J/ApJS/234/1 Catalog of M, L, & T dwarfs from PS1 3π Survey (Best+, 2018)
Photometry and proper motions of M, L, and T dwarfs from the Pan-STARRS1 3π Survey. Best W.M.J., Magnier E.A., Liu M.C., Aller K.M., Zhang Z., Burgett W.S., Chambers K.C., Draper P., Flewelling H., Kaiser N., Kudritzki R.-P., Metcalfe N., Tonry J.L., Wainscoat R.J., Waters C. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 234, 1-1 (2018)> =2018ApJS..234....1B (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Stars, brown dwarf ; Photometry, ugriz ; Photometry, infrared ; Proper motions ; Spectral types ; Stars, distances ; Surveys Keywords: brown dwarfs; catalogs; proper motions; stars: kinematics and dynamics stars: late-type Abstract: We present a catalog of 9888 M, L and T dwarfs detected in the Pan-STARRS1 3π Survey (PS1), covering three-quarters of the sky. Our catalog contains nearly all known objects of spectral types L0-T2 in the PS1 field, with objects as early as M0 and as late as T9, and includes PS1, 2MASS, AllWISE, and Gaia DR1 photometry. We analyze the different types of photometry reported by PS1 and use two types in our catalog in order to maximize both depth and accuracy. Using parallaxes from the literature, we construct empirical SEDs for field ultracool dwarfs spanning 0.5-12µm. We determine typical colors of M0-T9 dwarfs and highlight the distinctive colors of subdwarfs and young objects. We combine astrometry from PS1, 2MASS, and Gaia DR1 to calculate new proper motions for our catalog. We achieve a median precision of 2.9mas/yr, a factor of ∼3-10 improvement over previous large catalogs. Our catalog contains proper motions for 2405 M6-T9 dwarfs and includes the largest set of homogeneous proper motions for L and T dwarfs published to date, 406 objects for which there were no previous measurements, and 1176 objects for which we improve upon previous literature values. We analyze the kinematics of ultracool dwarfs in our catalog and find evidence that bluer but otherwise generic late-M and L field dwarfs (i.e., not subdwarfs) tend to have tangential velocities higher than those of typical field objects. With the public release of the PS1 data, this survey will continue to be an essential tool for characterizing the ultracool dwarf population. Description: The catalog includes all L and T dwarfs published as of 2015 December that have photometry in at least one of the five PS1 bands (gP1, rP1, iP1,zP1, yP1). In order to ensure that every object in our catalog is a bona fide M, L, or T dwarf, we included only published objects with spectroscopic classification. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 445 9888 Photometry of M, L, and T dwarfs in the Pan-STARRS1 3π Survey table7.dat 309 9888 Positions and proper motions of M, L, and T dwarfs in the Pan-STARRS1 3π Survey refs.dat 206 472 References
See also: II/246 : 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003) II/328 : AllWISE Data Release (Cutri+ 2013) II/349 : The Pan-STARRS release 1 (PS1) Survey - DR1 (Chambers+, 2016) I/337 : Gaia DR1 (Gaia Collaboration, 2016) J/ApJ/414/279 : Faintest stars (Tinney, 1993) J/ApJS/94/749 : RI photometry of cool dwarfs (Kirkpatrick+ 1994) J/AJ/113/806 : M-Subdwarfs (Gizis 1997) J/ApJ/476/311 : 2MASS M-dwarf discoveries (Kirkpatrick+ 1997) J/A+A/338/1066 : Optical Spectra of DENIS BD Candidate (Tinney+ 1998) J/A+A/380/590 : 30 DENIS late-M dwarfs between 15 and 30pc (Phan-Bao+, 2001) J/ApJ/564/421 : Spectra of T dwarfs. I. (Burgasser+, 2002) J/AJ/123/3409 : SDSS M, L, and T dwarfs (Hawley+, 2002) J/AJ/125/3302 : HST binary very low mass stars and BDs (Gizis+, 2003) J/AJ/126/1526 : IR photometry of ultracool dwarfs (Bouy+, 2003) J/AJ/126/2421 : 2MASS-Selected sample of ultracool dwarfs (Cruz+, 2003) J/AJ/126/2449 : Nearby ultracool dwarfs in galactic plane (Reid+, 2003) J/AJ/126/2487 : T dwarfs in the southern hemisphere (Burgasser+, 2003) J/AJ/127/2856 : Brown dwarfs in the 2MASS Survey (Burgasser+, 2004) J/AJ/127/3553 : JHK photom. & spectroscopy for L and T dwarfs (Knapp+, 2004) J/A+A/440/1061 : Southern red high proper motion objects (Lodieu+, 2005) J/other/ARA+A/43.195 : L and T dwarf stars (Kirkpatrick, 2005) J/A+A/446/515 : Distances of nearby ultracool dwarfs (Phan-Bao+, 2006) J/ApJ/637/1067 : NIR spectral classification of T dwarfs (Burgasser+, 2006) J/PASP/118/659 : RI photometry of 2MASS late M and L dwarfs (Liebert+, 2006) J/AJ/131/2722 : New L and T dwarfs from the SDSS (Chiu+, 2006) J/AJ/132/891 : Binaries among nearby L dwarfs (Reid+, 2006) J/AJ/133/439 : Luminosity function of M7-L8 ultracool dwarfs (Cruz+, 2007) J/AJ/133/971 : Wide companions of low-mass stars and BDs (Allen+, 2007) J/AJ/133/2258 : Activity and kinematics of ultracool dwarfs (Schmidt+, 2007) J/A+A/468/163 : Sample of low mass stars with mu>0.1"/yr (Deacon+, 2007) J/ApJ/667/520 : Proper motions in multiple systems (Caballero, 2007) J/MNRAS/383/831 : New DENIS nearby L and late-M dwarfs (Phan-Bao+, 2008) J/AJ/135/785 : SDSS-DR5 low-mass star spectroscopic sample (West+, 2008) J/MNRAS/384/1399 : Proper motions of field L and T dwarfs (Jameson+, 2008) J/A+A/481/661 : Hyades brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (Bouvier+, 2008) J/ApJ/676/1281 : L and T dwarfs in 2MASS/SDSS (Metchev+, 2008) J/AJ/136/1290 : Ultracool dwarfs from the 2MASS (Reid+, 2008) J/MNRAS/390/1517 : Proper motions of field L and T dwarfs (Casewell+, 2008) J/ApJ/689/1295 : Lithium test implications for BDs (Kirkpatrick+, 2008) J/AJ/137/1 : PMs and astrometry of late-type dwarfs (Faherty+, 2009) J/A+A/497/619 : New ultra-cool dwarfs from SDSS and 2MASS (Zhang+, 2009) J/MNRAS/394/857 : UKIDSS-2MASS proper motion survey (Deacon+, 2009) J/ApJ/710/1142 : SpeX spectroscopy of low mass binaries I. (Burgasser+, 2010) J/AJ/139/1808 : Colors and kinematics of SDSS L dwarfs (Schmidt+, 2010) J/MNRAS/404/1817 : 2MASS/SDSS data for 806 ultracool dwarfs (Zhang+, 2010) J/AJ/142/77 : New T dwarfs identified in Pan-STARRS 1 (Deacon+, 2011) J/ApJS/197/19 : First brown dwarfs discovered by WISE (Kirkpatrick+, 2011) J/ApJ/752/56 : BDKP. III. Plxs for 70 ultracool dwarfs (Faherty+, 2012) J/ApJ/753/156 : T/Y brown dwarfs with WISE photometry (Kirkpatrick+, 2012) J/ApJ/758/56 : Young M dwarfs within 25pc. II. Kinematics (Shkolnik+, 2012) J/MNRAS/427/3280 : Ultra-cool dwarfs at low Galactic latitudes (Folkes+, 2012) J/MNRAS/428/2824 : Rapid optical variability in ultracool dwarfs (Koen, 2013) J/ApJS/205/6 : T dwarf population revealed by WISE (Mace+, 2013) J/PASP/125/809 : New nearby M, L, and T dwarfs (Thompson+, 2013) J/AJ/147/34 : SpeX library of L-type dwarfs (Schneider+, 2014) J/ApJ/784/156 : Plxs for 1507 nearby mid-to-late M dwarfs (Dittmann+, 2014) J/AJ/147/94 : Solar neighborhood. XXXII. L and M dwarfs (Dieterich+, 2014) J/ApJ/794/143 : New SpeX Observations of M7-L6 Dwarfs (Bardalez+, 2014) J/AJ/149/158 : The BUD sample. I. L dwarf activity sample (Schmidt+, 2015) J/MNRAS/449/3651 : L and T dwarfs from UKIDSS LAS (Marocco+, 2015) J/ApJ/814/118 : L/T transition dwarfs search with PS1+WISE II. (Best+, 2015) J/AJ/151/160 : 1103 parallaxes and proper motions from URAT (Finch+, 2016) J/AJ/152/24 : Trigonometric plxs of 134 low-mass stars (Weinberger+, 2016) J/ApJS/225/10 : Kinematic analysis of M7-L8 dwarfs (Faherty+, 2016) J/ApJS/231/15 : Astrometric monitoring of ultracool binaries (Dupuy+, 2017) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 27 A27 --- Name Name used in the object's discovery or spectral confirmation paper 29- 39 A11 --- SpTopt Optical spectral type (G1) 41- 44 F4.1 --- Topt [0/29]? Numeric optical spectral type (G3) 46- 62 A17 --- SpTnir Near-IR spectral type (G1) 64- 67 F4.1 --- Tnir [4.8/29]? Numeric near-IR spectral type (G3) 69- 83 A15 --- SpT Adopted spectral type (G1) 85- 88 F4.1 --- Type [0/29]? Numeric adopted spectral type (G3) 90- 94 A5 --- GravOpt Low-gravity classification from an optical spectrum (G2) 96-101 A6 --- GravNIR Low-gravity classification from an near-IR spectrum (G2) 103 A1 --- GFlag [f] Flag on Grav-opt/Grav-nir (G4) 107-112 A6 --- Binary "Y" or "triple" for known binary or triple systems not resolved in PS1 114-117 A4 --- Young "Y" for known young objects (G5) 119-122 A4 --- --- [PSO_] 123-139 A17 --- PS1 PS1 Designation (Jddd.dddd+dd.dddd) (1) 141-145 F5.2 mag PS1gmag [14.7/23.3]? PS1 g magnitude (1) 147-150 F4.2 mag e_PS1gmag [0.01/0.2]? Error in PS1 g magnitude 152-153 I2 --- o_PS1gmag [2/33]? Number of measurements used to calculate the PS1 g photometry 155 A1 --- n_PS1gmag [CRW] Source of the PS1 g photometry (2) 160 A1 --- f_PS1gmag [ghji] Flag on PS1gmag (3) 164-168 F5.2 mag PS1rmag [14.6/23.4]? PS1 r magnitude (1) 170-173 F4.2 mag e_PS1rmag [0.01/0.2]? Error in PS1 r magnitude 175-176 I2 --- o_PS1rmag [2/36]? Number of measurements used to calculate the PS1 r photometry 178 A1 --- n_PS1rmag [CRW] Source of the PS1 r photometry (2) 183 A1 --- f_PS1rmag [ghj] Flag on PS1rmag (3) 187-191 F5.2 mag PS1imag [14.5/23.2]? PS1 i magnitude (1) 193-196 F4.2 mag e_PS1imag [0.01/0.2]? Error in PS1 i magnitude 198-199 I2 --- o_PS1imag [2/58]? Number of measurements used to calculate the PS1 i photometry 201 A1 --- n_PS1imag [CRW] Source of the PS1 i photometry (2) 206 A1 --- f_PS1imag [ghj] Flag on PS1imag (3) 210-214 F5.2 mag PS1zmag [13.5/22.3]? PS1 z magnitude (1) 216-219 F4.2 mag e_PS1zmag [0.01/0.2]? Error in PS1 z magnitude 221-222 I2 --- o_PS1zmag [2/27]? Number of measurements used to calculate the PS1 z photometry 224 A1 --- n_PS1zmag [CRW] Source of the PS1 z photometry (2) 229 A1 --- f_PS1zmag [ghj] Flag on PS1zmag (3) 233-237 F5.2 mag PS1ymag [12.5/21.4]? PS1 y magnitude (1) 239-242 F4.2 mag e_PS1ymag [0.01/0.2]? Error in PS1 y magnitude 244-245 I2 --- o_PS1ymag [2/31]? Number of measurements used to calculate the PS1 y photometry 247 A1 --- n_PS1ymag [CRW] Source of the PS1 y photometry (2) 252-258 A7 --- 2MCat 2MASS_ or 2MASSA_ (21 occurrences) 259-275 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS catalog designation (JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 277-281 F5.2 mag Jmag [8/18.7]? 2MASS J magnitude or upper limit (4) 283-286 F4.2 mag e_Jmag [0.02/0.6]? Error on Jmag (4) 288-292 F5.2 mag Hmag [7.6/18.3]? 2MASS H magnitude or upper limit (4) 294-297 F4.2 mag e_Hmag [0.01/0.7]? Error on Hmag (4) 299-303 F5.2 mag Ksmag [7.2/19]? 2MASS Ks magnitude or upper limit (4) 305-308 F4.2 mag e_Ksmag [0.01/0.4]? Error on Ksmag (4) 310-313 A4 --- f_2MASS 2MASS contamination and confusion flags (5) 315-320 A6 --- --- [WISEA_] 321-339 A19 --- AllWISE AllWISE designation (JHHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s) 342-346 F5.2 mag W1mag [6.9/18.8]? AllWISE W1 magnitude or upper limit (4) 348-351 F4.2 mag e_W1mag [0.02/0.6]? Error on W4mag (4) 353-357 F5.2 mag W2mag [6.7/17.2]? AllWISE W2 magnitude or upper limit (4) 359-362 F4.2 mag e_W2mag [0.02/0.5]? Error on W4mag (4) 364-368 F5.2 mag W3mag [6.6/14]? AllWISE W3 magnitude or upper limit (4) 370-373 F4.2 mag e_W3mag [0.02/0.6]? Error on W4mag (4) 375-379 F5.2 mag W4mag [5/10.3]? AllWISE W4 magnitude or upper limit (4) 381-384 F4.2 mag e_W4mag [0.03/0.6]? Error on W4mag (4) 386-389 A4 --- f_AllWISE AllWISE contamination and confusion flags (5) 391 I1 --- Ngh [0/1]? Number of AllWISE neighbors within 8" 393-397 F5.2 mag Gmag [13.8/21]? Gaia DR1 G magnitude 399-402 F4.2 mag e_Gmag [0.01/0.2]? Uncertainty in Gmag 404-410 A7 --- Ref1 Discovery reference(s) (6) 412-418 A7 --- Ref2 Spectral Type reference(s) (6) 420-426 A7 --- Ref3 Gravity reference(s) (6) 428-433 A6 --- Ref4 Binarity reference(s) (6) 435-441 A7 --- Ref5 2MASS photometry reference(s) (6) 443-445 I3 --- Ref6 [89/127]? AllWISE photometry (6)
Note (1): Pan-STARRS names are from the 3π Survey, Processing Version 3.3 (PV3.3). Photometry listed here is from PV3.3 and supersedes values in previous publications. Note (2): Source of the PS1 grizy photometry: chip (C), recalculated chip (R), or forced warp (W). Chip photometry recalculated by combining the measurements for an object that is split into two or more "partial objects" in PS1. Note (3): Individual source photometry flags as follows: g = Photometry rejected for this band after visual inspection of stack images found no detection at the PS1 coordinates. h = Photometry rejected for this band after visual inspection of stack images found obvious contamination by a background object. i = Photometry rejected for this band after visual inspection of stack images found an image processing artifact at the PS1 coordinates. j = Photometry rejected for this band after visual inspection of stack images found obvious contamination from a nearby bright star. Note (4): The 2MASS and ALLWISE magnitudes are upper limits if the corresponding error field is a null value (blank). Note (5): The contamination and confusion flags are 3 and 4 character strings for the 2MASS and ALLWISE catalogs, respectively, one character for each passband. See corresponding documentation. Note (6): References for Discovery; Spectral Type; Gravity; Binarity; 2MASS photometry; AllWISE photometry. See refs.dat file.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 27 A27 --- Name Name used in the object's discovery or spectral confirmation paper 29- 39 A11 --- SpTopt Optical spectral type (G1) 41- 44 F4.1 --- Topt [0/29]? Numeric optical spectral type (G3) 46- 62 A17 --- SpTnir Near-IR spectral type (G1) 64- 67 F4.1 --- Tnir [4.8/29]? Numeric near-IR spectral type (G3) 69- 83 A15 --- SpT Adopted spectral type (G1) 85- 88 F4.1 --- Type [0/29]? Numeric adopted spectral type (G3) 90- 94 A5 --- GravOpt Low-gravity classification from an optical spectrum (G2) 96-101 A6 --- GravNIR Low-gravity classification from an near-IR spectrum (G2) 103 A1 --- GFlag [f] Flag on Grav-opt/Grav-nir (G4) 107-112 A6 --- Binary "Y" or "triple" for known binary or triple systems not resolved in PS1 114-117 A4 --- Young "Y" for known young objects (G5) 119-128 F10.6 deg RAdeg Right Ascension (Eq=J2000, Ep=PS1ep) (7) 130-139 F10.6 deg DEdeg Declination (Eq=J2000, Ep=PS1ep) (7) 141-148 F8.2 d Epoch Mean PS1 epoch (MJD) 150-156 F7.1 mas/yr pmRA [-3023/2558]? PS1 proper motion in RA 158-162 F5.1 mas/yr e_pmRA [0.6/156]? Error in pmRA 164-170 F7.1 mas/yr pmDE [-1964/1695]? PS1 proper motion in DEC 172-175 F4.1 mas/yr e_pmDE [0.6/99]? Error in pmDE 177-182 F6.1 mas/yr pm [0.4/3507]? PS1 proper motion amplitude 184-188 F5.1 mas/yr e_pm [0.6/119]? Error in pm 190-194 F5.1 deg pmPA [0.1/360]? PS1 proper motion position angle 196-200 F5.1 deg e_pmPA [0/108]? Error in pmPA 202-206 F5.1 --- rchi2 [0/283]? Reduced chi-squared of the astrometric fit 208-210 I3 --- Nep [5/169]? Number of epochs used in the astrometric fit 212-215 F4.1 yr BTime [1/17.6]? Time baseline of the astrometric fit 217-222 F6.2 mas plx [3/310]? Parallax, from the literature 224-228 F5.2 mas e_plx [0.05/42]? Error in parallax 230-236 F7.2 pc Dist [3/1057]? Distance based on parallax or photometry (8) 238-243 F6.2 pc e_Dist [0.01/152]? Error in distance 245-250 F6.1 km/s vtan [0.4/1170]? Tangential velocity 252-256 F5.1 km/s e_vtan [0.1/277]? Error in tangential velocity 258-264 F7.1 mas/yr pmRAlit [-3022/2549]? Literature proper motion in RA 266-271 F6.1 mas/yr e_pmRAlit [0.1/1175]? Error in pmRAlit 273-279 F7.1 mas/yr pmDElit [-1964/1694]? Literature proper motion in DEC 281-286 F6.1 mas/yr e_pmDElit [0/1237]? Error in pmDE-lit 288-291 I4 --- Ref7 ? References for Parallax distance (9) 293-296 I4 --- Ref8 ? References for Literature proper motion (9) 298-309 F12.7 yr PS1ep Mean PS1 epoch converted in decimal years from Epoch column in MJD (=JD-2400000.5); column added by CDS
Note (7): The mean PS1 position is the position calculated for the weighted mean epoch, in which the epochs are weighted by the rms of the R.A. and Decl. astrometric uncertainties. Note (8): Distances were calculated from trigonometric parallaxes when available in the literature. If no parallax was available, we calculated photometric distances using PS1 i-band magnitudes for spectral types M0--M5 and W2 magnitudes (when available) for spectral types M6 and later. Note (9): References for Parallax distance and Literature proper motion (see refs.dat file).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- Ref Reference code 6- 31 A26 --- Auth First author's name(s) 34- 52 A19 --- BibCode Bibcode of the reference 54-206 A153 --- Comm Comment
Global notes: Note (G1): Spectral types taken from the literature (Section 2.4). When both optical and near-IR types are available, we adopt the optical type for M and L dwarfs and the near-IR type for T∼dwarfs. Most spectral types have an uncertainty of 0.5 subtypes. Other explanatory notes are: : = 1 subtype uncertainty; :: = 2 or more subtype uncertainty. sd = subdwarf; esd = extreme subdwarf, Gizis (1997, J/AJ/113/806). Blank value for 884 occurrences in optical and 8480 in near-IR. Note (G2): The strings beta, gamma, and delta indicate classes of increasingly low gravity based on optical, Kirkpatrick (2005, J/other/ARA+A/43.195), Cruz et al. (2009AJ....137.3345C) or near-infrared, Gagne et al. (2015, J/ApJS/219/33) spectra. FLD-G = near-infrared spectral signatures of field-age gravity; INT-G = intermediate gravity; VL-G = very low gravity, Allers & Liu (2013ApJ...772...79A). Note (G3): The spectral type converted to a continuous float with the mapping M0 = 0.0, L0.5 = 10.5, T9 = 29.0. Note (G4): Notes on Gravity -- f = Although classified as FLD-G, the spectrum shows hints of intermediate gravity as described in Aller et al. (2016ApJ...821..120A); Note (G5): Young objects identified by low-gravity classifications or other spectroscopic evidence for youth, membership in star-forming regions or young moving groups, or companionship to a young star.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 09-Mar-2018
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