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J/ApJS/181/62      Survey of young solar analogs      (Metchev+, 2009)

The Palomar/Keck adaptive optics survey of young solar analogs: evidence for a universal companion mass function. Metchev S.A., Hillenbrand L.A. <Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 181, 62-109 (2009)> =2009ApJS..181...62M
ADC_Keywords: Stars, double and multiple ; Stars, masses ; Proper motions ; Photometry, infrared Keywords: binaries: visual - stars: imaging - stars: low-mass, brown dwarfs stars: luminosity function, mass function Abstract: We present results from an adaptive optics survey for substellar and stellar companions to Sun-like stars. The survey targeted 266 F5-K5 stars in the 3Myr-3Gyr age range with distances of 10-190pc. Results from the survey include the discovery of two brown dwarf companions (HD 49197B and HD 203030B), 24 new stellar binaries, and a triple system. We infer that the frequency of 0.012-0.072M brown dwarfs in 28-1590AU orbits around young solar analogs is 3.2+3.1-2.7% (2σ limits). The result demonstrates that the deficiency of substellar companions at wide orbital separations from Sun-like stars is less pronounced than in the radial velocity "brown dwarf desert." We infer that the mass distribution of companions in 28-1590AU orbits around solar-mass stars follows a continuous dN/dM2∝M-0.42 relation over the 0.01-1.0M secondary mass range. While this functional form is similar to that for isolated objects less than 0.1M, over the entire 0.01-1.0M range, the mass functions of companions and of isolated objects differ significantly. Based on this conclusion and on similar results from other direct imaging and radial velocity companion surveys in the literature, we argue that the companion mass function follows the same universal form over the entire range between 0 and 1590AU in orbital semimajor axis and ∼0.01-20M in companion mass. In this context, the relative dearth of substellar versus stellar secondaries at all orbital separations arises naturally from the inferred form of the companion mass function. Description: A complete description of the observing strategy of our AO survey was given in Metchev & Hillenbrand (2004ApJ...617.1330M) and in Metchev (2006PhDT.........1M). The full sample of 266 stars was observed in the near-IR (NIR) with AO at the Palomar and Keck II telescopes on 47 clear nights over the course of three years: between 2002 January 31 and 2005 January 24. Additional astrometric follow-up was obtained during 2006 and 2007 in a few individual cases. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 114 100 Deep sample table2.dat 114 166 Shallow sample table6.dat 68 217 Deep sample observations and sensitivity limits table7.dat 68 252 Shallow sample observations and sensitivity limits table8.dat 114 196 Candidate companions in the deep sample table9.dat 114 91 Candidate companions in the shallow sample table11.dat 76 76 New and confirmed secondaries refs.dat 72 17 References for tables 8,9, 11
See also: B/wds : The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2009) J/A+A/356/141 : BV photometry for components of HIP doubles (Fabricius+ 2000) J/A+A/341/121 : Visual binary orbits and masses (Soederhjelm 1999) J/A+A/323/139 : K magnitude of Pleiades low-mass binaries (Bouvier+ 1997) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table[12].dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 21 A21 --- Name Star name (G1) 23- 24 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 26- 27 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 29- 33 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 35 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 36- 37 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 39- 40 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 42- 46 F5.2 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 48- 53 F6.1 mas/yr pmRA Proper motion in Right Ascension 55- 58 F4.1 mas/yr e_pmRA Uncertainty in pmRA 60- 65 F6.1 mas/yr pmDE Proper motion in Declination 67- 70 F4.1 mas/yr e_pmDE Uncertainty in pmDE 72- 76 F5.1 pc Dist Heliocentric distance 78- 81 F4.1 pc e_Dist Uncertainty in Dist 83- 85 F3.1 mag Ksmag The KS band magnitude 87- 94 A8 --- SpType Adopted spectral type 96-105 A10 --- Assoc Name of association 107-110 F4.1 [yr] logA Log of the estimated age 112-114 F3.1 solMass Mass Estimated mass (1)
Note (1): From the evolutionary tracks of Baraffe et al. (1998, Cat. J/A+A/337/403 for M<1.4M and age <30Myr), D'Antona & Mazzitelli (1994ApJS...90..467D, for M>1.4M and age <30Myr), and Swenson et al. (1994ApJ...422L..79S, for age >30Myr). The mass estimates have been corrected for binarity.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table[67].dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 21 A21 --- Name Star name (G1) 23- 26 I4 yr Obs.Y Year of observation 28- 30 A3 --- Obs.M Month of observation 32- 33 I2 d Obs.D Day of observation 35- 41 A7 --- Obs Observatory 43- 48 A6 --- Optic Optic code (1) 50- 53 F4.1 mag 0.5Ksmag ? Limiting K_S_ band magnitude at 0.5" (2) 55- 58 F4.1 mag 1Ksmag ? Limiting K_S_ band magnitude at 1" (2) 60- 63 F4.1 mag 2Ksmag ? Limiting K_S_ band magnitude at 2" (2) 65- 68 F4.1 mag 5Ksmag ? Limiting K_S_ band magnitude at 5" (2)
Note (1): Optic code is: Corona = coronagraph was used. ND1 = ND 1% filter was used at Palomar. Note (2): The limiting magnitude corresponds to the apparent KS-band magnitude of the faintest detectable point source at the given angular separation, and is quoted only for the epoch of the deepest observation. 0.5Ks magnitude for Table 7 only.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table[89].dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 21 A21 --- Name Primary star name (G1) 23- 24 I2 --- m_Name Companion number 26- 31 F6.3 arcsec rho Angular separation 33- 37 F5.3 arcsec e_rho Uncertainty in rho 39- 44 F6.2 deg PA Position angle 46- 49 F4.2 deg e_PA Uncertainty in PA 51- 55 F5.2 mag DelK Primary/Companion KS band magnitude difference 57- 60 F4.2 mag e_DelK Uncertainty in DelK 62- 66 F5.2 mag Ksmag The KS band magnitude 68- 71 F4.2 mag e_Ksmag Uncertainty in Ksmag 73- 77 F5.2 mag J-Ks ? The (J-K_S_) color (1) 79- 82 F4.2 mag e_J-Ks ? Uncertainty in J-Ks 84- 87 I4 yr Obs.Y Year candidate companion discovered 89- 90 I2 --- Obs.M Month candidate companion discovered 92- 93 I2 d Obs.D Day candidate companion discovered 95 A1 --- Tel [PK] Telescope used at discovery (2) 97-102 A6 --- phys Physical association of candidate companion with primary (3) 104 A1 --- f_phys [d] Flag for ScoPMS 214 (4) 106-114 A9 --- Ref Reference if companion was already known. See refs.dat file
Note (1): For objects with obtained J-band data. Note (2): P = Palomar; K = Keck. Note (3): Various physical association codes as follows: yes = bona fide companions no = non-physical companions ? = undecided candidate companions a = determined through astrometry from the present survey only c = determined from their near-IR colors p = determined from combining the present astrometry with prior astrometry from the literature; e = based on a non-point-like extended point-spread function (PSF); Note (4): d = Candidate companion 1 to ScoPMS 214 shares the proper motion of the primary, but is inferred to be an unaffiliated field object based on its K band spectrum (see Section 6.3).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table11.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 21 A21 --- Name Primary name (G1) 22 A1 --- m_Name [BC] Suffix for companion 24- 28 F5.2 mag KMAG Absolute KS band magnitude 30- 33 F4.2 mag e_KMAG Uncertainty in KMAG 35- 39 F5.2 arcsec ASep Projected angular separation 41- 46 F6.2 AU PSep Projected physical separation 48- 51 F4.2 solMass M2 Secondary mass 53- 56 F4.2 --- q Mass ratio 58 A1 --- f_q [d] Flag on q (1) 60- 65 A6 --- Sample Sample (2) 67- 76 A10 --- Ref Reference in refs.dat file
Note (1): "AD" denotes companions to stars in the 128-star minimally biased AD sample (Section 9.1.1). "AD30" marks the 30 companions to AD stars that reside at projected separations between 0.55"-12.5". Note (2): d = The mass ratio for the more distant companion B in the triple system HD 91962ABC is calculated as q=MB/(MA+MC).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- Ref Reference code 6- 29 A24 --- Aut Author's name(s) 31- 49 A19 --- BibCode Bibcode 51- 72 A22 --- Com Comment
Global notes: Note (G1): Target identifiers are from sources: 1RXS = ROSAT All-Sky Bright (Voges et al., 1999, Cat. IX/10) and Faint Source Catalogs (Voges et al., 2000, Cat. IX/29); 2RE, RE = ROSAT (2RE) Source Catalog of extreme ultra-violet sources (Pye et al., 1995, Cat. J/MNRAS/274/1165; Pounds et al., 1993, Cat. J/MNRAS/260/77); HE = α Persei member (Heckmann et al., 1956, Cat. J/AN/283/109 substitute "HE" with "Cl Melotte 20" for query in SIMBAD); 1E, 2E = Einstein satellite observations; HD = Henry Draper Catalog (Cannon A.J. and Pickering E.C., 1918, Cat. III/135); HII = Pleiades member (Hertzspring, 1947AnLei..19a...1H, substitute "HII" with "Cl Melotte 22" for query in SIMBAD; van Leeuwen et al., 1986A&AS...65..309V, insert Cl* Melotte 22 before "Pels" for query in SIMBAD); HIP = Hipparcos catalog (Perryman et al., 1997, Cat. I/239); PZ99, ScoPMS = Upper Scorpius member (Preibisch & Zinnecker, 1999AJ....117.2381P, [PZ99] JHHMMSS.s-DDMMSS in SIMBAD; Walter et al., 1994AJ....107..692W); RX = ROSAT satellite observations; SAO = Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog (Whipple, 1966, Cat. I/131); vB = Hyades member (van Bueren, 1952BAN....11..385V, substitute "vB" with "Cl Melotte 25" for query in SIMBAD).
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Greg Schwarz [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 13-Oct-2009
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