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J/ApJS/230/1   Herschel SPIRE/FTS 194-671um survey of GOALS LIRGs   (Lu+, 2017)

A Herschel Space Observatory spectral line survey of local luminous infrared galaxies from 194 to 671 microns. Lu N., Zhao Y., Diaz-Santos T., Xu C.K., Gao Y., Armus L., Isaak K.G., Mazzarella J.M., van der Werf P.P., Appleton P.N., Charmandaris V., Evans A.S., Howell J., Iwasawa K., Leech J., Lord S., Petric A.O., Privon G.C., Sanders D.B., Schulz B., Surace J.A. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 230, 1-1 (2017)> =2017ApJS..230....1L (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Galaxies, IR ; Spectra, infrared ; Radial velocities ; Spectra, millimetric/submm Keywords: galaxies: active; galaxies: ISM; galaxies: star formation; infrared: galaxies; ISM: molecules; submillimeter: galaxies Abstract: We describe a Herschel Space Observatory 194-671µm spectroscopic survey of a sample of 121 local luminous infrared galaxies and report the fluxes of the CO J to J-1 rotational transitions for 4≤J≤13, the [NII] 205µm line, the [CI] lines at 609 and 370µm, as well as additional and usually fainter lines. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) presented here are consistent with our earlier work, which was based on a smaller sample, that calls for two distinct molecular gas components in general: (i) a cold component, which emits CO lines primarily at J≲4 and likely represents the same gas phase traced by CO (1-0), and (ii) a warm component, which dominates over the mid-J regime (4<J≲10) and is intimately related to current star formation. We present evidence that the CO line emission associated with an active galactic nucleus is significant only at J>10. The flux ratios of the two [CI] lines imply modest excitation temperatures of 15-30K; the [CI] 370µm line scales more linearly in flux with CO (4-3) than with CO (7-6). These findings suggest that the [CI] emission is predominantly associated with the gas component defined in (i) above. Our analysis of the stacked spectra in different far-infrared (FIR) color bins reveals an evolution of the SLED of the rotational transitions of H2O vapor as a function of the FIR color in a direction consistent with infrared photon pumping. Description: In this paper we presented a Herschel SPIRE/FTS 194-671um spectroscopic survey of 121 galaxies belonging to a complete, flux-limited sample of 123 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) down to a total IR flux of 6.5x10-13W/m2, selected from the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS; Armus+ 2009PASP..121..559A). All 123 observed targets are listed in Table 1. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 121 127 SPIRE/FTS observations table4.dat 860 127 Fluxes of the CO, [CI] and [NII] lines table5.dat 105 513 Additional detected lines
See also: VI/139 : Herschel Observation Log (Herschel Science Centre, 2013) J/ApJS/229/25 : GOALS sample PACS and SPIRE fluxes (Chu+, 2017) J/ApJ/829/93 : CO, [CI] & [NII] lines from Herschel (Kamenetzky+, 2016) J/A+A/591/A136 : Galaxies and QSOs FIR size & surface brightness (Lutz+, 2016) J/ApJ/819/69 : [NII]205um emission in local LIRGs (Zhao+, 2016) J/ApJ/790/124 : Dust and gas physics of the GOALS sample (Stierwalt+, 2014) J/A+A/568/A90 : Herschel/SPIRE spectra in Arp 299 (Rosenberg+, 2014) J/ApJ/777/156 : Spitzer/IRS spectra of GOALS LIRGs (Inami+, 2013) J/A+A/558/A87 : NGC6240 high resolution mapping of CO(1-0) (Feruglio+, 2013) J/ApJ/774/68 : [CII]157.7um feature in LIRGs (Diaz-Santos+, 2013) J/ApJS/206/1 : Mid-IR properties of GOALS nearby LIRGs (Stierwalt+, 2013) J/A+A/549/A51 : Extended CO structures in NGC6240 (Feruglio+, 2013) J/ApJ/741/32 : Spatial extent of LIRGs in the MIR. II. (Diaz-Santos+, 2011) J/ApJ/715/572 : GOALS UV and FIR properties (Howell+, 2010) J/ApJS/182/628 : Spitzer quasar and ULIRG evolution study (Veilleux+, 2009) J/AJ/126/1607 : IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (Sanders+, 2003) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 23 A23 --- ID Object identifier (1) 25- 31 A7 --- OName Other identifier 33 A1 --- n_ID Note on object (2) 35- 36 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) (3) 38- 39 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 41- 44 F4.1 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 46 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) (3) 47- 48 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) (3) 50- 51 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 53- 54 I2 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 56- 58 F3.1 arcsec Offset [0/5.7] Systematic pointing offset 60- 64 F5.2 [Lsun] logLIR [10.8/12.6]? Log adopted IR luminosity 66 A1 --- f_logLIR [*] *: Target in a multiple system of 2 or more galaxies 68- 72 F5.3 --- CFIR [0.3/1.4]? FIR color; 60/100 micron band ratio 74- 80 F7.3 Mpc DL [15/271]? Luminosity distance 82- 86 I5 km/s HVel [100/17880] Heliocentric velocity 88- 97 A10 --- ObsId Herschel observation identifier 99-103 I5 s Exp [1584/16996] Exposure time 105-121 A17 --- FTS Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of SPIRE program identifier
Note (1): That is spatially closest to the actual pointing of the SPIRE/FTS observation. Note (2): Flag as follows: a = A member of the subsample of powerful AGNs defined in Section 2.2. b = IRAS 05223+1908 consists of three objects. The SPIRE/FTS spectrum is likely dominated by the brightest northern object, which is a Galactic source at a heliocentric velocity of 100 km/s (see Appendix A for more details). While the SPIRE/FTS data of this target are included here, this target was not used in our statistical analysis. c = NGC 2146 has 3 independent observations, placed at the galaxy center and two offset positions, respectively. The total IRAS LIR is listed for each observation in the table. d = These 3 independent observations targeted the 3 surface brightness peaks of the interacting galaxy pair system NGC 3690. In the literature, UGC 06471 may also be referred to as NGC 3690 or Arp 299B, and UGC 06472 as IC 0694 or NGC 3690A or Arp 299A, The total IRAS LIR of the system is listed for each individual observation in the table. e = NGC 5010 was included in the SPIRE/FTS sample based on its LIR from Sanders+, 2003, Cat. J/AJ/126/1607, where its systemic velocity used is incorrect. While the SPIRE/FTS data of this target are still documented here, this target was not used in any statistical analysis in this paper. Note (3): The J2000 R.A. and decl. of the actual pointing of the SPIRE/FTS observation.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 23 A23 --- ID Object identifier 27 A1 --- f_ID Flag on ID (4) 29- 33 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO4-3 [-4.4/25.6] CO (4-3) line flux (5) 35- 39 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO5-4 [-2.4/23.2] CO (5-4) line flux (5) 41- 45 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO6-5 [-1.1/22.1] CO (6-5) line flux (5) 47- 51 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO7-6 [-0.9/20.2] CO (7-6) line flux (5) 53- 57 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO8-7 [-1.8/20.2] CO (8-7) line flux (5) 59- 63 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO9-8 [-2/17.2] CO (9-8) line flux (5) 65- 70 F6.2 10-17W/m2 FCO10-9 [-1.9/153.2] CO (10-9) line flux (5) 72- 76 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO11-10 [-2.1/12.7] CO (11-10) line flux (5) 78- 82 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO12-11 [-1.6/11] CO (12-11) line flux (5) 84- 88 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCO13-12 [-4.1/9.4] CO (13-12) line flux (5) 90- 94 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCI609 [-3.5/16.4] The [CI] 609um line flux (5) 96-100 F5.2 10-17W/m2 FCI370 [-0.7/29.6] The [CI] 370um line flux (5) 102-107 F6.2 10-17W/m2 FNII [-1.2/102.5] The [NII] 205um line flux 109-114 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO4-3 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO4-3 (6) 116-121 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO5-4 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO5-4 (6) 123-128 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO6-5 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO6-5 (6) 130-135 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO7-6 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO7-6 (6) 137-142 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO8-7 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO8-7 (6) 144-149 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO9-8 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO9-8 (6) 151-160 F10.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO10-9 [0.06/6.756e+06]?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO10-9 (6) 162-167 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO11-10 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO11-10 (6) 169-174 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO12-11 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO12-11 (6) 176-181 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCO13-12 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CO13-12 (6) 183-188 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCI609 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CI609 (6) 190-195 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FCI370 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-CI370 (6) 197-202 F6.2 10-17W/m2 e_FNII ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in F-NII (6) 204-209 F6.2 GHz CFCO4-3 ?=-99.99 CO (4-3) central frequency (7) 211-216 F6.2 GHz CFCO5-4 ?=-99.99 CO (5-4) central frequency (7) 218-223 F6.2 GHz CFCO6-5 ?=-99.99 CO (6-5) central frequency (7) 225-230 F6.2 GHz CFCO7-6 ?=-99.99 CO (7-6) central frequency (7) 232-237 F6.2 GHz CFCO8-7 ?=-99.99 CO (8-7) central frequency (7) 239-245 F7.2 GHz CFCO9-8 ?=-99.99 CO (9-8) central frequency (7) 247-253 F7.2 GHz CFCO10-9 ?=-99.99 CO (10-9) central frequency (7) 255-261 F7.2 GHz CFCO11-10 ?=-99.99 CO (11-10) central frequency (7) 263-269 F7.2 GHz CFCO12-11 ?=-99.99 CO (12-11) central frequency (7) 271-277 F7.2 GHz CFCO13-12 ?=-99.99 CO (13-12) central frequency (7) 279-284 F6.2 GHz CFCI609 ?=-99.99 The [CI] 609 micron line central frequency (7) 286-291 F6.2 GHz CFCI370 ?=-99.99 The [CI] 370 micron line central frequency (7) 293-299 F7.2 GHz CFNII ?=-99.99 The [NII] 205 micron line central frequency (7) 301-306 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO4-3 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO4-3 308-313 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO5-4 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO5-4 315-320 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO6-5 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO6-5 322-327 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO7-6 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO7-6 329-334 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO8-7 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO8-7 336-341 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO9-8 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO9-8 343-348 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO10-9 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO10-9 350-355 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO11-10 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO11-10 357-362 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO12-11 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO12-11 364-369 F6.2 GHz e_CFCO13-12 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CO13-12 371-376 F6.2 GHz e_CFCI609 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CI609 378-383 F6.2 GHz e_CFCI370 ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-CI370 385-390 F6.2 GHz e_CFNII ?=-99.99 Uncertainty in CF-NII 392-397 F6.2 GHz DCO4-3 ?=-99.99 CO (4-3) line difference (8) 399-404 F6.2 GHz DCO5-4 ?=-99.99 CO (5-4) line difference (8) 406-411 F6.2 GHz DCO6-5 ?=-99.99 CO (6-5) line difference (8) 413-418 F6.2 GHz DCO7-6 ?=-99.99 CO (7-6) line difference (8) 420-425 F6.2 GHz DCO8-7 ?=-99.99 CO (8-7) line difference (8) 427-432 F6.2 GHz DCO9-8 ?=-99.99 CO (9-8) line difference (8) 434-439 F6.2 GHz DCO10-9 ?=-99.99 CO (10-9) line difference (8) 441-446 F6.2 GHz DCO11-10 ?=-99.99 CO (11-10) line difference (8) 448-453 F6.2 GHz DCO12-11 ?=-99.99 CO (12-11) line difference (8) 455-460 F6.2 GHz DCO13-12 ?=-99.99 CO (13-12) line difference (8) 462-467 F6.2 GHz DCI609 ?=-99.99 The [CI] 609um line difference (8) 469-474 F6.2 GHz DCI370 ?=-99.99 The [CI] 370um line difference (8) 476-481 F6.2 GHz DNII ?=-99.99 The [NII] 205um line difference (8) 483-488 F6.2 Jy PCO4-3 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (4-3) line flux density 490-495 F6.2 Jy PCO5-4 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (5-4) line flux density 497-502 F6.2 Jy PCO6-5 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (6-5) line flux density 504-509 F6.2 Jy PCO7-6 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (7-6) line flux density 511-516 F6.2 Jy PCO8-7 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (8-7) line flux density 518-523 F6.2 Jy PCO9-8 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (9-8) line flux density 525-530 F6.2 Jy PCO10-9 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (10-9) line flux density 532-537 F6.2 Jy PCO11-10 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (11-10) line flux density 539-544 F6.2 Jy PCO12-11 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (12-11) line flux density 546-551 F6.2 Jy PCO13-12 ?=-99.99 Peak CO (13-12) line flux density 553-558 F6.2 Jy PCI609 ?=-99.99 Peak [CI] 609um line flux density 560-565 F6.2 Jy PCI370 ?=-99.99 Peak [CI] 370um line flux density 567-572 F6.2 Jy PNII ?=-99.99 Peak [NII] 205um line flux density 574-579 F6.2 --- S/NCO4-3 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (4-3) line (9) 581-586 F6.2 --- S/NCO5-4 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (5-4) line (9) 588-593 F6.2 --- S/NCO6-5 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (6-5) line (9) 595-600 F6.2 --- S/NCO7-6 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (7-6) line (9) 602-607 F6.2 --- S/NCO8-7 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (8-7) line (9) 609-614 F6.2 --- S/NCO9-8 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (9-8) line (9) 616-621 F6.2 --- S/NCO10-9 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (10-9) line (9) 623-628 F6.2 --- S/NCO11-10 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (11-10) line (9) 630-635 F6.2 --- S/NCO12-11 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (12-11) line (9) 637-642 F6.2 --- S/NCO13-12 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for CO (13-12) line (9) 644-649 F6.2 --- S/NCI609 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for [CI] 609um line (9) 651-656 F6.2 --- S/NCI370 ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for [CI] 370um line (9) 658-663 F6.2 --- S/NNII ?=-99.99 Signal-to-Noise for [NII] 205um line (9) 665-670 F6.2 --- q_CO4-3 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (4-3) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 672-677 F6.2 --- q_CO5-4 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (5-4) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 679-684 F6.2 --- q_CO6-5 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (6-5) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 686-691 F6.2 --- q_CO7-6 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (7-6) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 693-698 F6.2 --- q_CO8-7 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (8-7) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 700-705 F6.2 --- q_CO9-8 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (9-8) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 707-712 F6.2 --- q_CO10-9 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (10-9) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 714-719 F6.2 --- q_CO11-10 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (11-10) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 721-726 F6.2 --- q_CO12-11 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (12-11) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 728-733 F6.2 --- q_CO13-12 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for CO (13-12) line (1=robust detection) (G1) 735-740 F6.2 --- q_CI609 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for [CI] 609um line (1=robust detection) (G1) 742-747 F6.2 --- q_CI370 ?=-99.99 Quality flag for [CI] 370um line (1=robust detection) (G1) 749-754 F6.2 --- q_NII ?=-99.99 Quality flag for [NII] 205um line (1=robust detection) (G1) 756-761 F6.2 km/s WCO4-3 [-99.99] CO (4-3) line FWHM (10) 763-768 F6.2 km/s WCO5-4 [-99.99] CO (5-4) line FWHM (10) 770-775 F6.2 km/s WCO6-5 [-99.99] CO (6-5) line FWHM (10) 777-782 F6.2 km/s WCO7-6 [-99.99] CO (7-6) line FWHM (10) 784-789 F6.2 km/s WCO8-7 [-99.99] CO (8-7) line FWHM (10) 791-796 F6.2 km/s WCO9-8 ?=-99.99 CO (9-8) line FWHM (10) 798-803 F6.2 km/s WCO10-9 ?=-99.99 CO (10-9) line FWHM (10) 805-810 F6.2 km/s WCO11-10 ?=-99.99 CO (11-10) line FWHM (10) 812-817 F6.2 km/s WCO12-11 ?=-99.99 CO (12-11) line FWHM (10) 819-824 F6.2 km/s WCO13-12 ?=-99.99 CO (13-12) line FWHM (10) 826-831 F6.2 km/s WCI609 [-99.99] The [CI] 609um line FWHM (10) 833-838 F6.2 km/s WCI370 [-99.99] The [CI] 370um line FWHM (10) 840-845 F6.2 km/s WNII ?=-99.99 The [NII] 205um line FWHM (10) 847-850 F4.2 --- F70-35 ? The 70 micron fractional flux with 35" beam (11) 852-855 F4.2 --- F70-30 ? The 70 micron fractional flux with 30" beam (12) 857-860 F4.2 --- F70-17 ? The 70 micron fractional flux with 17" beam (13)
Note (4): Flag as follows: a = The spectrum of IRAS 05223+1908 shows strong CO lines that has an inferred heliocentric velocity of 100 km/s. This velocity was used for other line detections. b = These f70micron(θ) values are all with respect to the total 70 micron flux of the galaxy NGC 2146. c = These f70micron(θ) values are all with respect to the integrated 70 micron flux of the whole NGC 3690 system. Note (5): A positive number indicates that the line is detected, whilst a negative number represents a non-detection with its absolute value being the 3σ upper limit, where σ was set using a sinc line profile together with the local r.m.s. noise around the expected line frequency. For CO (4-3), a flux value of zero means that the line is redshifted out of the low frequency end of the SLW coverage. This is the case for a total of 17 targets with Vh≤9558km/s. Note (6): This is the uncertainty from the line-fitting procedure. Note (7): The observed central frequency of the line in the Local Standard of Rest. Note (8): The difference between the observed line central frequency and the expected line frequency based on the heliocentric velocity of the target in Table 1. Note (9): The S/N ratio of the peak line flux density to the local r.m.s. noise σtlocal. Note (10): The FWHM of the Gaussian component when a sinc-Gaussian profile was used for the line fitting. Note (11): Appropriate for the SPIRE/FTS beam sizes of the CO (5-4), CO (7-6) or [CI] 370 micron lines. Note (12): Appropriate for the SPIRE/FTS beam size of the CO (6-5) line. Local Standard of Rest. Note (13): Appropriate for the SPIRE/FTS beam size of the [NII] line and the higher-J CO lines covered by the SSW spectral segment,
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 23 A23 --- ID Object identifier 27- 58 A32 --- Line Line description 60- 65 F6.2 10-17W/m2 Flux [-11.5/14.3] Line flux (1) 67 A1 --- f_Flux Flag on Flux (2) 69- 72 F4.2 10-17W/m2 e_Flux [0.04/1.2] Uncertainty in Flux 74- 80 F7.2 GHz nu [515.9/1491.9] Observed line frequency 82- 85 F4.2 GHz e_nu [0.02/0.8] Uncertainty in nu 87- 91 F5.2 GHz nudiff [-2.2/2.1] Observed minus expected frequencies (3) 93- 97 F5.2 Jy fnu [-9.7/12.1] Peak line flux density (4) 99-103 F5.2 --- S/N [2.9/34.5] Signal-to-Noise for peak line flux density 105 I1 --- Q [1/4] Quality flag (G1)
Note (1): A negative value here indicates an absorption. Note that the flux derivation assumed a point-source case. See Section 4.2 for a prescription of flux aperture correction in case the target is moderately extended with respect to the SPIRE/FTS beam. Note (2): The flux values of the OH+ (122-011) and H2O(202-111) lines were: L = Measured in the SLW detector array. S = Measured in the SSW detector array. Note (3): This equals the observed frequency minus the expected line frequency based on the redshift of the target. Note (4): A negative value here also indicates an absorption.
Global notes: Note (G1): A quality flag assigned for a detected line. Flag as follows: 1 = a robust detection with a S/N≥5 and a satisfaction of our velocity criterion of |Vobs-Vfiducial|<210km/s (as defined in Section 3.4). 2 = a less robust detection with 3≤S/N<5 but still satisfying our velocity criterion. 3 = a good detection with S/N>5, but a possible line identification with the inferred line velocity being just short of satisfying our velocity criterion. 4 = a detection of 3≤S/N<5 and only a possible line identification with the inferred line velocity being just short of satisfying our velocity criterion.
History: From electronic version of the journal References: This program complements the other two Herschel surveys on the GOALS sample: a broadband photometric survey at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500um (Chu+ 2017, J/ApJS/229/25) and a spectroscopic line survey of some major FIR fine-structure lines (Diaz-Santos+, 2013, J/ApJ/774/68).
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 26-Jun-2017
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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