Keywords: proper motions - stars: distances - pulsars: general Abstract: We report on the high-precision timing of 42 radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) observed by the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). This EPTA Data Release 1.0 extends up to mid-2014 and baselines range from 7-18yr. It forms the basis for the stochastic gravitational-wave background, anisotropic background, and continuous-wave limits recently presented by the EPTA elsewhere. The Bayesian timing analysis performed with TEMPONEST yields the detection of several new parameters: seven parallaxes, nine proper motions and, in the case of six binary pulsars, an apparent change of the semimajor axis. We find the NE2001 Galactic electron density model to be a better match to our parallax distances (after correction from the Lutz-Kelker bias) than the M2 and M3 models by Schnitzeler. However, we measure an average uncertainty of 80 per cent (fractional) for NE2001, three times larger than what is typically assumed in the literature. We revisit the transverse velocity distribution for a set of 19 isolated and 57 binary MSPs and find no statistical difference between these two populations. We detect Shapiro delay in the timing residuals of PSRs J1600-3053 and J1918-0642, implying pulsar and companion masses mp=1.22+0.5-0.35M, mc=0.21+0.06-0.04M and mp=1.25+0.6-0.4M_☉, mc=0.23+0.07-0.05M, respectively. Finally, we use the measurement of the orbital period derivative to set a stringent constraint on the distance to PSRs J1012+5307 and J1909-3744, and set limits on the longitude of ascending node through the search of the annual-orbital parallax for PSRs J1600-3053 and J1909-3744. Description: This paper presents the EPTA data set, up to mid-2014, that was gathered from the 'historical' pulsar instrumentations at EFF, JBO, NRT and WSRT with, respectively, the EBPP (Effelsberg-Berkeley Pulsar Processor), DFB (Digital FilterBank), BON (Berkeley-Orleans-Nancay) and PuMa (Pulsar Machine) backends. The data recorded with the newest generation of instrumentations, e.g. PSRIX at EFF (Lazarus et al., 2016MNRAS.458..868L) and PuMaII at WSRT (Karuppusamy, Stappers & van Straten 2008PASP..120..191K), will be part of a future EPTA data release. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 89 42 Summary of the 42-pulsar data set tab2-12.dat 517 42 Timing model parameters table13.dat 95 42 Summary of pulsar parallaxes and distance estimates table14.dat 58 19 Summary of the transverse motion of the isolated MSPs table15.dat 58 57 Summary of the transverse motion of the binary MSPs table17.dat 74 7 Table of pulsar and companion masses tablea1.dat 79 257 Summary of the EPTA data set refs.dat 107 55 References
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- PSR PSR name (JHHMM+DDMM) 11 A1 --- n_PSR [+] Note on PSR (1) 13- 31 A19 --- Obs Observatories that contributed to the data set 33- 36 I4 --- NTOAs Number of TOAs 38- 41 F4.1 yr Tspan Time span of the data set 43- 47 F5.2 us e_TOA Median TOA uncertainty taking into account the white noise parameters 'EFAC' and 'EQUAD' 49- 53 F5.2 us rms rms timing residual (2) 55- 58 F4.1 ms PSpin Spin period 60- 65 F6.2 d POrb ?=- Orbital period 67- 70 F4.2 mJy S1400 Median flux density of the pulsar at 1400MHz (3) 72- 89 A18 --- Ref References for the last published timing solution, in refs.dat file
Note (1): + indicates pulsars that are also named following the B1950 coordinate system, with the names B1855+09, B1937+21 and B1953+29, respectively. Note (2): The quoted rms values are obtained from keeping the noise parameters, DM and red noise models at the maximum likelihood value while subtracting the DM signal from the residuals. Because of the degeneracy between the DM and red noise models, especially where no multifrequency data are available, the resulting rms quoted here can be biased towards smaller values (when the removed DM signal absorbed part of the red noise signal). Note (3): see Section 2.3 for more details about the flux measurements.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tab2-12.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- PSR PSR name (JHHMM+DDMM) 12- 16 I5 d MJD1 MJD range 17 A1 --- --- [-] 18- 22 I5 d MJD2 MJD range 24- 27 I4 --- NTOAs Number of TOAs 29- 33 F5.2 us rms rms timing residual 35- 39 I5 d EpochR [55000] Reference epoch (MJD) 41- 42 I2 h RAh Right ascension (J2000) (2) 44- 45 I2 min RAm Right ascension (J2000) (2) 47- 56 F10.7 s RAs Right ascension (J2000) (2) 58- 65 F8.7 s e_RAs rms uncertainty on Right ascension (1) 67 A1 --- DE- Declination sign (J2000) (2) 68- 69 I2 deg DEd Declination (J2000) (2) 71- 72 I2 arcmin DEm Declination (J2000) (2) 74- 82 F9.6 arcsec DEs Declination (J2000) (2) 85- 91 F7.6 arcsec e_DEs rms uncertainty on Declination (1) 93- 99 F7.3 mas/yr pmRA Proper motion in RA 101-105 F5.3 mas/yr e_pmRA rms uncertainty on pmRA (1) 107-113 F7.3 mas/yr pmDE Proper motion in DE 115-120 F6.3 mas/yr e_pmDE rms uncertainty on pmDE (1) 122-139 F18.15 ms Per Period 141-148 E8.4 ms e_Per rms uncertainty on Per (1) 150-158 F9.6 10-2 dP/dt Period derivative, dP/dt 160-166 F7.6 10-2 e_dP/dt rms uncertainty on dP/dt (1) 168-171 F4.2 mas plx ?=- Parallax 173-175 F3.2 mas e_plx ?=- rms uncertainty on Parallax (1) 178-185 F8.4 pc/cm3 DM Dispersion measure (2) 187-191 F5.4 pc/cm3 e_DM rms uncertainty on DM (1) 193-200 F8.5 pc/cm3/yr DM1 First dispersion measure derivative 202-207 F6.5 pc/cm3/yr e_DM1 rms uncertainty on DM1 (1) 209-217 F9.6 pc/cm3/yr2 DM2 Second dispersion measure derivative 219-225 F7.6 pc/cm3/yr2 e_DM2 rms uncertainty on DM2 (1) 227-242 F16.12 d Pb ? Orbital period 244-254 E11.4 d e_Pb ? rms uncertainty on Orbital period (1) 256-266 F11.5 d T0 ? Epoch of periastron, T0 (MJD) 268-273 F6.5 d e_T0 ? rms uncertainty on T0 (1) 275-285 F11.8 --- x ? Projected semimajor axis, x, of the pulsar orbit (in lt-s unit) 287-295 F9.8 --- e_x ? rms uncertainty on projected semimajor axis (in lt-s unit) 297-304 F8.4 deg Omega0 ? Longitude of periastron 306-312 F7.4 deg e_Omega0 ? rms uncertainty on Omega0 (1) 314-323 E10.6 --- e ? Orbital eccentricity, e 325-329 E5.2 --- e_e ? rms uncertainty on e (1) 331-339 E9.4 --- kappa ? kappa = e x sin(Omega0) parameter 341-348 E8.4 --- e_kappa ? rms uncertainty on kappa (1) 350-359 E10.5 --- eta ? eta = e x cos(Omega0) parameter 360-363 F4.1 --- E_eta ? Error on eta, upper value (1) 366-371 E6.3 --- e_eta ? rms uncertainty on eta or error lower value (1) 373-387 F15.9 d Tan ? Time of ascending node (MJD) 389-395 E7.4 d e_Tan ? rms uncertainty on Tan (1) 397-401 F5.1 deg GLON Galactic longitude (3) 403-407 F5.1 deg GLAT Galactic latitude (3) 409-412 I4 pc d ? Parallax distance corrected from the LK bias (3) 413 A1 --- --- [+] 414-417 I4 pc E_d ? Error on d (upper value) 418 A1 --- --- [-] 419-421 I3 pc e_d ? Error on d (lower value) 423-428 F6.3 mas/yr CPM Composite proper motion, µ (3) 430-435 F6.3 mas/yr e_CPM rms uncertainty on CPM (1) 437-443 F7.5 10-20 dP/dtSHK SHK contribution to period derivative 445-451 F7.5 10-20 e_dP/dtSHK ? rms uncertainty on dP/dtSHK (1) 453-462 F10.7 10-20 dP/dtKZ KZ contribution to period derivative 464-471 F8.7 10-20 e_dP/dtKZ ? rms uncertainty on dP/dtKZ (1) 473-480 F8.5 10-20 dP/dtDGR DRG contribution to period derivative 482-486 F5.4 10-20 e_dP/dtDGR ? rms uncertainty on dP/dtDGR (1) 488-494 F7.4 10-10 dP/dtInt Intrinsic period derivative 495-499 F5.3 10-10 e_dP/dtInt ? rms uncertainty on dP/dtInt (1) 501 A1 --- l_Age Limit flag on Age 502-506 F5.2 Gyr Age ? Characteristic age, τc (Gyr) 508 A1 --- l_B Limit flag on B 509-512 F4.1 10+8G B ? Surface magnetic field 514-517 F4.2 Msun M2min ? Minimum companion mass (4)
Note (1): 68.3 per cent confidence uncertainties and come from the one-dimensional marginalized posterior distribution of each parameter. Note (2): The position, spin period and DM are given for the reference epoch of MJD=55000. Note (3): The derived parameters show the Galactic longitude (l) and latitude (b), the parallax distance corrected from the LK bias (d), the composite proper motion (mu). Note (4): For binary pulsars, the minimum companion mass, assuming a pulsar mass of 1.2 M.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table13.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- PSR Pulsar name (JHHMM+DDMM) 12- 17 F6.2 pc/cm3 DM Dispersion measure 19- 22 F4.2 kpc Dist1 Distance based on the NE2001 electron density model DNE2001 (Cordes & Lazio, 24- 27 F4.2 kpc DistM2 Distance based on the M2 model 29 A1 --- l_DistM3 Limit flag on DistM3 30- 34 F5.2 kpc DistM3 Distance based on the M3 model 36 A1 --- l_Dist Limit flag on Dist 37- 41 F5.2 kpc Dist ?=- Upper limit on the distance DdP/dt (only indicated when this limit is <15kpc; see text) 43- 46 F4.2 mas plxP ?=- Previously published parallax value (reference in table 1) 48- 51 F4.2 mas e_plxP ? rms uncertainty on plxP 53- 56 F4.2 mas plx ?=- our new measurement of the parallax 58- 61 F4.2 mas e_plx ? rms uncertainty on plx 62 A1 --- n_plx [*] Note on plx (1) 64- 67 F4.2 mas plxCorr ?=- LK-bias-corrected parallax 69- 72 F4.2 mas E_plxCorr ? Error on plxCorr (upper value) 74- 77 F4.2 mas e_plxCorr ? Error on plxCorr (loper value) 78 A1 --- n_plxCorr [*] Note on plxCorr (1) 80- 83 F4.2 kpc DistPlx ?=- Distance corresponding to plx and plxCorr 85- 88 F4.2 kpc E_DistPlx ? Error on DistPlx (upper value) 90- 93 F4.2 kpc e_DistPlx ? Error on DistPlx (lower value) 94 A1 --- n_DistPlx [*] Note on DistPlx (1) 95 A1 --- Note [a] Note (2)
Note (1): * : updated or new parallax measurements as part of this work. Note (2): a: For PSR J0218+4232, the parallax was obtained through VLBI observations (Du et al. 2014ApJ...782L..38D) but the inferred large distance was later corrected by Verbiest & Lorimer (2014MNRAS.444.1859V) for the LK bias.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1[45].dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- PSR Pulsar name (JHHMM+DDMM) 12- 19 F8.4 mas/yr CPM Composite proper motion 21- 27 F7.4 mas/yr e_CPM rms uncertainty on CPM 28 A1 --- n_CPM [n] n for new proper-motion measurement 30- 35 F6.1 pc Dist Best distance estimates available (1) 37- 42 F6.1 pc e_Dist ? rms uncertainty on Dist 43 A1 --- n_Dist [*] * for NE2001 distance 45- 49 F5.1 km/s vt Transverse velocity corresponding to distance Dist (2D velocity) 51- 55 F5.1 km/s e_vt rms uncertainty on vt 57- 58 A2 --- Ref Reference with published proper motion and distance measurements, in refs.dat file
Note (1): The distances refer to the best distance estimates available, either the parallax when uncertainties are given or the NE2001 distance (indicated by *) where a 80 per cent error is assumed.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table17.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- PSR PSR name (JHHMM+DDMM) 12- 15 F4.2 Msun MpPrev ? Previous pulsar mass 17- 20 F4.2 Msun e_MpPrev ? rms uncertainty on previous pulsar mass 21 A1 --- n_MpPrev [+] Note on MpPrev (1) 23- 27 F5.3 Msun McPrev ? Previous companion mass 29- 33 F5.3 Msun e_McPrev ? rms uncertainty on previous companion mass 34 A1 --- n_McPrev [*] Note on McPrev (1) 36- 37 A2 --- Ref Reference for previous masses, in refs.dat file 39- 42 F4.2 Msun Mp New pulsar mass 44- 48 F5.3 Msun E_Mp Error on Mp (upper value) 50- 54 F5.3 Msun e_Mp Error on Mp (lower value) 56- 60 F5.3 Msun Mc New companion mass 62- 67 F6.4 Msun E_Mc Error on Mc (upper value) 69- 74 F6.4 Msun e_Mc Error on Mc (lower value)
Note (1): Note as follows: + = the pulsar masses were not reported by Verbiest et al. (2009MNRAS.400..951V) so we quote the pulsar mass value based on the mass function and their companion mass. * = Nice et al. (2008, AIP Conf. Proc. Vol. 983, 453) did not report on the companion mass in their proceedings.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- PSR PSR name (JHHMM+DDMM) 12- 13 I2 --- Nj Nmber of JUMPs included in the timing solution 15- 20 F6.2 --- ARN Maximum likelihood results for the red noise model, dimensionless amplitude A 22- 25 F4.2 --- gammaRN Maximum likelihood results for the red noise model, spectral index gamma 27- 32 F6.2 --- ADM Maximum likelihood results for the DM model, dimensionless amplitude A 34- 37 F4.2 --- gammaDM Maximum likelihood results for the DM model, spectral index gamma 39- 42 A4 --- Obs Observatory 44- 49 F6.1 MHz Freq Frequency band 51- 56 F6.1 yr Year1 Year range 57 A1 --- --- [-] 58- 63 F6.1 yr Year2 Year range 65- 68 I4 --- NTOAs Number of TOAs 70- 73 F4.2 --- Ef Maximum likelihood values for the EFAC parameter 75- 79 F5.2 [s] Eq Maximum likelihood values for the EQUAD parameter, in log10-base
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- Ref Reference code 5- 23 A19 --- BibCode BibCode 25- 54 A30 --- Aut Author's name 56-107 A52 --- Com Comments
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 17-Feb-2017
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