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J/MNRAS/457/2814    SAGE SMC evolved stars candidates        (Srinivasan+, 2016)

The evolved-star dust budget of the Small Magellanic Cloud: the critical role of a few key players. Srinivasan S., Boyer M.L., Kemper F., Meixner M., Sargent B.A., Riebel D. <Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 457, 2814-2838 (2016)> =2016MNRAS.457.2814S (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Magellanic Clouds ; Stars, supergiant ; Photometry Keywords: stars: AGB and post-AGB - stars: carbon - stars: mass-loss - supergiants - Magellanic Clouds Abstract: The life cycle of dust in the interstellar medium is heavily influenced by outflows from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars, a large fraction of which is contributed by a few very dusty sources. We compute the dust input to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by fitting the multi-epoch mid-infrared spectral energy distributions of AGB/RSG candidates with models from the Grid of RSG and AGB ModelS grid, allowing us to estimate the luminosities and dust-production rates (DPRs) of the entire population. By removing contaminants, we guarantee a high-quality data set with reliable DPRs and a complete inventory of the dustiest sources. We find a global AGB/RSG dust-injection rate of (1.3±0.1)x10-6M/yr, in agreement with estimates derived from mid-infrared colours and excess fluxes. As in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a majority (66 per cent) of the dust arises from the extreme AGB stars, which comprise only ∼7 per cent of our sample. A handful of far-infrared sources, whose 24µm fluxes exceed their 8µm fluxes, dominate the dust input. Their inclusion boosts the global DPR by ∼1.5x, making it necessary to determine whether they are AGB stars. Model assumptions, rather than missing data, are the major sources of uncertainty; depending on the choice of dust shell expansion speed and dust optical constants, the global DPR can be up to ∼10 times higher. Our results suggest a non-stellar origin for the SMC dust, barring as yet undiscovered evolved stars with very high DPRs. Description: Using a very careful selection procedure, we produce the most complete data set of mass-losing evolved stars in the SMC to date. We fit dust radiative transfer models to these sources to resolve their chemical types and estimate their luminosities and DPRs. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table5.dat 872 9621 Photometry and SED fit results for our candidate list of evolved stars
See also: II/305 : SAGE LMC and SMC IRAC Source Catalog (IPAC 2009) J/AJ/137/3139 : LMC SAGE. New variable evolved stars and YSOs (Vijh+, 2009) J/AJ/137/4810 : LMC-SAGE AGB star candidates (Srinivasan+, 2009) J/ApJ/723/1195 : SAGE AGB candidates (Riebel+, 2010) J/MNRAS/451/3504 : Classification of IRS sources in the SMC (Ruffle+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 30 A30 --- SAGE SAGE Designation of IRAC source (Mosaic Archive by default; if missing, Epoch 1 Archive) (IRAC_DESIGNATION) 32- 36 A5 --- Class Colour classification (COLOUR_CLASS) 38- 55 A18 --- OGLE3 OGLE-III identifier (OGLE3_ID) 57- 61 A5 --- AKARI AKARI identifier (AKARI_ID) 63- 81 A19 --- WISE WISE identifier (WISE_ID) 83- 90 E8.4 Jy FU ?=-99 Broadband flux in U (FLUXU) 92- 99 E8.4 Jy e_FU ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in U (DFLUXU) 101-108 E8.4 Jy FB ?=-99 Broadband flux in B (FLUXB) 110-117 E8.4 Jy e_FB ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in B (DFLUXB) 119-126 E8.4 Jy FV ?=-99 Broadband flux in V (FLUXV) 128-135 E8.4 Jy e_FV ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in V (DFLUXV) 137-144 E8.4 Jy FI ?=-99 Broadband flux in I (FLUXI) 146-153 E8.4 Jy e_FI ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in I (DFLUXI) 155-162 E8.4 Jy FJ ?=-99 Broadband flux in J (FLUXJ) 164-171 E8.4 Jy e_FJ ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in J (DFLUXJ) 173-181 F9.5 Jy FH ?=-99 Broadband flux in H (FLUXH) 183-190 E8.4 Jy e_FH ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in H (DFLUXH) 192-200 F9.5 Jy FKs ?=-99 Broadband flux in Ks (FLUXK_S) 202-209 E8.4 Jy e_FKs ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in Ks (DFLUXK_S) 211-219 F9.5 Jy F3.6 ?=-99 Broadband flux in Spitzer/IRAC 3.6um (FLUX3_6) 221-228 E8.4 Jy e_F3.6 ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in Spitzer/IRAC 3.6um (DFLUX3_6) 230-237 E8.4 Jy F4.5 ?=-99 Broadband flux in Spitzer/IRAC 4.5um (FLUX4_5) 239-246 E8.4 Jy e_F4.5 ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in Spitzer/IRAC 4.5um (DFLUX4_5) 248-256 F9.5 Jy F5.8 ?=-99 Broadband flux in Spitzer/IRAC 5.8um (FLUX5_8) 258-265 E8.4 Jy e_F5.8 ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in Spitzer/IRAC 5.8um (DFLUX5_8) 267-275 F9.5 Jy F8.0 ?=-99 Broadband flux in Spitzer/IRAC 8.0um (FLUX8_0) 277-284 E8.4 Jy e_F8.0 ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in Spitzer/IRAC 8.0um (DFLUX8_0) 286-294 F9.5 Jy F24 ?=-99 Broadband flux in Spitzer/MIPS 24um (FLUX24) 296-303 E8.4 Jy e_F24 ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in Spitzer/MIPS 24um (DFLUX24) 305-313 F9.5 Jy F11 ?=-99 Broadband flux in AKARI S11 (11um) (FLUXN11) 315-323 F9.5 Jy e_F11 ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in AKARI S11 (11um) (DFLUXN11) 325-333 F9.5 Jy F15 ?=-99 Broadband flux in AKARI L15 (15um) (FLUXL15) 335-342 E8.4 Jy e_F15 ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in AKARI L15 (15um) (DFLUXL15) 344-352 F9.5 Jy FW3 ?=-99 Broadband flux in WISE W3 (11.6 um) (FLUXW3) 354-361 E8.4 Jy e_FW3 ?=-99 Broadband flux uncertainty in WISE W3 (11.6um) (DFLUXW3) 363-370 F8.4 mag Umag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in U (MAGU) 372-380 F9.5 mag e_Umag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in U (DMAGU) 382-389 F8.4 mag Bmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in B (MAGB) 391-399 F9.5 mag e_Bmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in B (DMAGB) 401-408 F8.4 mag Vmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in V (MAGV) 410-418 F9.5 mag e_Vmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in V (DMAGV) 420-428 F9.5 mag Imag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in I (MAGI) 430-438 F9.5 mag e_Imag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in I (DMAGI) 440-448 F9.5 mag Jmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in J (MAGJ) 450-458 F9.5 mag e_Jmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in J (DMAGJ) 460-468 F9.5 mag Hmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in H (MAGH) 470-478 F9.5 mag e_Hmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in H (DMAGH) 480-488 F9.5 mag Ksmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in Ks (MAGK_S) 490-498 F9.5 mag e_Ksmag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in Ks (DMAGK_S) 500-508 F9.5 mag [3.6] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in Spitzer/IRAC 3.6um (MAG3_6) 510-518 F9.5 mag e_[3.6] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in Spitzer/IRAC 3.6um (DMAG3_6) 520-528 F9.5 mag [4.5] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in Spitzer/IRAC 4.5um (MAG4_5) 530-538 F9.5 mag e_[4.5] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in Spitzer/IRAC 4.5um (DMAG4_5) 540-548 F9.5 mag [5.8] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in Spitzer/IRAC 5.8um (MAG5_8) 550-558 F9.5 mag e_[5.8] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in Spitzer/IRAC 5.8um (DMAG5_8) 560-568 F9.5 mag [8.0] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in Spitzer/IRAC 8.0um (MAG8_0) 570-578 F9.5 mag e_[8.0] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in Spitzer/IRAC 8.0um (DMAG8_0) 580-588 F9.5 mag [24] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in Spitzer/MIPS 24um (MAG24) 590-598 F9.5 mag e_[24] ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in Spitzer/MIPS 24um (DMAG24) 600-608 F9.5 mag S11mag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in AKARI S11 (11um) (MAGN11) 610-618 F9.5 mag e_S11mag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in AKARI S11 (11um) (DMAGN11) 620-628 F9.5 mag L15mag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in AKARI L15 (15um) (MAGL15) 630-638 F9.5 mag e_L15mag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in AKARI L15 (15um) (DMAGL15) 640-648 F9.5 mag W3mag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude in WISE W3 (11.6um) (MAGW3) 650-658 F9.5 mag e_W3mag ?=-99 Broadband magnitude uncertainty in WISE W3 (11.6um) (DMAGW3) 660-666 A7 --- FIRGroup FIR group number (FIR_GROUP) 668-670 A3 --- SMCIRS SMC IRS identifier from Ruffle et al. (2015, Cat. J/MNRAS/451/3504) (SMC_IRS) 672-684 A13 --- SpClassS Spectroscopic classification from Ruffle et al. (2015, Cat. J/MNRAS/451/3504) (SAGESPECCLASS) 686 A1 --- GClass GRAMS chemical classification (GRAMS_CLASS) 688-693 A6 --- ClassConf Confidence of chemical classification (CLASS_CONFIDENCE) 695-705 F11.6 --- chi2Best Lowest chi-square for best-fit chemical type (CHISQ_BEST) 707-719 F13.7 --- chi2Alt Lowest chi-square for alternate chemical type (CHISQ_ALT) 721-727 E7.4 Lsun Lum ?=-99 Luminosity (LUM) 729-742 F14.8 Lsun e_Lum ?=-99 Luminosity uncertainty (DLUM) 744-751 F8.6 Msun/yr DPR ?=-99 Dust-production rate (DPR) 753-761 E9.4 Msun/yr e_DPR ?=-99 Dust-production rate uncertainty (DDPR) 763-769 E7.4 --- tau ?=-99 Optical depth at 10um (11.3um) for O-rich (C-rich) model (TAU) 771-778 E8.4 --- e_tau ?=-99 Optical depth uncertainty at 10um (11.3um) for O-rich (C-rich) model (DTAU) 780-783 F4.1 --- Rin ?=-99 Dust shell inner radius in stellar radii (RIN) 785-790 F6.2 --- e_Rin ?=-99 Dust shell inner radius uncertainty in stellar radii (DRIN) 792-800 F9.4 K Tin Temperature at dust shell inner radius (TIN) 802-810 F9.5 K e_Tin Temperature uncertainty at dust shell inner radius (DTIN) 812-815 I4 K Teff ?=-99 Effective temperature of model photosphere (TEFF) 817-819 I3 K e_Teff ?=-99 Effective temperature uncertainty of model photosphere (DTEFF) 821-826 F6.3 [cm/s2] logg ?=-99 Surface gravity of model photosphere (LOGG) 828-836 F9.5 [cm/s2] e_logg ?=-99 Surface gravity uncertainty of model photosphere (DLOGG) 838-872 A35 --- Com Fit comment (FITCOMMENT)
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 18-Nov-2016
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