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J/ApJS/190/100     NIR proper motion survey using 2MASS     (Kirkpatrick+, 2010)

Discoveries from a near-infrared proper motion survey using multi-epoch Two Micron All-Sky Survey data. Kirkpatrick J.D., Looper D.L., Burgasser A.J., Schurr S.D., Cutri R.M., Cushing M.C., Cruz K.L., Sweet A.C., Knapp G.R., Barman T.S., Bochanski J.J., Roellig T.L., McLean I.S., McGovern M.R., Rice E.L. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 190, 100-146 (2010)> =2010ApJS..190..100K
ADC_Keywords: Photometry, infrared ; Proper motions ; Stars, subdwarf ; Spectral types Keywords: brown dwarfs - infrared: stars - proper motions - solar neighborhood - stars: late-type Abstract: We have conducted a 4030deg2 near-infrared proper motion survey using multi-epoch data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). We find 2778 proper motion candidates, 647 of which are not listed in SIMBAD. After comparison to Digitized Sky Survey images, we find that 107 of our proper motion candidates lack counterparts at B, R, and I bands and are thus 2MASS-only detections. We present results of spectroscopic follow-up of 188 targets that include the infrared-only sources along with selected optical-counterpart sources with faint reduced proper motions or interesting colors. We also establish a set of near-infrared spectroscopic standards with which to anchor near-infrared classifications for our objects. Among the discoveries are six young field brown dwarfs, five "red L" dwarfs, three L-type subdwarfs, twelve M-type subdwarfs, eight "blue L" dwarfs, and several T dwarfs. We further refine the definitions of these exotic classes to aid future identification of similar objects. We examine their kinematics and find that both the "blue L" and "red L" dwarfs appear to be drawn from a relatively old population. Description: Spectroscopic observations of 189 targets were obtained using eleven different optical/near-infrared instruments at eight different observatories. Details of this follow-up are given in Table 2. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 186 2791 List of 2MASS proper motion candidates table2.dat 113 246 Spectroscopic follow-up of discoveries table3.dat 111 28 Supporting observations of M and L dwarfs and subdwarfs table4.dat 79 20 New M and L dwarfs spectral standards in the near-infrared table5.dat 93 6 New low-gravity objects table6.dat 93 5 New red L dwarfs table7.dat 93 15 New M and L subdwarfs table9.dat 93 8 New blue L dwarfs table11.dat 93 5 New T dwarfs table12.dat 93 5 Other interesting discoveries table10.dat 109 20 Known blue L dwarfs table13.dat 84 26 Measured velocities and distance estimates
See also: II/246 : 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003) I/284 : The USNO-B1.0 Catalog (Monet+ 2003) J/A+A/497/619 : New ultra-cool dwarfs from SDSS and 2MASS (Zhang+, 2009) J/MNRAS/394/857 : UKIDSS-2MASS proper motion survey (Deacon+, 2009) J/AJ/136/1290 : Ultracool dwarfs from the 2MASS (Reid+, 2008) J/AJ/131/2722 : New L and T dwarfs from the SDSS (Chiu+, 2006) J/other/ARA+A/43.195 : L and T dwarf stars (Kirkpatrick, 2005) J/AJ/127/3553 : JHK photometry and spectroscopy for L and T dwarfs (Knapp+, 2004) J/AJ/126/2421 : 2MASS-Selected sample of ultracool dwarfs (Cruz+, 2003) J/AJ/123/3409 : SDSS M, L, and T dwarfs (Hawley+, 2002) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 17 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS Designation (1) 19 I1 --- L [1-3] List from which candidate was drawn (2) 21 A1 --- B [IJ] Shortest wavelength band at which object is seen (3) 23 A1 --- S [*] Indicates spectroscopic follow-up 25- 28 F4.2 arcsec/yr 2Mpm ? 2MASS measured proper motion 30- 33 F4.2 arcsec/yr e_2Mpm ? Uncertainty in 2Mpm 35- 37 I3 deg 2MPA ? 2MASS measured proper motion position angle 39- 43 F5.2 --- MSig ? Motion significance 45- 50 F6.3 mag Jmag 2MASS J band magnitude 52- 56 F5.3 mag e_Jmag ? Uncertainty in Jmag 58- 63 F6.3 mag Hmag 2MASS H band magnitude 65- 69 F5.3 mag e_Hmag ? Uncertainty in Hmag 71- 76 F6.3 mag Ksmag ? 2MASS Ks band magnitude 78- 82 F5.3 mag e_Ksmag ? Uncertainty in Kmag 84- 88 F5.2 mag HJmag ? Reduced proper motion at J-band defined as HJmag=Jmag+5*log(2Mpm)+5. 90- 94 F5.3 arcsec/yr USpm ? USNO-B measured proper motion 96-100 F5.3 arcsec/yr e_USpm ? Uncertainty in USpm 102-104 I3 deg USPA ? USNO-B proper motion position angle 106-110 F5.2 mag B1mag ? USNO-B B1 magnitude 112-116 F5.2 mag B2mag ? USNO-B B2 magnitude 118-122 F5.2 mag R1mag ? USNO-B R1 magnitude 124-128 F5.2 mag R2mag ? USNO-B R2 magnitude 130-134 F5.2 mag Imag ? USNO-B I magnitude 136-139 F4.2 arcsec/yr pm ? SIMBAD measured proper motion 141-144 F4.2 arcsec/yr e_pm ? Uncertainty in Spm 146-148 I3 deg pmPA ? position angle of Simbad proper motion 150-174 A25 --- SName SIMBAD name 176-186 A11 --- SpT ?=--- SIMBAD spectral type
Note (1): The name includes the sexagesimal J2000 position encoded as HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s. Note (2): List from which the proper motion candidate came; as follows: 1 = Section 2.1: data from the 2MASS All-Sky Point Source Catalog (PSC) as epoch 1 (1X) and from the 2MASS 6X Point Source Working Database/Catalog as epoch 2., 2 = Section 2.2.1: 2MASS 1X survey only, 3 = Section 2.2.2: kinematic selection with imposed color criteria between the first and last 2MASS epochs. Note (3): For objects not visible on the B- or R-band plates of the Digitized Sky Surveys. "I" if it visible in the DSS I-band plates or "J" if it is seen only in 2MASS.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- --- [2MASS] 7- 23 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS identification (JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 24 A1 --- m_2MASS [AB] Component letter 25 A1 --- n_2MASS [bdgfh] Individual notes (1) 27- 38 A12 --- Tel Telescope 40- 46 A7 --- Inst Instrument 48- 57 A10 "Y/M/D" ObsDate Date(s) of observation (UT) 58- 60 A3 --- Obs2 Second date 62- 72 A11 --- Weath Weather conditions 74- 77 I4 s Int ? Integration time 78 A1 --- u_Int [?] Uncertainty flag for Int 80- 92 A13 --- SpT.Opt ?=--- Optical spectral type 94-111 A18 --- SpT.NIR ?=--- NIR spectral type 113 A1 --- n_SpT.NIR [ace] Notes on NIR spectrum (2)
Note (1): Flag as follows: b = 2MASS J1043+1213: this discovery has since been independently confirmed and published by Chiu et al. (2006, Cat. J/AJ/131/2722). d = 2MASS J1924+5506: this shares common proper motion with an object 10.0" distant and at PA=115°. This other object has a 960 sec IRTF-SpeX spectrum from 2005/10/19 (UT) that shows it to be a white dwarf. f = 2MASS J0115-7519: this object was found in both the 1X-6X and the 1X-1X survey. g = 2MASS J0100+1711: this object is also known as LHS 1174. h = Additional spectroscopic data for 2MASS J1821+1414 and 2MASS J2148+4003 are presented in Looper et al., 2008ApJ...685.1183L. Note (2): Flag as follows: a = The near-infrared classification here is based only on a NIRSPEC N3 spectrum covering 1.15-1.35um. c = 2MASS J1520-4422AB: near-infrared spectra types are taken from Burgasser et al. (2007ApJ...657..494B). e = 2MASS J2148+4003: spectral type based on a NIRSPEC N1+N2 spectrum covering 0.95-1.30um.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- --- [2MASS] 7- 23 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS identification (JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 25- 40 A16 --- OName Other name 42- 53 A12 --- Tel Telescope 55- 61 A7 --- Inst Instrument 63- 72 A10 "YYYY/MM/DD" ObsDate Date of observation (UT) 74- 78 A5 --- Weath ?=--- Weather conditions 80- 83 I4 s Int Integration time 85- 92 A8 --- SpT.Opt ?=--- Optical spectral type 94-100 A7 --- SpT.new ?=--- New optical spectral type (1) 101 A1 --- n_SpT.new [b] Note (2) 103-110 A8 --- SpT ?=--- Adopted spectral type 111 A1 --- n_SpT [c-f] Note on the adopted spectral type (3)
Note (1): Typed on the subdwarf classification system of Lepine et al. (2007ApJ...669.1235L) using the spectra obtained here. Note (2): b = Does not warrant a subdwarf classification on the new Lepine et al. (2007ApJ...669.1235L) system. Note (3): Flag as follows: c = Established as the esdM7.5 standard in Lepine et al. (2007ApJ...669.1235L) d = Established as the usdM7.5 standard in Lepine et al. (2007ApJ...669.1235L) e = Established as the sdM8 standard in Lepine et al. (2007ApJ...669.1235L) f = See Cushing & Vacca (2006AJ....131.1797C) for more information on the classification and interpretation of LSR J1610-0040.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- --- [2MASS] 7- 23 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS identification (JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 25- 32 A8 --- OName Other name 34- 35 A2 --- SpTIR ?=--- Adopted NIR spectral type 37- 42 F6.3 mag Jmag 2MASS J-band magnitude 44- 48 F5.3 mag e_Jmag Jmag uncertainty 50- 54 F5.3 mag J-H 2MASS J-H color index 56- 60 F5.3 mag e_J-H J-H uncertainty 62- 66 F5.3 mag J-Ks 2MASS J-Ks color index 68- 72 F5.3 mag e_J-Ks J-Ks uncertainty 74- 77 A4 --- SpT.O ?=--- Published optical spectral type 79 I1 --- r_SpT.O ?=- Optical reference (1)
Note (1): References as follows: 1 = Kirkpatrick et al., 2000AJ....120..447K; 2 = Cruz et al., 2003, Cat. J/AJ/126/2421; 3 = Kirkpatrick et al., 1991ApJS...77..417K; 4 = Kirkpatrick et al., 1995AJ....109..797K; 5 = Kirkpatrick et al., 1999ApJ...519..802K; 6 = Kirkpatrick et al., 2008ApJ...689.1295K; 7 = Gizis et al., 2000AJ....120.1085G; 8 = unpublished from Kirkpatrick, as listed in DwarfArchives.org.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table[5679].dat table1[12].dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- --- [2MASS] 7- 23 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS identification (JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 24 A1 --- f_2MASS [ab] Flag on 2MASS (1) 26- 38 A13 --- SpT.Opt ?=--- Optical spectral type (2) 40- 57 A18 --- SpT.NIR ?=--- NIR spectral type 59- 63 F5.3 mag J-H 2MASS J-H color index 65- 69 F5.3 mag e_J-H J-H uncertainty 71- 75 F5.3 mag H-Ks 2MASS H-Ks color index 77- 81 F5.3 mag e_H-Ks H-Ks uncertainty 83- 87 F5.3 mag J-Ks 2MASS J-Ks color index 89- 93 F5.3 mag e_J-Ks J-Ks uncertainty
Note (1): Flag as follows: a = See Looper et al. (2008ApJ...685.1183L) for in-depth discussion b = Discovered independently by Chiu et al. (2006, Cat. J/AJ/131/2722). Note (2): In table5, optical spectral types use the Greek suffix designations of Cruz et al. (2009AJ....137.3345C) in which γ is used to denote low gravity (as opposed to normal (α, usually dropped for convenience) or intermediate (β) gravity). Objects of extremely low gravity are further denoted by δ, as originally outlined in Kirkpatrick (2005, Cat. J/other/ARA+A/43.195) and Kirkpatrick et al. (2006ApJ...639.1120K).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table10.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 25 A25 --- Name Designation (SDSS JHHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s or 2MASS JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 26 A1 --- f_Name [abc] Flag on name (1) 28- 29 I2 --- r_Name Discovery reference (2) 31- 34 F4.2 arcsec/yr Mpm Proper motion 36- 39 F4.2 arcsec/yr e_Mpm Mpm uncertainty 41- 44 F4.1 pc Dist Distance (3) 45 A1 --- u_Dist [:] Uncertainty flag for Dist 47- 50 F4.1 pc e_Dist ? Distance uncertainty 52- 54 I3 km/s Vtan Tangential velocity 55 A1 --- u_Vtan [:] Uncertainty flag for Vtan 57- 58 I2 km/s e_Vtan ? Vtan uncertainty 60- 61 I2 --- r_Vtan Kinematic reference (2) 63- 68 A6 -- SpT.Opt ?=--- Optical spectral type 70- 87 A18 --- SpT.NIR ?=--- NIR spectral type 89- 91 F3.1 --- e_SpT.NIR ? SpTypeIR uncertainty 93- 97 A5 --- r_SpT.NIR Spectral type reference(s) (2) 99-103 F5.3 mag J-Ks ? 2MASS J-Ks color index 105-109 F5.3 mag e_J-Ks ? J-Ks uncertainty
Note (1): Flag as follows: a = SDSS J0805+4812: suspected binary comprised of mid-L and mid-T components; Burgasser et al. (2007ApJ...657..494B). b = 2MASS J09211411-2104446: also known as SIPS J0921-2104. c = 2MASS J1711+4028: also known as G 203-50B. Optical spectral type is determined here for the first time using a spectrum acquired on 2009/10/11 (UT) at Keck-I with LRIS (1200s integration). Note (2): References as follows: 1 = This paper; 2 = Knapp et al., 2004, Cat. J/AJ/127/3553; 3 = Cruz et al., 2003, Cat. J/AJ/126/2421; 4 = Folkes et al., 2007MNRAS.378..901F; 5 = Chiu et al. 2006, Cat. J/AJ/131/2722; 6 = Deacon et al., 2005, Cat. J/A+A/435/363; 7 = Radigan et al., 2008ApJ...689..471R; 8 = Faherty et al., 2009AJ....137....1F; 9 = Sheppard & Cushing, 2009AJ....137..304S; 10 = Burgasser et al., 2008ApJ...672.1159B; 11 = Reid et al., 2008, Cat. J/AJ/136/1290; 12 = Zhang et al., 2009, Cat. J/A+A/497/619; 13 = Gizis et al., 2000AJ....120.1085G; 14 = Hawley et al., 2002, Cat. J/AJ/123/3409. Note (3): For the new discoveries, we estimate a distance using the 2MASS J-band magnitude and the predicted absolute J-band magnitude given by the optical spectral type, as given by the relation of Looper et al., 2008ApJ...685.1183L.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table13.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- OType Type of object (1) 5- 9 A5 --- --- [2MASS] 11- 27 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS designation (JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 29- 35 A7 --- Source Optical or NIR (2) 37- 45 A9 --- SpType ?=--- Spectral type 47- 56 A10 "YYYY/MM/DD" ObsDate Observation date (UT) 58- 61 I4 km/s Vrad Radial velocity 63- 64 I2 km/s e_Vrad [50] Vrad uncertainty 66- 68 I3 pc Dist Estimated distance (3) 70- 72 I3 km/s Vtan Tangential velocity 74- 76 I3 km/s e_Vtan Vtan uncertainty 78- 80 I3 km/s Vel Total space motion 82- 84 I3 km/s e_Vel Vel uncertainty
Note (1): Type as follows: LgO = Low-gravity Objects RLD = Red L Dwarfs Lsd = Late-M and L Subdwarfs BLD = Blue L Dwarfs Note (2): Type of spectrum, as given in Table 2, from which the listed spectral type and radial velocity were measured. Note (3): See Sections 6.1 and 6.3 for an object-by-object discussion of the distance estimates for the low-gravity objects and subdwarfs. Distances to the red and blue L dwarfs have been estimated with the Looper et al., 2008ApJ...685.1183L, relations and use the listed spectral type and measured 2MASS J magnitude.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Greg Schwarz [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 30-Sep-2010
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