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J/ApJS/225/10        Kinematic analysis of M7-L8 dwarfs        (Faherty+, 2016)

Population properties of brown dwarf analogs to exoplanets. Faherty J.K., Riedel A.R., Cruz K.L., Gagne J., Filippazzo J.C., Lambrides E., Fica H., Weinberger A., Thorstensen J.R., Tinney C.G., Baldassare V., Lemonier E., Rice E.L. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 225, 10-10 (2016)> =2016ApJS..225...10F (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Stars, late-type ; Radial velocities ; Spectral types ; Parallaxes, spectroscopic ; Proper motions ; Spectra, infrared ; Stars, masses ; Effective temperatures ; Photometry, infrared Keywords: astrometry; brown dwarfs; stars: low-mass Abstract: We present a kinematic analysis of 152 low surface gravity M7-L8 dwarfs by adding 18 new parallaxes (including 10 for comparative field objects), 38 new radial velocities, and 19 new proper motions. We also add low- or moderate-resolution near-infrared spectra for 43 sources confirming their low surface gravity features. Among the full sample, we find 39 objects to be high-likelihood or new bona fide members of nearby moving groups, 92 objects to be ambiguous members and 21 objects that are non-members. Using this age-calibrated sample, we investigate trends in gravity classification, photometric color, absolute magnitude, color-magnitude, luminosity, and effective temperature. Description: The sample of 152 M7-L8 ultra-cool dwarfs comprising our sample (see table 1) were placed on follow-up programs --either imaging (parallax, proper motion), spectroscopy (radial velocity), or both-- to determine kinematic membership in a nearby moving group. For Northern Hemisphere astrometry targets, we obtained I-band images with the MDM Observatory 2.4m Hiltner telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. We also observed 16 of the most southern targets with the Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search Camera (CAPSCam) on the 100 inch du Pont telescope and 5 with the FourStar imaging camera on the Magellan Baade Telescope. Table 2 gives the pertinent astrometric information; Table 3 lists our measured parallaxes and proper motions. New proper-motion measurements are listed in Table 5. See also section 3.1. We used the 6.5m Baade Magellan telescope and the FIRE spectrograph to obtain near-infrared spectra of 36 sources. Observations were made over seven runs between 2013 July and 2014 September. All observations (resolution R∼6000) cover the full 0.8-2.5um band with a spatial resolution of 0.18"/pixel. We used the 3m NASA IRTF to obtain low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy for 10 targets. All of the observations were aligned to the parallactic angle to obtain R∼120 spectral data over the wavelength range of 0.7-2.5um. We used the Triple Spectrograph (TSpec) at the 5m Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory to obtain near-infrared spectra of two targets. TSpec covers simultaneously the range from 1.0 to 2.45um and achieves a resolution of ∼2500. Exposure times for each source and the number of images acquired are listed in Table 6; see also section 3.2. Multiple observations of 17 sources were taken in high-resolution mode on Keck II on 2008 September 14-16, using the NIRSPEC-5 filter to obtain H-band spectra in Order 49 (1.545-1.570um ). Observations of 18 sources were taken during semesters 2007B and 2009B using the H6420 filter of the Phoenix instrument (previously on Gemini South) to select H-band spectra in Order 36 (1.551-1.558um). Red-side spectra were taken with MIKE on the Magellan II (Clay) telescope on 2006 July 4, 2006 November 1 and 2 for 17 targets. Observational data for each source are listed in Table 7; see also section 3.3. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 156 152 Photometric properties of low surface gravity dwarfs table2.dat 67 18 Details on parallax targets and observations table3.dat 78 18 Results of parallax program table5.dat 89 33 New proper-motion measurements table6.dat 60 52 Near-infrared spectral data for 43 sources table7.dat 97 61 Radial velocities from high resolution spectroscopy for 50 sources table10.dat 134 152 Kinematic data on low surface gravity dwarfs table12.dat 134 152 *Moving group membership probabilities table14.dat 108 69 Fundamental parameters for young sources refs.dat 103 79 References (60 unique)
Note on table12.dat: Computations of BANYAN I and II were done with the web calculator, without photometric data. BANYAN II and LACEwING were computed assuming the objects are young. The predicted distance and RV (as predicted by LACEwING for the final group) should be compared to the values in Table 10.
See also: J/PASP/110/863 : A Stellar Spectral Flux Library: 1150 - 25000 A (Pickles 1998) J/ApJ/564/421 : Spectra of T dwarfs. I. (Burgasser+, 2002) J/AJ/123/3409 : SDSS M, L, and T dwarfs (Hawley+, 2002) J/AJ/126/2421 : 2MASS-Selected sample of ultracool dwarfs (Cruz+, 2003) J/AJ/127/3553 : JHK photometry & spectroscopy for L & T dwarfs (Knapp+, 2004) J/other/ARA+A/42.685 : Young stars near the Sun (Zuckerman+, 2004) J/A+A/441/653 : 32 DENIS nearby red dwarfs (Crifo+, 2005) J/other/ARA+A/43.195 : L and T dwarf stars (Kirkpatrick, 2005) J/ApJ/651/502 : Spitzer IRAC photometry of M, L, and T dwarfs (Patten+, 2006) J/AJ/133/439 : Luminosity function of M7-L8 ultracool dwarfs (Cruz+, 2007) J/AJ/133/2825 : Star beyond the NLTT catalog (Reid+, 2007) J/AJ/133/2258 : Activity and kinematics of ultracool dwarfs (Schmidt+, 2007) J/ApJ/689/1295 : Lithium test implications for BDs (Kirkpatrick+, 2008) J/MNRAS/383/831 : New DENIS nearby L and late-M dwarfs (Phan-Bao+, 2008) J/AJ/136/1290 : Ultracool dwarfs from the 2MASS (Reid+, 2008) J/AJ/135/785 : SDSS-DR5 low-mass star spectroscopic sample (West+, 2008) J/AJ/137/1 : PMs and astrometry of late-type dwarfs (Faherty+, 2009) J/ApJ/705/1416 : Volume-limited sample of M7-M9.5 dwarfs <20pc (Reiners+, 2009) J/ApJ/723/684 : NIRSPEC ultracool dwarf radial velocity survey (Blake+, 2010) J/ApJ/710/1142 : SpeX spectroscopy of low mass binaries. I. (Burgasser+, 2010) J/AJ/139/1808 : Colors and kinematics of SDSS L dwarfs (Schmidt+, 2010) J/A+A/512/A37 : Velocities of 43 nearby L dwarfs (Seifahrt+, 2010) J/ApJS/197/19 : First brown dwarfs discovered by WISE (Kirkpatrick+, 2011) J/ApJ/752/56 : BDKP. III. Parallaxes for 70 ultracool dwarfs (Faherty+, 2012) J/A+A/540/A85 : Spectroscopy of very low mass objects (Patience+, 2012) J/ApJ/758/56 : Young M dwarfs within 25pc. II. Kinematics (Shkolnik+, 2012) J/ApJ/762/88 : Young stellar kinematic group candidate members (Malo+, 2013) J/PASP/125/809 : New nearby M, L, and T dwarfs (Thompson+, 2013) J/AJ/147/94 : Solar neighborhood. XXXII. L and M dwarfs (Dieterich+, 2014) J/ApJ/784/156 : Parallaxes for nearby mid-to-late M dwarfs (Dittmann+, 2014) J/ApJ/783/121 : BANYAN II. Nearby young assoc. cand. members (Gagne+, 2014) J/AJ/147/34 : SpeX library of L-type dwarfs (Schneider+, 2014) J/ApJ/814/118 : L/T transition dwarfs with PS1 & WISE. II. (Best+, 2015) J/ApJS/220/18 : BDKP IV. RVs of late-M & L dwarfs with MagE (Burgasser+, 2015) J/ApJS/219/33 : BANYAN. VII. Candidate YMG members from BASS (Gagne+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) or other name 20- 22 A3 --- f_2MASS Flag(s) on 2MASS (G1) 24- 28 A5 --- OSpT Optical MK spectral type 30- 35 A6 --- OGrav Gravity assigned on optical spectra (1) 37- 42 A6 --- IRSpT Infrared MK spectral type (or range) 44- 53 A10 --- IGrav Gravity assigned on IR spectra (1) 55 A1 --- f_IRSpT Flag on ITSpT (G1) 57- 62 F6.3 mag Jmag [8.3/17.7] 2MASS J-band magnitude 64- 68 F5.3 mag e_Jmag [0.01/0.3] Jmag uncertainty 70- 75 F6.3 mag Hmag [7.8/16.2] 2MASS H-band magnitude 77- 81 F5.3 mag e_Hmag [0.01/0.3] Jmag uncertainty 83- 88 F6.3 mag Ksmag [7.5/15.3] 2MASS Ks-band magnitude 90- 94 F5.3 mag e_Ksmag [0.01/0.2] Ksmag uncertainty 96-101 F6.3 mag W1mag [7.3/14.8]? WISE W1 band (3.4um) magnitude 103-107 F5.3 mag e_W1mag [0.02/0.04]? W1mag uncertainty 109-114 F6.3 mag W2mag [7/14.4]? WISE W2 band (4.6um) magnitude 116-120 F5.3 mag e_W2mag [0.01/0.06]? W2mag uncertainty 122-127 F6.3 mag W3mag [6.8/13.4]? WISE W3 band (12um) magnitude 129-133 F5.3 mag e_W3mag [0.01/0.6]? W3mag uncertainty 135-139 F5.3 mag W4mag [5/9.8]? WISE W4 band (22um) magnitude 141-145 F5.3 mag e_W4mag [0.02/0.6]? W4mag uncertainty 147-156 A10 --- Ref Reference(s) for the spectral data and gravity analysis (see refs.dat file) (2)
Note (1): The Cruz+ (2009AJ....137.3345C) system uses optical spectra and assigns a low surface gravity (γ), intermediate gravity (β), or field gravity ("-") based on the strength of metal oxide absorption bands and alkali lines. See section 2 for further explanations. Note (2): References are for the spectral data and gravity analysis (if different then the original spectral data reference).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) 20- 28 A9 --- OSpT Optical spectral type 30- 38 A9 --- IRSpT Infrared spectral type 40 I1 --- Nn [3/7] Number of nights 42- 43 I2 --- Nf [17/90] Number of frames (1) 45- 46 I2 --- Ns [10/81] Number of reference stars (1) 48- 50 F3.1 yr Delt [2.2/9.9] Δt value 52- 57 A6 --- Tel Telescope (see the "Description" section above) 59- 60 A2 --- Note Note (LG=low surface gravity object; N=field object) 62- 67 A6 --- Ref References (see refs.dat file)
Note (1): The number of reference stars and individual image frames used in the parallax solution.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) 20- 28 A9 --- OSpT Optical spectral type 30- 38 A9 --- IRSpT Infrared spectral type 40- 46 F7.4 arcsec/yr pmRA [-0.9/0.5] Proper motion along right ascension (µα) 48- 53 F6.4 arcsec/yr e_pmRA [0.0008/0.01] pmRA uncertainty 55- 61 F7.4 arcsec/yr pmDE [-1.3/0.2] Proper motion along declination (µδ) 63- 68 F6.4 arcsec/yr e_pmDE [0.0009/0.01] pmDE uncertainty 70- 74 F5.1 mas Plx [17/115] Parallax (πabs) 76- 78 F3.1 mas e_Plx [1.6/7.4] Plx uncertainty
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) or other name 20- 30 A11 --- OSpT Optical spectral type 32- 46 A15 --- IRSpT Infrared spectral type 48- 53 F6.3 arcsec/yr pmRA [-0.2/0.3] Proper motion along right ascension (µR.A.) 55- 59 F5.3 arcsec/yr e_pmRA [0.005/0.04] pmRA uncertainty 61- 66 F6.3 arcsec/yr pmDE [-0.3/0.08] Proper motion along declination (µdecl.) 68- 72 F5.3 arcsec/yr e_pmDE [0.004/0.02] pmDE uncertainty 74- 83 A10 --- Ref References (see the "Description" section above) 85- 89 F5.2 yr Delt [9.5/17] Δt value (1)
Note (1): In the case of the 18 proper-motion-only targets from either CAPSCam or FourStar, we combine our latest image with that of 2MASS.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) or other name 20 I1 --- m_2MASS ? When multiple observations of the same object 22- 32 A11 --- Date UT date of observation 34- 38 A5 --- Inst Instrument (see the "Description" section above) 40- 46 A7 --- Mode Mode 48- 53 A6 arcsec Slit Slit 55- 58 I4 s Exp [90/1500] Integration time 60 I1 --- Nimg [2/8] Number of images
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) 20- 24 A5 --- f_2MASS Flag(s) on 2MASS (1) 26- 45 A20 --- Tel Telescope (see the "Description" section above) 47- 51 I5 --- R [20000/50000] Resolving power 53- 63 A11 --- Date UT date of observation 65- 71 A7 --- Std Standards used (2) 73- 78 F6.2 km/s RV [-39.2/52]? Radial velocity 80- 84 F5.2 km/s e_RV [0.01/15.1]? RV uncertainty 86- 91 F6.2 km/s RVf [-39.2/52]? RV final 93- 97 F5.2 km/s e_RVf [0.01/15.1]? RVf uncertainty
Note (1): Flag as follows: a = Low-quality Spectrum. b = No useable spectrum. c = No spectroscopic signs of youth. d = This object is listed in Filippazzo+ (2015ApJ...810..158F) with a distance and reference to J. Faherty 2016, in preparation. The value in that paper was spectrophotometric and should not be regarded as a parallax. Note (2): Standard stars are as follows: 1 = 2MASS J18212815+1414010 (+9.78 Blake+ 2010, J/ApJ/723/684), 2 = 2MASS J00452143+1634446 (+3.29 Blake+ 2010, J/ApJ/723/684), 3 = 2MASS J22244381-0158521 (-37.55 Blake+ 2010, J/ApJ/723/684), 4 = LHS 2924 (-37.4 Mohanty+ 2003ApJ...593L.109M), 5 = BRI 1222-1221 (-4.8 Mohanty+ 2003ApJ...593L.109M), 6 = 2MASS J11553952-3727350 (+45.0 Seifahrt+ 2010, J/A+A/512/A37), 7 = 2MASS J05233822-1403022 (+11.82 Blake+ 2007ApJ...666.1198B)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table10.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) or other name 20- 22 A3 --- f_2MASS Flag on 2MASS (G1) 24- 28 A5 --- OSpT Optical MK spectral type 30- 35 A6 --- OGrav Gravity associated to OSpT 37- 42 A6 --- IRSpT Infrared MK spectral type 44- 53 A10 --- IGrav Gravity associated to IRSpT 55 A1 --- f_IRSpT Flag on IRSpT (G1) 57- 64 F8.5 arcsec/yr pmRA [-0.9/1.6] Proper motion along right ascension (µR.A.cosdecl.) 66- 72 F7.5 arcsec/yr e_pmRA [0.0001/0.1] pmRA uncertainty 74- 82 F9.6 arcsec/yr pmDE [-0.8/0.5] Proper motion along declination (µdecl.) 84- 90 F7.5 arcsec/yr e_pmDE [0.0001/0.3] pmDE uncertainty 92- 97 F6.2 mas Plx [1.9/261]? Parallax 99-103 F5.2 mas e_Plx ? Plx uncertainty 105-106 I2 pc Dist ? Kinematic distance 108 I1 pc e_Dist ? Dist uncertainty 110-116 F7.3 km/s RV [-25.6/34]? Radial velocity 118-122 F5.3 km/s e_RV [0.04/8]? RV uncertainty (or negative uncertainty if E_RV is filled) 124-126 F3.1 km/s E_RV ? Positive error on RV 127 A1 --- u_RV Uncertainty flag on RV 129-134 A6 --- Ref2 Reference(s) (see refs.dat file)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table12.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) or other name 20- 22 A3 --- f_2MASS Flag on 2MASS (G1) 24- 28 A5 --- OSpT Optical MK spectral type 30- 35 A6 --- OGrav Gravity assigned on optical spectra 37- 42 A6 --- IRSpT Infrared MK spectral type 44- 53 A10 --- IGrav Gravity assigned on infrared spectra 55 A1 --- f_IRSpT [a] Flag on IRSpT (G1) 57 A1 --- l_PBII Limit flag on PBII 59- 63 F5.1 --- PBII [0/100]? BANYANII Gagne+ (2014, J/ApJ/783/121) membership probability 65 A1 --- l_CBII Limit flag on CBII 67- 74 F8.4 --- CBII [0/100]? BANYANII contamination 76- 83 A8 --- GBII BANYAN II group designation 85- 90 F6.2 --- PL [0/100] LACEwING (Riedel 2017AJ....153...95R) membership probability 92- 99 A8 --- GL LACEwING group designation 101-105 F5.1 --- PC [0/100]? Convergent Point method (Rodriguez+ 2013ApJ...774..101R) membership probability 107-114 A8 --- GC Convergent Point group designation 116-121 F6.2 --- PBI [40/100] BANYAN I (Malo+, 2013, J/ApJ/762/88) membership probability 123-130 A8 --- GBI BANYAN I group designation 132-134 A3 --- Mm Membership decision (3)
Note (3): Categories of membership probability as follows: NM = non-member: an object that is kinematically eliminated from falling into a nearby group regardless of future astrometric measurements (21 sources). AM = Ambiguous member: an object that requires updated astrometric precision because it could either belong to more than one group or it cannot be differentiated from the field (92 sources). HLM = High-likelihood member: an object that does not have full kinematics but is regarded as high confidence (>90% in Banayan I, >90% in Banyan II with <5% contamination, >90% in convergent point, >60% in LACEwING) in three of the four codes (29 sources). BM = bona fide member: an object regarded as a high-likelihood member with full kinematics (parallax, proper motion, radial velocity) demonstrating that it is in line with known higher-mass BMs of nearby groups (10 sources).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table14.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 18 A18 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs; J2000) or other name 20- 24 A5 --- OSpT Optical MK spectral type 26- 31 A6 --- OGrav Gravity assigned on optical spectra 33- 38 A6 --- IRSpT Infrared MK spectral type 40- 49 A10 --- IGrav Gravity assigned on infrared spectra 51 A1 --- f_IRSpT [a] Flag on IRSpT (G1) 53- 58 F6.2 mas Plx [1.9/260.7]? Parallax 60- 64 F5.2 mas e_Plx [0.2/11.5]? Plx uncertainty 66- 67 I2 pc Dist [15/54]? Kinematic distance 69 I1 pc e_Dist [1/9]? Dist uncertainty 71- 76 F6.3 --- Lbol [-4.6/-2.5]? Bolometric luminosity (1) 78- 82 F5.3 --- e_Lbol [0.005/0.4]? Lbol uncertainty 84- 89 F6.1 K Teff [1184/2986]? Effective temperature (1) 91- 95 F5.1 K e_Teff [10/526]? Teff uncertainty 97-102 F6.2 Mjup Mass [6/122]? Mass (1) 104-108 F5.2 Mjup e_Mass [0.7/49]? Mass uncertainty
Note (1): Lbol, Teff, and Mass are calculated as described in Filippazzo+ (2015ApJ...810..158F). Values that are slightly different from that work have been updated using new data presented in this paper.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- Ref Reference code 5- 23 A19 --- BibCode Bibcode of the reference 25- 46 A22 --- Auth First author's name(s) 48-103 A56 --- Comm Comment
Global notes: Note (G1): Flag as follows: a = These sources have new infrared spectra presented in this paper. In the majority of cases, we use the infrared spectral type and gravity classification diagnosed in this work. If an object had SpeX data, we defaulted to the resultant type and classification with that data. b = This source is referred to as PSO318 for the remainder of the text. c = The sources PSO318, 2M1119, and 2M1147 have photometry reported on the MKO system that we have converted to 2MASS using the relations in Stephens+ (2009ApJ...702..154S). In the case of PSO318, JHK was converted to MKO, whereas J and H were converted for 2M119, and only J was converted for 2M1147. d = Teegardens Star. e = Deacon+ (2016MNRAS.457.3191D) use the parallax reported in this work to show that this source is co-moving with the M dwarf TYC 9486-927-1. In that work, they report a likelihood of membership in the β pictoris moving group, however, we find this to be unlikely with the given kinematics. The membership of this interesting wide system remains unknown. f = Referred to as TVLM831-154910 in Tinney+ (1995AJ....110.3014T). g = The source 0335+2342 is listed as a bona fide member of β Pictoris in Gagne+ (2014, J/ApJ/783/121) using a 2MASS to WISE proper motion. Aside from the Shkolnik+ (2012, J/ApJ/758/56) proper motion used in this work, this source also has a PPMXL proper motion. Depending on which value is used in the kinematic analysis, the probability of membership varies. Based on its position on the various photometric and absolute magnitude diagrams in this work, we suspect this source is a β Pictoris member. However, refined kinematics will confirm this. Furthermore, Allers & Liu (2013ApJ...772...79A) list this object as an M7 VLG source, however, we have chosen to list it as an M7.5 β based on the analysis in Gagne+ (2014, J/ApJ/783/121). z = These sources were listed in Filippazzo+ (2015ApJ...810..158F) as members of associations but, as has been noted in Table 12, we have downgraded them to ambiguous young objects.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 09-Aug-2017
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