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J/ApJS/232/23     27 pulsating DA WDs follow-up observations     (Hermes+, 2017)

White dwarf rotation as a function of mass and a dichotomy of mode line widths: Kepler observations of 27 pulsating DA white dwarfs through K2 Campaign 8. Hermes J.J., Gansicke B.T., Kawaler S.D., Greiss S., Tremblay P.-E., Gentile Fusillo N.P., Raddi R., Fanale S.M., Bell K.J., Dennihy E., Fuchs J.T., Dunlap B.H., Clemens J.C., Montgomery M.H., Winget D.E., Chote P., Marsh T.R., Redfield S. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 232, 23 (2017)> =2017ApJS..232...23H
ADC_Keywords: Stars, white dwarf ; Photometry, SDSS ; Spectroscopy ; Stars, masses Keywords: stars: oscillations ; stars: variables: general ; white dwarfs Abstract: We present photometry and spectroscopy for 27 pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (DAVs; a.k.a. ZZ Ceti stars) observed by the Kepler space telescope up to K2 Campaign 8, an extensive compilation of observations with unprecedented duration (>75 days) and duty cycle (>90%). The space-based photometry reveals pulsation properties previously inaccessible to ground- based observations. We observe a sharp dichotomy in oscillation mode line widths at roughly 800s, such that white dwarf pulsations with periods exceeding 800s have substantially broader mode line widths, more reminiscent of a damped harmonic oscillator than a heat-driven pulsator. Extended Kepler coverage also permits extensive mode identification: we identify the spherical degree of 87 out of 201 unique radial orders, providing direct constraints of the rotation period for 20 of these 27 DAVs, more than doubling the number of white dwarfs with rotation periods determined via asteroseismology. We also obtain spectroscopy from 4m-class telescopes for all DAVs with Kepler photometry. Using these homogeneously analyzed spectra, we estimate the overall mass of all 27 DAVs, which allows us to measure white dwarf rotation as a function of mass, constraining the endpoints of angular momentum in low- and intermediate-mass stars. We find that 0.51-0.73M☉ white dwarfs, which evolved from 1.7-3.0M☉ ZAMS progenitors, have a mean rotation period of 35hr with a standard deviation of 28hr, with notable exceptions for higher-mass white dwarfs. Description: All observations analyzed here were collected by the Kepler spacecraft with short-cadence exposures from 2012 to 2016. Full details of the raw and processed Kepler and K2 observations are summarized in Table2. We complemented our space-based photometry of these 27 pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (DAVs) by determining their atmospheric parameters based on model-atmosphere fits to follow-up spectroscopy obtained from two 4m class, ground-based facilities. Spectra taken with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on the island of La Palma cover roughly 3800-5100Å at roughly 2.0Å resolution; spanning 2013 Jun 06 to 2014 Jul 25. Spectra taken with the 4.1m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope on Cerro Pachon in Chile cover roughly 3600-5200Å; spanning 2014 Oct 13 to 2017 Apr 21. We detail these spectroscopic observations and their resultant fits in Table 3. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 102 27 Target selection criterion for the first 27 pulsating DA white dwarfs observed by Kepler and K2 table2.dat 88 27 Details of short-cadence photometry of the first 27 pulsating DA white dwarfs observed by Kepler and K2 table3.dat 94 27 Follow-up spectroscopy of the first 27 pulsating DA white dwarfs observed by Kepler and K2 table5.dat 143 389 Pulsation information from linear least-squares (LLS; Section 3) and Lorentzian (Lor.; Section 5) fits for the first 27 DAVs observed by Kepler and K2
See also: V/133 : Kepler Input Catalog (Kepler Mission Team, 2009) V/147 : The SDSS Photometric Catalogue, Release 12 (Alam+, 2015) II/350 : VLT Survey Telescope ATLAS (Shanks+, 2015) II/336 : AAVSO Photometric All Sky Survey (APASS) DR9 (Henden+, 2016) IV/34 : K2 Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) (Huber+, 2017) J/ApJS/156/47 : DA WDs from the Palomar Green Survey (Liebert+, 2005) J/MNRAS/409/1470 : Kepler compact pulsator candidates (Ostensen+, 2010) J/AJ/142/112 : KIC photometric calibration (Brown+, 2011) J/ApJ/743/138 : Spectroscopic survey of bright WDs (Gianninas+, 2011) J/ApJ/730/128 : Spectroscopy of DA WD from the SDSS-DR4 (Tremblay+, 2011) J/MNRAS/417/1210 : DA-white dwarfs from SDSS and UKIDSS (Girven+, 2011) J/AJ/144/24 : The Kepler-INT survey (KIS) (Greiss+, 2012) J/ApJS/204/5 : SDSS DR7 white dwarf catalog (Kleinman+, 2013) J/MNRAS/448/2260 : White dwarf candidates in SDSS DR10 (Gentile Fusillo+, 2015) J/MNRAS/461/4059 : The pulsations of G 207-9 and LP 133-144 (Bognar+, 2016) J/MNRAS/458/3808 : DR9-12 SDSS WDMS binaries (Rebassa-Mansergas+, 2016) J/MNRAS/469/621 : VST ATLAS WD candidates cat. (Gentile Fusillo+, 2017) J/ApJ/835/172 : Kepler asteroseismic LEGACY sample. I. Oscillations (Lund+, 2017) http://k2wd.org/ : Kepler and K2 obs. of white dwarf stars home page Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- ID The KIC/EPIC identifier 11- 12 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 14- 15 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 17- 22 F6.3 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 24 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 25- 26 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 28- 29 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 31- 35 F5.2 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 37- 47 A11 --- AName Alternate identifier 49- 52 F4.1 mag gmag [13/19] The g band apparent magnitude (1) 54- 57 F4.2 mag u-g [0.3/0.7]? The (u-g) AB color index 59- 63 F5.2 mag g-r [-0.3/-0.01]? The (g-r) AB color index 65- 68 F4.2 mag B-R [0.02/0.1]? The (B-R) AB color index 70- 73 F4.2 mag R-I [0.03]? The (R-I) AB color index 75- 79 A5 --- Cat Source catalog (2) 81- 83 A3 --- K2 K2 field 85- 89 A5 --- Prop GO proposal identifier 91-100 A10 --- Sel Selection method 102 I1 --- Ref ? Discovery announcement code (3)
Note (1): From any of the SDSS, VST/ATLAS, APASS, or Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) photometric surveys. Note (2): Catalog as follows: SDSS = White dwarf candidates in SDSS DR10 (Gentile Fusillo+, 2015, J/MNRAS/448/2260) KIS = Kepler-INT Survey (Greiss et al. 2012, J/AJ/144/24) SSS = Supercosmos Sky Survey (SSS) catalog of Rowell & Hambly (2011MNRAS.417...93R) ATLAS = VLT Survey Telescope ATLAS (Shanks+, 2015, II/350) Note (3): Reference as follows: 1 = Greiss et al. (2016MNRAS.457.2855G); 2 = Hermes et al. (2011ApJ...741L..16H); 3 = Greiss et al. (2014MNRAS.438.3086G); 4 = Gianninas et al. (2006AJ....132..831G); 5 = Castanheira et al. (2010MNRAS.405.2561C); 6 = Mukadam et al. (2004ApJ...607..982M); 7 = Pyrzas et al. (2015MNRAS.447..691P) - search for DAVs in WD+dM systems; 8 = Voss et al. (2006A&A...450.1061V); 9 = Hermes et al. (2017ApJ...841L...2H).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- ID The KIC/EPIC identifier 11- 13 A3 --- K2 K2 Field identifier 15- 18 F4.1 mag Kpmag [13/19] Kepler magnitude 20- 21 I2 --- Rel [8/25]?=-1 Data release identifier 23- 24 I2 --- CCD CCD channel 26- 27 I2 pix Ap [1/93] Final fixed aperature size 29- 32 F4.2 --- TFrac Total fraction of flux contained in aperture that belongs to the target. 34- 44 F11.6 d T0 Observation date (BJDTDB-2454833.0) 46- 50 F5.2 d Dur [8.9/98] Duration 52- 55 F4.1 % DC Duty cycle 57- 61 F5.3 uHz Res [0.05/0.7] Resolution 63- 67 F5.3 --- 1FAP The 1% False Alarm Probability (4) 69- 73 F5.3 --- 0.1FAP The 0.1% False Alarm Probability (4) 75- 79 F5.3 --- <5A> [0.1/2.7] Five times average amplitude (5) 81- 86 F6.1 s WMP [141/1205] Weighted mean period 88 I1 --- Ref2 ? Publication code (6)
Note (4): In units of parts per thousand. Note (5): Of entire Fourier transform in units of parts per thousand. Note (6): Reference as follows: 1 = Bell et al. (2015ApJ...809...14B); 2 = Greiss et al. (2014MNRAS.438.3086G); 3 = Hermes et al. (2014ApJ...789...85H); 4 = Hermes et al. (2015MNRAS.451.1701H); 5 = Hermes et al. (2017ApJ...841L...2H).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- ID The KIC/EPIC identifier 11 A1 --- f_ID [d] Flag on ID (7) 13- 16 F4.1 mag gmag [13/19] The g band apparent magnitude 18- 21 A4 --- Tel Facility that obtained the data 23- 33 A11 "Y/M/D" Date UT date of the observation 35- 42 A8 --- Exp Number of exposures times the exposure time 44- 46 F3.1 arcsec Seeing [0.7/2.6] Seeing 48- 51 F4.2 --- Air [1/1.6] Average airmass 53- 55 I3 --- S/N [50/210] Signal-to-Noise (8) 57- 61 I5 K Teff-1D [10890/13620] Effective temperature from 1D model 63- 65 I3 K e_Teff-1D [140/380] Uncertainty in Teff-1D 67- 71 F5.3 [cm/s2] logg-1D [7.7/8.5] log surface gravity from 1D model 73- 77 F5.3 [cm/s2] e_logg-1D [0.04/0.08] Uncertainty in logg-1D 79- 83 I5 K Teff-3D [10600/13590] Effective temperature from 3D model 85- 89 F5.3 [cm/s2] logg-3D [7.7/8.5] log surface gravity from 3D model 91- 94 F4.2 Msun Mass [0.4/0.9] White dwarf mass
Note (7): d = One of the first six outbursting white dwarfs (Bell+ 2015ApJ...809...14B ; Hermes+ 2015ApJ...810L...5H ; Bell+ 2016ApJ...829...82B ; 2017ASPC..509..303B) Note (8): Computed using a 100-Angstrom-wide region of the continuum centered at 4600 Angstroms.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- ID The KIC/EPIC identifier 11- 25 A15 --- Mode Mode 27- 37 F11.6 s LLS-Per [107.6/1769.1]? Linear Least-Squares period 39- 46 F8.6 s e_LLS-Per [0.00004/0.06]? Uncertainty in LLS-Per 48- 57 F10.5 uHz LLS-Freq [565.2/9286.3]? Linear Least-Squares frequency 59- 65 F7.5 uHz e_LLS-Freq [0.0006/0.05]? Uncertainty in LLS-Freq 67- 72 F6.3 --- LLS-Amp [0.09/24.2]? Linear Least-Squares amplitude (1) 74- 78 F5.3 --- e_LLS-Amp [0.02/0.5]? Uncertainty in LLS-Amp (1) 80- 85 F6.4 rad Phase ? Phase 87- 92 F6.4 rad e_Phase [0.001/0.06]? Uncertainty in Phase 94-103 F10.5 s Lor-Per [107.6/1769.1]? Lorentzian period 105-112 F8.5 s e_Lor-Per [0.0005/15]? Uncertainty in Lor-Per 114-118 F5.3 uHz HWHM [0.02/9.3]? Half-Width at Half-Maximum of Lorentzian fit 120-126 F7.3 --- Lor-Amp [0.01/635.4]? Lorentzian amplitude; in units of (parts per thousand)2 128-135 F8.4 uHz Split [1.3/139.3]? Splitting frequency 137 A1 --- f_Split [h?] h=indicates a harmonic 139-140 A2 --- l Spherical degree 142-143 A2 --- m Azimuthal order
Note (1): In units of parts per thousand.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 20-Nov-2017
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