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J/ApJS/232/18     The third Fermi-LAT >10GeV catalog (3FHL)     (Ajello+, 2017)

3FHL: The Third Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources. Ajello M., Atwood W.B., Baldini L., Ballet J., Barbiellini G., Bastieri D., Bellazzini R., Bissaldi E., Blandford R.D., Bloom E.D., Bonino R., Bregeon J., Britto R.J., Bruel P., Buehler R., Buson S., Cameron R.A., Caputo R., Caragiulo M., Caraveo P.A., Cavazzuti E., Cecchi C., Charles E., Chekhtman A., Cheung C.C., Chiaro G., Ciprini S., Cohen J.M., Costantin D., Costanza F., Cuoco A., Cutini S., D'Ammando F., de Palma F., Desiante R., Digel S.W., Di Lalla N., Di Mauro M., Di Venere L., Dominguez A., Drell P.S., Dumora D., Favuzzi C., Fegan S.J., Ferrara E.C., Fortin P., Franckowiak A., Fukazawa Y., Funk S., Fusco P., Gargano F., Gasparrini D., Giglietto N., Giommi P., Giordano F., Giroletti M., Glanzman T., Green D., Grenier I.A., Grondin M.-H., Grove J.E., Guillemot L., Guiriec S., Harding A.K., Hays E., Hewitt J.W., Horan D., Johannesson G., Kensei S., Kuss M., La Mura G., Larsson S., Latronico L., Lemoine-Goumard M., Li J., Longo F., Loparco F., Lott B., Lubrano P., Magill J.D., Maldera S., Manfreda A., Mazziotta M.N., McEnery J.E., Meyer M., Michelson P.F., Mirabal N., Mitthumsiri W., Mizuno T., Moiseev A.A., Monzani M.E., Morselli A., Moskalenko I.V., Negro M., Nuss E., Ohsugi T., Omodei N., Orienti M., Orlando E., Palatiello M., Paliya V.S., Paneque D., Perkins J.S., Persic M., Pesce-Rollins M., Piron F., Porter T.A., Principe G., Raino S., Rando R., Razzano M., Razzaque S., Reimer A., Reimer O., Reposeur T., Saz Parkinson P.M., Sgro C., Simone D., Siskind E.J., Spada F., Spandre G., Spinelli P., Stawarz L., Suson D.J., Takahashi M., Tak D., Thayer J.G., Thayer J.B., Thompson D.J., Torres D.F., Torresi E., Troja E., Vianello G., Wood K., Wood M. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. 232, 18 (2017)> =2017ApJS..232...18A
ADC_Keywords: Gamma rays ; BL Lac objects ; Redshifts Keywords: catalogs ; gamma rays: general Abstract: We present a catalog of sources detected above 10GeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the first 7 years of data using the Pass 8 event-level analysis. This is the Third Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources (3FHL), containing 1556 objects characterized in the 10GeV-2TeV energy range. The sensitivity and angular resolution are improved by factors of 3 and 2 relative to the previous LAT catalog at the same energies (1FHL). The vast majority of detected sources (79%) are associated with extragalactic counterparts at other wavelengths, including 16 sources located at very high redshift (z>2). Of the sources, 8% have Galactic counterparts and 13% are unassociated (or associated with a source of unknown nature). The high-latitude sky and the Galactic plane are observed with a flux sensitivity of 4.4 to 9.5x10-11ph/cm2/s, respectively (this is approximately 0.5% and 1% of the Crab Nebula flux above 10GeV). The catalog includes 214 new γ-ray sources. The substantial increase in the number of photons (more than 4 times relative to 1FHL and 10 times to 2FHL) also allows us to measure significant spectral curvature for 32 sources and find flux variability for 163 of them. Furthermore, we estimate that for the same flux limit of 10-12erg/cm2/s, the energy range above 10GeV has twice as many sources as the range above 50GeV, highlighting the importance, for future Cherenkov telescopes, of lowering the energy threshold as much as possible. Description: We have analyzed the first 7 years of Fermi-LAT data from 2008 August 4 to 2015 August 2 using Pass 8 events. Pass 8 improves the photon acceptance and the PSF, reduces the background of misclassified charged particles and extends the useful LAT energy range (10GeV-2TeV). See Figure 1. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file 3fhl.dat 617 1556 LAT point source catalog roi.dat 62 741 Regions Of Interest (ROI) over which the analysis ran table1.dat 118 55 Extended sources modeled in the 3FHL analysis (only 48 were detected)
Description of file: The original file in FITS format is also available on the FTP and it includes 4 bintables: the "LAT Point Source Catalog", the "Extended Sources" (see table 1), the "ROIs" (Regions Of Interest over which the analysis ran) and the "Energy Bounds" (energy bins in which spectral fluxes are provided in the catalog with the level of the relative systematic uncertainty on the effective area in each band (SysRel column)). See also: VII/274 : The Roma BZCAT - 5th edition (Massaro+, 2015) J/ApJ/716/30 : SED of Fermi bright blazars (Abdo+, 2010) J/ApJS/188/405 : Fermi-LAT first source catalog (1FGL) (Abdo+, 2010) J/ApJ/743/171 : The 2LAC catalog (Ackermann+, 2011) J/ApJ/748/49 : Optical spectroscopy of 1LAC broad-line blazars (Shaw+, 2012) J/ApJS/208/17 : 2nd Fermi LAT cat. of gamma-ray pulsars (2PC) (Abdo+, 2013) J/ApJS/209/34 : The first Fermi-LAT >10GeV catalog (1FHL) (Ackermann+, 2013) J/ApJ/764/135 : Spectroscopic redshifts of BL Lac objects (Shaw+, 2013) J/ApJS/218/23 : Fermi LAT third source catalog (3FGL) (Acero+, 2015) J/ApJ/810/14 : Third catalog of LAT-detected AGNs (3LAC) (Ackermann+, 2015) J/ApJS/224/8 : The first Fermi LAT SNR catalog (1SC) (Acero+, 2016) J/ApJS/222/5 : The second Fermi-LAT >50GeV catalog (2FHL) (Ackermann+, 2016) J/A+A/586/A71 : LMC 0.2-100GeV images (Ackermann+, 2016) J/A+A/598/A134 : γ-ray signature in WHSP blazars (Arsioli+, 2017) : Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC) home : TeVCat home page Byte-by-byte Description of file: 3fhl.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- --- [3FHL] 6- 18 A13 --- 3FHL 3FHL name (JHHMM.m+DDMMe) (Source_Name) 20- 29 F10.6 deg RAdeg Right ascension; J2000 (RAJ2000) 31- 40 F10.6 deg DEdeg Declination; J2000 (DEJ2000) 42- 51 F10.6 deg GLON Galactic longitude (GLON) 53- 62 F10.6 deg GLAT Galactic latitude (GLAT) 64- 69 F6.4 deg C95amaj [0.008/0.2]? Error radius at 95% confidence (Conf95SemiMajor) 71- 76 F6.4 deg C95bmin [0.008/0.2]? Conf95SemiMajor in 3FHL (Conf95SemiMinor) 78- 87 E10.3 deg C95PA [-1e+38]? error circle; NULL in 3FHL (Conf95PosAng) 89- 91 I3 --- ROI [1/728] ROI number (ROI_num) 93- 98 F6.2 --- Sig [4/169] Source significance in σ units over the 10GeV to 2TeV band (Signif_Avg) 100-105 F6.2 GeV EPvt [11/195] Energy at which error on differential flux is minimal (Pivot_Energy) 107-114 E8.3 ph/cm2/GeV/s S Differential flux at Pivot_Energy (Flux_Density) 116-123 E8.3 ph/cm2/GeV/s e_S 1σ error on S (UncFluxDensity) 125-132 E8.3 ph/cm2/s Flux Integral photon flux from 10GeV to 1TeV obtained by spectral fitting (Flux) 134-141 E8.3 ph/cm2/s e_Flux 1σ error on Flux (Unc_Flux) 143-150 E8.3 10-3W/m2 EFlx Energy flux from 10GeV to 1TeV obtained by spectral fitting; in erg/cm2/s (Energy_Flux) 152-159 E8.3 10-3W/m2 e_EFlx 1σ error on EFlx (UncEnergyFlux) 161-164 F4.2 --- SigCve [0/6] Significance (in σ units) of the fit improvement between power-law and LogParabola (Signif_Curve) (1) 166-176 A11 --- SpT Spectral type (PowerLaw or LogParabola); see section 2.4 (SpectrumType) 178-182 F5.2 --- SInd [0.9/9.1] Best-fit photon number index at Pivot_Energy when fitting with LogParabola (Spectral_Index) 184-187 F4.2 --- e_SInd [0.04/4.1] 1σ error on SInd (UncSpectralIndex) 189-195 F7.4 --- beta [-0.8/1] Curvature parameter β when fitting with LogParabola (beta) 197-202 F6.4 --- e_beta [0.001/9.3] 1σ error on beta (Unc_beta) 204-208 F5.2 --- PLInd [1/9.1] Best-fit photon number index when fitting with power law (PowerLaw_Index) 210-213 F4.2 --- e_PLInd [0.02/4] 1σ error on PLInd (UncPowerLawIndex) 215-223 E9.3 ph/cm2/s F1 Integral photon flux in 10-20GeV spectral band (Flux_Band1) 225-233 E9.3 ph/cm2/s F2 Integral photon flux in 20-50GeV spectral band (Flux_Band2) 235-243 E9.3 ph/cm2/s F3 [0/] Integral photon flux in 50-150GeV spectral band (Flux_Band3) 245-253 E9.3 ph/cm2/s F4 [0/] Integral photon flux in 150-500GeV spectral band (Flux_Band4) 255-263 E9.3 ph/cm2/s F5 [0/] Integral photon flux in 500-2000GeV spectral band (Flux_Band5) 265-273 E9.3 ph/cm2/s e_F1 ? 1σ lower error on F1 (LowUncFlux_Band1) (2) 275-283 E9.3 ph/cm2/s E_F1 ? 1σ upper error on F1 (LowUncFlux_Band2) (2) 285-293 E9.3 ph/cm2/s e_F2 ? 1σ lower error on F2 (LowUncFlux_Band3) (2) 295-303 E9.3 ph/cm2/s E_F2 ? 1σ upper error on F2 (LowUncFlux_Band4) (2) 305-313 E9.3 ph/cm2/s e_F3 ? 1σ lower error on F3 (LowUncFlux_Band5) (2) 315-323 E9.3 ph/cm2/s E_F3 ? 1σ upper error on F3 (UpUncFlux_Band1) (2) 325-333 E9.3 ph/cm2/s e_F4 ? 1σ lower error on F4 (UpUncFlux_Band2) (2) 335-343 E9.3 ph/cm2/s E_F4 ? 1σ upper error on F4 (UpUncFlux_Band3) (2) 345-353 E9.3 ph/cm2/s e_F5 ? 1σ lower error on F5 (UpUncFlux_Band4) (2) 355-363 E9.3 ph/cm2/s E_F5 ? 1σ upper error on F5 (UpUncFlux_Band5) (2) 365-373 E9.3 10-3W/m2 nuFnu1 Spectral energy distribution in 10-20GeV, in erg/cm2/s (nuFnu1) 375-383 E9.3 10-3W/m2 nuFnu2 Spectral energy distribution in 20-50GeV, in erg/cm2/s (nuFnu2) 385-393 E9.3 10-3W/m2 nuFnu3 [0/] Spectral energy distribution in 50-150GeV, in erg/cm2/s (nuFnu3) 395-403 E9.3 10-3W/m2 nuFnu4 [0/] Spectral energy distribution in 150-500GeV, in erg/cm2/s (nuFnu4) 405-413 E9.3 10-3W/m2 nuFnu5 [0/] Spectral energy distribution in 500-2000GeV, in erg/cm2/s (nuFnu5) 415-420 F6.2 --- TS1 [0/134] Square root of the Test Statistic in 10-20GeV (SqrtTSBand1) 422-427 F6.2 --- TS2 [0/89] Square root of the Test Statistic in 20-50GeV (SqrtTSBand2) 429-434 F6.2 --- TS3 [0/60] Square root of the Test Statistic in 50-150GeV (SqrtTSBand3) 436-441 F6.2 --- TS4 [0/34] Square root of the Test Statistic in 150-500GeV (SqrtTSBand4) 443-448 F6.2 --- TS5 [0/16] Square root of the Test Statistic in 500-2000GeV (SqrtTSBand5) 450-455 F6.1 --- Npred [4/3734] Predicted number of events in the model (Npred) 457-463 F7.2 GeV HEPE [11.9/1997] Highest energy among events probably coming from the source (HEP_Energy) 465-468 F4.2 --- HEPP Probability of that event to come from the source (HEP_Prob) 470-471 I2 --- Var [1/15]? Number of Bayesian blocks from variability analysis (1=not variable) (Variability_BayesBlocks) 473-489 A17 --- ExName Cross-reference to the ExtendedSources extension (ExtendedSourceName) 491-508 A18 --- Assoc Correspondence to previous γ-ray source catalog (ASSOC_GAM) (3) 510 A1 --- f_TName TeVCat flag (TEVCAT_FLAG) (4) 512-532 A21 --- TName Name of likely corresponding TeV source from TeVCat, if any (ASSOC_TEV) 534-540 A7 --- Cl Class designation for associated source see Table 2 (CLASS) (5) 542-567 A26 --- Assoc1 Name of identified or likely associated source (ASSOC1) 569-591 A23 --- Assoc2 Alternate name or indicates whether the source is inside an extended source 593-596 F4.2 --- PBay ? Probability of association according to the Bayesian method (ASSOCPROBBAY) 598-601 F4.2 --- PLR ? Probability of association according to the Likelihood-Ratio method (ASSOCPROBLR) 603-608 F6.4 --- z [0.003/2.6]? Redshift of counterpart, if known (Redshift) 610-617 E8.3 Hz NuPk ? Frequency of the synchrotron peak of counterpart, if known (NuPeak_obs)
Note (1): A value greater than 3 indicates significant curvature. Note (2): Separate 1σ errors are computed from the likelihood profile toward lower and larger fluxes. The lower error is set equal to NULL and the upper error is derived from a Bayesian upper limit if the 1σ interval contains 0 (TS<1). Note (3): In the order 3FGL > 2FHL > 1FHL > 2FGL > 1FGL > EGRET. Note (4): Flag as follows: P = positional association with non-extended source in TeVCat E = associated with an extended source in TeVCat, N = no TeV association C = TeV source candidate as defined in Section 3.4 Note (5): Class of the most likely associated source (from table 2) as follows: ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Class Description Number ----------------------------------------------------------------------- psr = Pulsar 6 PSR = Pulsar 53 pwn = Pulsar wind nebula 8 PWN = Pulsar wind nebula 9 snr = Supernova remnant 17 SNR = Supernova remnant 13 spp = Supernova remnant/Pulsar wind nebula 9 hmb = High-mass binary 1 HMB = High-mass binary 4 BIN = Binary 1 glc = Globular cluster 2 sfr = Star-forming region 1 SFR = Star-forming region 1 sbg = Starburst galaxy 4 bll = BL Lac type of blazar 731 BLL = BL Lac type of blazar 19 fsrq = FSRQ type of blazar 142 FSRQ = FSRQ type of blazar 30 agn = Non-blazar active galaxy 1 NYLS1 = Narrow-line seyfert 1 rdg = Radio galaxy 9 RDG = Radio galaxy 4 bcu = Blazar candidate of uncertain type 290 Total associated 1220 Total IDENTIFIED 136 unk = Unclassified 23 Unassociated 177 Total in 3FHL 1556 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- The designation "spp" indicates potential association with SNR or PWN. Designations shown in capital letters are firm identifications; small letters indicate associations. Note that the PWN N 157 B in the LMC is counted as Galactic.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: roi.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- ROI [1/741] Running sequence number of the ROI (ROI_num) 5- 12 F8.4 deg RAdeg Right ascension; J2000 (RAJ2000) 14- 21 F8.4 deg DEdeg Declination; J2000 (DEJ2000) 23- 29 F7.3 deg GLON Galactic longitude 31- 37 F7.3 deg GLAT Galactic latitude 39- 42 F4.2 deg Rad [2.5/9] Radius (RADIUS) 44- 47 F4.2 --- Par1 [0.5/1.4] isoP8V3Source Normalization (PARNAM1) 49- 52 F4.2 --- e_Par1 [0.03/0.2]? Par1 uncertainty (Unc_PARNAM1) 54- 57 F4.2 --- Par2 [0.8/1.7] gal4yearP8V6v3 Prefactor (PARNAM2) 59- 62 F4.2 --- e_Par2 [0.01/0.2]? Par2 uncertainty (Unc_PARNAM2)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 13 A13 --- 3FHL 3FHL name (1) 15- 33 A19 --- Name Name of the source that has been modeled as spatially extended 35- 52 A18 --- Changes Name of the source in previous catalog in case of a change 54- 64 A11 --- Mod Spatial model 66 A1 --- f_Mod [a] 68- 72 F5.3 deg Ext [0.1/3] Radius (or semimajor axis) (Extent) (2) 74- 77 F4.2 deg bmin ? Semiminor axis (3) 78 A1 --- f_bmin Elliptical 2D shapes (3) 80-118 A39 --- Ref Reference
Note (1): Sources without a 3FHL name did not reach the significance threshold in 3FHL. Note (2): Indicate the radius for Disk (flat disk) sources, the 68% containment radius for Gaussian sources, the outer radius for Ring (flat annulus) sources, and an approximate radius for Map (external template) sources. Note (3): : = The 2D shapes are elliptical; each pair of parameters (Ext, bmin) represents the semimajor and semiminor axes.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 14-Nov-2017
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