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J/ApJS/231/11  High-mass starless clump candidates from ATLASGAL  (Yuan+, 2017)

High-mass starless clumps in the inner galactic plane: the sample and dust properties. Yuan J., Wu Y., Ellingsen S.P., Evans II N.J., Henkel C., Wang K., Liu H.-L., Liu T., Li J.-Z., Zavagno A. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 231, 11-11 (2017)> =2017ApJS..231...11Y (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Interstellar medium ; Millimetric/submm sources ; Surveys Keywords: infrared: ISM; ISM: clouds; stars: formation; stars: massive; submillimeter: ISM Abstract: We report a sample of 463 high-mass starless clump (HMSC) candidates within -60°<l<60° and -1°<b<1°. This sample has been singled out from 10861 ATLASGAL clumps. None of these sources are associated with any known star-forming activities collected in SIMBAD and young stellar objects identified using color-based criteria. We also make sure that the HMSC candidates have neither point sources at 24 and 70µm nor strong extended emission at 24µm. Most of the identified HMSCs are infrared dark, and some are even dark at 70µm. Their distribution shows crowding in Galactic spiral arms and toward the Galactic center and some well-known star-forming complexes. Many HMSCs are associated with large-scale filaments. Some basic parameters were attained from column density and dust temperature maps constructed via fitting far-infrared and submillimeter continuum data to modified blackbodies. The HMSC candidates have sizes, masses, and densities similar to clumps associated with Class II methanol masers and H II regions, suggesting that they will evolve into star-forming clumps. More than 90% of the HMSC candidates have densities above some proposed thresholds for forming high-mass stars. With dust temperatures and luminosity-to-mass ratios significantly lower than that for star-forming sources, the HMSC candidates are externally heated and genuinely at very early stages of high-mass star formation. Twenty sources with equivalent radii req<0.15pc and mass surface densities Σ>0.08g/cm2 could be possible high-mass starless cores. Further investigations toward these HMSCs would undoubtedly shed light on comprehensively understanding the birth of high-mass stars. Description: This work is based on data from several Galactic plane surveys covering wavelengths from mid-IR to submillimeter. The sample of dense clumps from the ATLASGAL survey (Schuller+ 2009A&A...504..415S) provides the basis for our investigation. The ATLASGAL survey mapped 420 square degrees of the Galactic plane between -80°<l<60°, using the LABOCA camera on the APEX telescope at 870um with a 19.2" angular resolution. The astrometry of the data set and the derived source positions have been assumed to be the same as the pointing accuracy of the telescope, which is ∼2"-3". Point-source catalogs from GLIMPSE (Spitzer/IRAC) and MIPSGAL (Spitzer/MIPS) surveys have been used to identify possible young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with ATLASGAL clumps. Far-IR data from the Hi-GAL survey (Herschel-PACS and -SPIRE) have been used to further constrain the starless clump candidates and investigate their dust properties. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table2.dat 85 463 Basic parameters of high-mass starless clump (HMSC) candidates table3.dat 75 463 Physical parameters of HMSC candidates
See also: VII/233 : The 2MASS Extended sources (IPAC/UMass, 2003-2006) II/293 : GLIMPSE Source Catalog (I + II + 3D) (IPAC 2008) VIII/96 : 6-GHz methanol multibeam maser catalogue (Caswell+, 2010-12) J/A+A/291/943 : Protostellar cores (Ossenkopf+, 1994) J/A+A/474/891 : 13CO obs. of YSOs in South Gal. plane (Urquhart+, 2007) J/ApJ/680/349 : Galactic distribution of IRDCs (Jackson+, 2008) J/A+A/487/993 : MAMBO Mapping of c2d Clouds and Cores (Kauffmann+, 2008) J/A+A/481/345 : SED evolution in massive YSOs (Molinari+, 2008) J/ApJS/184/18 : Spitzer survey of young stellar clusters (Gutermuth+, 2009) J/A+A/499/149 : 1.2mm maps of southern Infrared Dark Clouds (Vasyunina+, 2009) J/ApJ/723/1019 : Galactic SFR and gas surface densities (Heiderman+, 2010) J/A+A/515/A55 : NGC 6334-NGC 6357 complex (Russeil+, 2010) J/ApJ/720/1055 : VBLA observations of W51 Main/South (Sato+, 2010) J/ApJ/741/110 : The BGPS. VII. Massive star-forming regions (Dunham+, 2011) J/MNRAS/426/1972 : H2O Southern Gal. Plane Survey, HOPS. II (Purcell+, 2012) J/A+A/540/A113 : Starless clumps in ATLASGAL (Tackenberg+, 2012) J/A+A/544/A146 : ATLASGAL cold high-mass clumps with NH3 (Wienen+, 2012) J/A+A/553/A115 : Millimetric and far-IR maps of IRDC 18310-4 (Beuther+, 2013) J/A+A/549/A45 : ATLASGAL Compact Source Catalog: 330<l<21 (Contreras+, 2013) J/ApJ/772/45 : Hi-GAL obs.: star formation in the 3rd quadrant (Elia+, 2013) J/ApJS/208/11 : The Red MSX Source Survey: massive protostars (Lumsden+, 2013) J/ApJS/209/2 : The BGPS. X. Dense molecular gas (Shirley+, 2013) J/MNRAS/435/400 : ATLASGAL. Compact HII regions (Urquhart+, 2013) J/A+A/549/A130 : YSOs in Herschel-Hi-GAL survey (Veneziani+, 2013) J/A+A/565/A75 : ATLASGAL. Dust condensations in Gal. plane (Csengeri+, 2014) J/A+A/568/A41 : ATLASGAL Compact Source Catalog: 280<l<60 (Urquhart+, 2014) J/A+A/570/A65 : ATLASGAL massive clumps CO depletion (Giannetti+, 2014) J/MNRAS/437/1791 : RMS survey: molecular observations (Urquhart+, 2014) J/MNRAS/443/1555 : ATLASGAL massive star forming clumps (Urquhart+, 2014) J/A+A/579/A91 : ATLASGAL inner Galaxy massive cold dust clumps (Wienen+, 2015) J/A+A/581/A119 : Starless gas clump IRDC 18310-4 images (Beuther+, 2015) J/AJ/149/64 : MIPSGAL 24µm point source catalog (Gutermuth+, 2015) J/MNRAS/451/3089 : Young clumps embedded in IRDC (Traficante+, 2015) J/A+A/586/A149 : SiO in ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps (Csengeri+, 2016) J/A+A/591/A149 : Hi-GAL. inner Milky Way: +68≥l≥70 (Molinari+, 2016) J/ApJ/822/59 : BGPS. XIV. Molecular cloud clumps GBT obs. (Svoboda+, 2016) J/ApJ/824/29 : ATLASGAL clumps with IRAS flux & MALT90 data (Stephens+, 2016) J/A+A/599/A139 : ATLASGAL massive clumps dust characterization (Koenig+, 2017) J/A+A/602/A37 : Millimeter RRL in ATLASGAL massive clumps (Kim+, 2017) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- [CUS2014] Identifier (GLLL.llll+B.bbbb) 18- 19 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 21- 22 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 24- 28 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 30 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 31- 32 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 34- 35 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 37- 40 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 42- 43 I2 arcsec MajAxis [21/97] Angular major half-intensity axis 45- 46 I2 arcsec MinAxis [20/50] Angular minor half-intensity axis 48- 52 F5.1 deg PA Position angle (1) 54- 55 I2 arcsec FWHM [20/59] Full-Width at Half-Maximum 57- 63 F7.2 km/s VLSR [-122/206] Local Standard of Rest velocity 65- 69 F5.2 kpc Dist [0.2/19] Distance 71- 75 F5.2 kpc e_Dist Uncertainty in Dist 77- 81 A5 --- r_VLSR Reference for VLSR (2) 83 A1 --- Flag The 70 micron dark clump flag (3) 85 A1 --- f_[CUS2014] s : possible starless core; column added by CDS following table 5
Note (1): Corrected in the FK5 system with respect to the north direction. Note (2): Reference as follows: c14 = Csengeri et al. (2014, J/A+A/565/A75); d11 = Dunham et al. (2011, J/ApJ/741/110); d13 = Dempsey et al. (2013ApJS..209....8D); j08 = Jackson et al. (2008, J/ApJ/680/349); p12 = Purcell et al. (2012, J/MNRAS/426/1972); s13 = Shirley et al. (2013, J/ApJS/209/2); u07 = Urquhart et al. (2007, J/A+A/474/891); u14 = Urquhart et al. (2014, J/MNRAS/437/1791); w12 = Wienen et al. (2012, J/A+A/544/A146); m90 = MALT90 (the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90GHz (MALT90) survey; Jackson et al. 2013PASA...30...57J); JCO = CO from the JCMT archive (; T13CO = 13CO from the ThrUMMS survey (The Three-mm Ultimate Mopra Milky Way Survey; Barnes+ 2015ApJ...812....6B); SMT = single-point observations using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT). Note (3): A "Y" indicates the clump is associated with extinction feature at 70 micron.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- [CUS2014] Identifier 18- 21 F4.2 pc Req [0.05/4] Equivalent radii 23- 27 F5.2 K Tdust [10/25] Dust temperature 29- 36 E8.2 cm-2 NH2 H2 column density 38- 45 E8.2 cm-3 nH2 H2 number density 47- 50 F4.2 g/cm2 SigM [0.02/3] Mass surface density 52- 59 F8.2 Msun Mcl [7.7/61358] Clump mass 61- 69 F9.2 Lsun Lcl [8.6/140822] Clump luminosity 71- 75 F5.2 Lsun/Msun Lcl/Mcl [0.09/23] Ratio of clump luminosity to mass
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 08-Aug-2017
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