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J/MNRAS/458/2221    ATLAS3D Project. XXXI                    (Nyland+, 2016)

The ATLAS3D Project. XXXI. Nuclear radio emission in nearby early-type galaxies. Nyland K., Young L.M., Wrobel J.M., Sarzi M., Morganti R., Alatalo K., Blitz L., Bournaud F., Bureau M., Cappellari M., Crocker A.F., Davies R.L., Davis T.A., De Zeeuw P.T., Duc P.-A., Emsellem E., Khochfar S., Krajnovic D., Kuntschner H., McDermid R.M., Naab T., Oosterloo T., Scott N., Serra P., Weijmans A.-M. <Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 458, 2221-2268 (2016)> =2016MNRAS.458.2221N (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Galaxy catalogs ; Galaxies, nearby ; Radio continuum ; Morphology Keywords: galaxies: active - galaxies: nuclei - radio continuum: galaxies Abstract: We present the results of a high-resolution, 5GHz, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array study of the nuclear radio emission in a representative subset of the atlas3D survey of early-type galaxies (ETGs). We find that 51±4 per cent of the ETGs in our sample contain nuclear radio emission with luminosities as low as 1018W/Hz. Most of the nuclear radio sources have compact (≲25-110pc) morphologies, although ∼10 per cent display multicomponent core+jet or extended jet/lobe structures. Based on the radio continuum properties, as well as optical emission line diagnostics and the nuclear X-ray properties, we conclude that the majority of the central 5GHz sources detected in the atlas3D galaxies are associated with the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, even at subarcsecond spatial resolution, the nuclear radio emission in some cases appears to arise from low-level nuclear star formation rather than an AGN, particularly when molecular gas and a young central stellar population is present. This is in contrast to popular assumptions in the literature that the presence of a compact, unresolved, nuclear radio continuum source universally signifies the presence of an AGN. Additionally, we examine the relationships between the 5 GHz luminosity and various galaxy properties including the molecular gas mass and - for the first time - the global kinematic state. We discuss implications for the growth, triggering, and fuelling of radio AGNs, as well as AGN-driven feedback in the continued evolution of nearby ETGs. Description: The 125 ETGs included in our new high-resolution 5GHz VLA observations are selected from the atlas3D survey (Paper I, 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/413/813). A list of these ETGs is provided in Table A1. Since one of our goals is to probe the relationship between LLAGN-driven radio emission and molecular gas content, we included as many of the 56 IRAM single-dish CO detections as possible. We excluded only four CO-detected ETGs from our new VLA observations (NGC 3245, NGC 4203, NGC 4476, and NGC 5866). NGC 4476 was excluded due to its proximity (12.6 arcmin) to the bright radio source hosted by NGC 4486 (M87). The other three CO-detected sources (NGC 3245, NGC 4203, and NGC 5866) were not included in our new observations based on the availability of archival VLA data with similar properties. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file tablea1.dat 76 125 VLA 5GHz sample and flux density measurements tablea2.dat 108 53 5GHz spatial parameters of detections tablea3.dat 82 16 5GHz image properties of sources with multiple components tablea4.dat 80 16 5GHz spatial properties of sources with multiple components tablea5.dat 76 29 *Archival high-resolution radio continuum data tablea6.dat 59 148 Additional galaxy properties tablec1.dat 55 53 Relative contour levels in the 5GHz continuum maps
Note on tablea5.dat: The additional atlas3D galaxies included in this study with radio continuum observations at high spatial resolution (θFWHM≲1-arcsec) and near a frequency of 5GHz in the literature.
See also: J/MNRAS/413/813 : ATLAS3D project. I (Cappellari+, 2011) J/MNRAS/414/888 : ATLAS3D project. III (Emsellem+, 2011) J/MNRAS/414/940 : ATLAS3D project. IV (Young+, 2011) J/MNRAS/416/1680 : ATLAS3D project. VII (Cappellari+, 2011) J/MNRAS/433/2812 : ATLAS3D project. XXIII (Krajnovic+, 2013) J/MNRAS/446/120 : ATLAS3D project. XXIX (Duc+, 2015) J/MNRAS/448/3484 : ATLAS3D Project. XXX (McDermid+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- f_Name [a] Flag on Name (1) 2- 10 A9 --- Name Galaxy name 11 A1 --- n_Name [b] Note on Name (1) 13- 16 F4.1 Mpc Dist Atlas3D distance (Paper I, Cappellari et al. 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/413/813) 18 I1 --- Virgo [0/1] Virgo membership 20 A1 --- F/S kinematic class (Paper III, Emsellem et al., 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/414/888) (G1) 22- 26 F5.2 [Msun] logMJAM ?=- Dynamically modelled stellar mass (Paper XV, Cappellari et al., 2013MNRAS.432.1709C) 28 A1 --- l_logMH2 Limit flag on logMH2 29- 32 F4.2 [Msun] logMH2 Molecular hydrogen mass (Paper IV, Young et al., 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/414/940) 34 A1 --- l_SW91 Limit flag on SW91 35- 38 F4.1 mJy SW91 ?=- Integrated flux density from the 5GHz study of nearby ETGs carried-out by Wrobel & Heeschen (1991AJ....101..148W) at 5 arcsec resolution 40- 42 F3.1 mJy e_SW91 ? rms uncertainty on SW91 44- 45 I2 uJy/beam rms ?=- Average rms noise (3) 47 A1 --- l_Speak Limit flag on Speak (3) 48- 52 F5.2 mJy/beam Speak ?=- Peak flux density (3) 54- 57 F4.2 mJy/beam e_Speak ? rms uncertainty on Speak (3) 60- 64 F5.2 mJy Sint ?=- Integrated flux density (3)(4) 66- 69 F4.2 mJy e_Sint ? rms uncertainty on Sint (3) 71 A1 --- l_logL Limit flag on logL (3) 72- 76 F5.2 [W/Hz] logL ?=- 5 GHz radio luminosity (3)(5)
Note (1): Notes as follows: a = Extended source not well represented by a single two-dimensional Gaussian model. The peak and integrated flux densities were calculated by drawing an aperture at the 3xrms level around the source in the casa Viewer and then using the IMSTAT task to determine the flux parameters. b = Multicomponent source. The integrated flux density refers to the sum of all components. See Table A3 for information on the properties of individual components. Note (3): refer to data from our new high-resolution 5GHz VLA observations. Note (4): Note that measurements of the integrated flux density are only given for sources that are formally resolved by JMFIT. Note (5): When an integrated flux density is given, L is based on the integrated flux density. If only a peak flux density is given (either a measurement or an upper limit), then L is based on the peak flux density.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- f_Name [a] Flag on Name (1) 2- 10 A9 --- Name galaxy name 11 A1 --- n_Name [b] Note on Name (1) 13 A1 --- Morph [RU] Radio morphology based on the output of the JMFIT task in aips (G2) 15- 16 I2 h RAh Right ascension (J2000) of the emission at the peak flux density (G3) 18- 19 I2 min RAm Right ascension (J2000) of the emission at the peak flux density (G3) 21- 26 F6.3 s RAs Right ascension (J2000) of the emission at the peak flux density (G3) 28 A1 --- DE- Declination sign (J2000) of the central position of the emission (G3) 29- 30 I2 deg DEd Declination of the central position of the emission (G3) 32- 33 I2 arcmin DEm Declination of the central position of the emission (G3) 35- 39 F5.2 arcsec DEs Declination of the central position of the emission (G3) 41- 44 F4.2 arcsec Beam1 Angular dimension of the synthesized beam (major axis) 45 A1 --- --- [x] 46- 49 F4.2 arcsec Beam2 Angular dimension of the synthesized beam (minor axis) 51- 56 F6.2 deg BPA Beam position angle, measured anti clockwise from North 58 A1 --- l_thetaM Limit flag on thetaM 59- 63 F5.2 arcsec thetaM Radius upper limit or major axis of the emission (4) 65- 68 F4.2 arcsec e_thetaM ? rms uncertainty on thetaM 69 A1 --- --- [x] 70- 73 F4.2 arcsec thetam ? Minor axis of the emission (4) 75- 78 F4.2 arcsec e_thetam ? rms uncertainty on thetam 80- 85 F6.2 deg PA ?=- Position angle of the emission from JMFIT 87- 91 F5.2 deg e_PA ? rms uncertainty on PA 93 A1 --- l_Maj Limit flag on Maj 94-100 F7.2 pc Maj Linear radius upper limit or major axis of the emission in physical units 101 A1 --- --- [x] 102-108 F7.2 pc Min ? Linear minor axis of the emission in physical units
Note (1): Notes as follows: a = Extended source not well-represented by a two-dimensional Gaussian model. The source dimensions were measured using the casa Viewer. b = Multicomponent source. The spatial dimensions refer to the source closest to the centre of the galaxy based on ground-based optical measurements. See Table A4 for information on individual components. Note (4): Angular dimensions of the emission (major x minor axis). If JMFIT was only able to deconvolve the major axis of the source, then the minor axis extent is given as 0.00. The errors are from JMFIT and are only given if the emission was successfully deconvolved in at least one dimension and categorized as resolved. For non-Gaussian sources, source dimensions were determined using the casa Viewer and no error is reported.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Name Galaxy name 10- 28 A19 --- Comp Radio component name. The brightest component in each galaxy is listed first 30- 31 I2 h RAh Right ascension (J2000) at the location of the peak flux density 33- 34 I2 min RAm Right ascension (J2000) at the location of the peak flux density 36- 41 F6.3 s RAs Right ascension (J2000) at the location of the peak flux density 43 A1 --- DE- Declination sign (J2000) at the location of the peak flux density 44- 45 I2 deg DEd Declination (J2000) at the location of the peak flux density 47- 48 I2 arcmin DEm Declination (J2000) at the location of the peak flux density 50- 54 F5.2 arcsec DEs Declination (J2000) at the location of the peak flux density 56- 60 F5.2 mJy/beam Speak Peak flux density 62- 65 F4.2 mJy/beam e_Speak rms uncertainty on Speak 67- 71 F5.2 mJy Sint ?=- Integrated flux density 73- 76 F4.2 mJy e_Sint ? rms uncertainty on Sint 78- 82 F5.2 [W/Hz] logL Radio luminosity (1)
Note (1): When an integrated flux density is given, L is based on the integrated flux density. If only a peak flux density is given (either a measurement or an upper limit), then L is based on the peak flux density.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Name Galaxy name 10- 28 A19 --- Comp Radio component name. The brightest component in each galaxy is listed first 30 A1 --- Morph [RU] Radio morphology as reported by JMFIT (G2) 32 A1 --- l_thetaM Limit flag on thetaM 33- 36 F4.2 arcsec thetaM Radius upper limit or major axis of the emission (G3) 38- 41 F4.2 arcsec e_thetaM ? rms uncertainty on thetaM 42 A1 --- --- [x] 43- 46 F4.2 arcsec thetam ? Minor axis of the emission (G3) 48- 51 F4.2 arcsec e_thetam ? rms uncertainty on thetam 53- 58 F6.2 deg PA ?=- Position angle of the emission from JMFIT 60- 64 F5.2 deg e_PA ? rms uncertainty on PA 66 A1 --- l_Maj Limit flag on Maj 67- 73 F7.2 pc Maj Linear radius upper limit or major axis of the emission in physical units 74 A1 --- --- [x] 75- 80 F6.2 pc Min ? Linear minor axis of the emission in physical units
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Name Galaxy name 9 A1 --- n_Name [abc] Note on Name (1) 11- 14 F4.1 Mpc Dist Atlas3D distance (Paper I, Cappellari et al. 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/413/813)) 16 I1 --- Virgo [0/1] Virgo membership 18 A1 --- F/S Kinematic class (Paper III, Emsellem et al., 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/414/888) (G1) 20- 24 F5.2 [Msun] logMJAM ?=- Dynamically modelled stellar mass (Paper XV, Cappellari et al., 2013MNRAS.432.1709C)) 26 A1 --- l_logMH2 Limit flag on logMH2 27- 30 F4.2 [Msun] logMH2 Molecular hydrogen mass (Paper IV, Young et al., 2011, Cat. J/MNRAS/414/940) 32- 36 F5.2 mJy SW91 ?=- Integrated flux density from the 5GHz study of nearby ETGs carried-out by Wrobel & Heeschen (1991AJ....101..148W) at 5 arcsec resolution 38- 41 F4.2 mJy e_SW91 ? rms uncertainty on SW91 43- 46 F4.1 GHz Freq Original observing frequency 48- 52 F5.3 arcsec Res Approximate synthesized beam major axis 54 A1 --- l_S5GHz Limit flag on S5GHz 55- 61 F7.2 mJy S5GHz ?=- Integrated nuclear flux density at 5GHz (2) 63- 67 F5.2 mJy/beam e_S5GHz ? rms uncertainty on S5GHz 69 A1 --- l_logL Limit flag on logL 70- 74 F5.2 [W/Hz] logL ?=- Nuclear radio luminosity at 5GHz 76 A1 --- Ref References (3)
Note (1): Notes as follows: a = For NGC 4261, a milliarcsecond-scale spatial resolution VLBA radio flux density is reported. b = Although NGC 4697 and NGC 4477 were included in our new 5GHz VLA observations, the sensitivity and quality of the final images were not sufficient to detect them. We include a literature detection of NGC 4697 (Wrobel et al., 2008ApJ...686..838W) as well as a detection of NGC 4477 from project 12B-191 based on our own independent analysis. c = For NGC 5846, the flux density has been extrapolated from to 5GHz using a spectral index of -0.03. This spectral index was calculated based on high-resolution measurements at 8.4 and 15GHz in Filho et al. (2004A&A...418..429F) and Nagar et al. (2005, Cat. J/A+A/435/521), respectively. Note (2): For measurements originally at frequencies other than 5GHz, the flux densities listed here have been scaled to 5GHz using the source spectral index reported in the literature. If no such spectral index information is available, the flux density is scaled to 5GHz assuming a flat spectral index of α=-0.1, where S~ν^α. Uncertainties are reported as given in the literature when possible. If errors were not reported in the literature, we estimate the flux density uncertainty as described in Section 5. Note (3): References as follows: 1 = Filho, Barthel & Ho (2006A&A...451...71F) 2 = Filho et al. (2004A&A...418..429F) 3 = Kharb et al. (2012AJ....143...78K) 4 = Nagar et al. (2001ApJ...559L..87N) 5 = Nagar et al. (2005, Cat. J/A+A/435/521) 6 = Project 12B-191 7 = Wrobel et al. (2008ApJ...686..838W)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablea6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 A9 --- Name Galaxy name 11- 14 F4.2 [Msun] logMBH Black hole mass 16- 17 I2 --- r_logMBH ? Black hole mass reference (1) 19 A1 --- l_logLX Limit flag on logLX 20- 24 F5.2 [10-7W] logLX ?=- 2-10keV X-ray luminosity from the literature 26- 27 I2 --- r_logLX ?=- X-ray luminosity reference (2) 29 A1 --- l_log(LBol/LEdd) Limit flag on log(LBol/LEdd) 30- 34 F5.2 --- log(LBol/LEdd) ?=- Eddington ratio (3) 36 A1 --- l_logRX Limit flag on logRX 37- 41 F5.2 [-] logRX ?=- Radio-X-ray ratio as defined in Terashima & Wilson (2003ApJ...583..145T) 43- 47 F5.2 [10-7J] logL[OIII] ?=- Nuclear [OIII] luminosity 49- 53 F5.2 0.1nm EW[OIII] ?=- Nuclear [OIII] equivalent width 55- 59 A5 --- Class Nuclear emission line classification
Note (1): for galaxies with dynamical mass estimates available in the literature. If no reference is given, the black hole mass is estimated from the MBH-σ* relation (McConnell & Ma, 2013ApJ...764..184M). References as follows: 1 = Krajnovic et al. (2002A&A...390..423K) 2 = Schulze & Gebhardt (2011ApJ...729...21S) 3 = Bower et al. (2001ApJ...550...75B) 4 = Barth et al. (2001ApJ...555..685B) 5 = van den Bosch & de Zeeuw (2010MNRAS.401.1770V) 6 = Nowak et al. (2010MNRAS.403..646N) 7 = Gultekin et al. (2009ApJ...695.1577G) 8 = Walsh et al. (2012ApJ...753...79W) 9 = Ferrarese, Ford & Jaffe (1996ApJ...470..444F) 10 = Walsh, Barth & Sarzi (2010ApJ...721..762W) 11 = Sarzi et al. (2001ApJ...550...65S) 12 = Rusli et al. (2013AJ....146..160R) 13 = Gebhardt et al. (2011ApJ...729..119G) 14 = Davis et al. (2014MNRAS.444.3427D) Note (2): Details on the computation of this parameter are provided in Section 6.3.2. Note (3): References as follows: 15 = Pellegrini (2010ApJ...717..640P) 16 = Miller et al. (2012ApJ...747...57M) 17 = Kharb et al. (2012AJ....143...78K)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: tablec1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 A9 --- Name Galaxy name 11- 12 I2 uJy/beam rms rms noise 14- 55 A42 --- RC Relative contours
Global notes: Note (G1): F/S flag as follows: F = fast rotator S = slow rotator Note (G2): Radio morphology flag as follows: R = resolved U = unresolved Note (G3): For sources with multiple components denoted by a b symbol, the position listed is that of the component closest to the optical position of the nucleus.
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Cappellari et al., Paper I 2011MNRAS.413..813C, Cat. J/MNRAS/413/813 Krajnovic et al., Paper II 2011MNRAS.414.2923K Emsellem et al., Paper III 2011MNRAS.414..888E, Cat. J/MNRAS/414/888 Young et al., Paper IV 2011MNRAS.414..940Y, Cat. J/MNRAS/414/940 Davis et al., Paper V 2011MNRAS.414..968D Bois et al., Paper VI 2011MNRAS.416.1654B Cappellari et al., Paper VII 2011MNRAS.416.1680C, Cat. J/MNRAS/416/1680 Khochfar et al., Paper VIII 2011MNRAS.417..845K Duc et al., Paper IX 2011MNRAS.417..863D Davis et al., Paper X 2011MNRAS.417..882D Crocker et al., Paper XI 2012MNRAS.421.1298C Lablanche et al., Paper XII 2012MNRAS.424.1495L Serra et al., Paper XIII 2012MNRAS.422.1835S Krajnovic et al., Paper XIV 2013MNRAS.432.1768K Cappellari et al., Paper XV 2013MNRAS.432.1709C Bayet et al., Paper XVI 2013MNRAS.432.1742B Krajnovic et al., Paper XVII 2013MNRAS.432.1768K Alatalo et al., Paper XVIII 2013MNRAS.432.1796A Sarzi et al., Paper XIX 2013MNRAS.432.1845S Cappellari et al., Paper XX 2013MNRAS.432.1862C Scott et al., Paper XXI 2013MNRAS.432.1894S Martig et al., Paper XXII 2013MNRAS.432.1914M Krajnovic et al., Paper XXIII 2013MNRAS.433.2812K, Cat. J/MNRAS/433/2812 Davis et al., Paper XXIV 2013MNRAS.429..534D Cappellari et al., Paper XXV 2013MNRAS.432.1709C Bayet et al., Paper XXVI 2013MNRAS.432.1742B Krajnovic et al., Paper XXVII 2013MNRAS.432.1768K Alatalo et al., Paper XXVIII 2013MNRAS.432.1796A Duc et al., Paper XXIX 2015MNRAS.446..120D McDermid et al., Paper XXX 2015MNRAS.448.3484M, Cat. J/MNRAS/448/3484
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 16-Nov-2017
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