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J/ApJ/848/L16    Counterpart of GW170817. I. DECam obs.   (Soares-Santos+, 2017)

The electromagnetic counterpart of the binary neutron star merger LIGO/VIRGO GW170817. I. Discovery of the optical counterpart using the Dark Energy Camera. Soares-Santos M., Holz D.E., Annis J., Chornock R., Herner K., Berger E., Brout D., Chen H.-Y., Kessler R., Sako M., Allam S., Tucker D.L., Butler R.E., Palmese A., Doctor Z., Diehl H.T., Frieman J., Yanny B., Lin H., Scolnic D., Cowperthwaite P., Neilsen E., Marriner J., Kuropatkin N., Hartley W.G., Paz-Chinchon F., Alexander K.D., Balbinot E., Blanchard P., Brown D.A., Carlin J.L., Conselice C., Cook E.R., Drlica-Wagner A., Drout M.R., Durret F., Eftekhari T., Farr B., Finley D.A., Foley R.J., Fong W., Fryer C.L., Garcia-Bellido J., Gill M.S..S., Gruendl R.A., Hanna C., Kasen D., Li T.S., Lopes P.A.A., Lourenco A.C.C., Margutti R., Marshall J.L., Matheson T., Medina G.E., Metzger B.D., Munoz R.R., Muir J., Nicholl M., Quataert E., Rest A., Sauseda M., Schlegel D.J., Secco L.F., Sobreira F., Stebbins A., Villar V.A., Vivas K., Walker A.R., Wester W., Williams P.K.G., Zenteno A., Zhang Y., Abbott T.M.C., Abdalla F.B., Banerji M., Bechtol K., Benoit-Levy A., Bertin E., Brooks D., Buckley-Geer E., Burke D.L., Carnero Rosell A., Carrasco Kind M., Carretero J., Castander F.J., Crocce M., Cunha C.E., D'Andrea C.B., da Costa L.N., Davis C., Desai S., Dietrich J.P., Doel P., Eifler T.F., Fernandez E., Flaugher B., Fosalba P., Gaztanaga E., Gerdes D.W., Giannantonio T., Goldstein D.A., Gruen D., Gschwend J., Gutierrez G., Honscheid K., Jain B., James D.J., Jeltema T., Johnson M.W.G., Johnson M.D., Kent S., Krause E., Kron R., Kuehn K., Kuhlmann S., Lahav O., Lima M., Maia M.A.G., March M., McMahon R.G., Menanteau F., Miquel R., Mohr J.J., Nichol R.C., Nord B., Ogando R.L.C., Petravick D., Plazas A.A., Romer A.K., Roodman A., Rykoff E.S., Sanchez E., Scarpine V., Schubnell M., Sevilla-Noarbe I., Smith M., Smith R.C., Suchyta E., Swanson M.E.C., Tarle G., Thomas D., Thomas R.C., Troxel M.A., Vikram V., Wechsler R.H., Weller J. <Astrophys. J., 848, L16 (2017)> =2017ApJ...848L..16S
ADC_Keywords: Gravitational wave; Stars, neutron; Photometry, ugriz Keywords: binaries: close; catalogs; gravitational waves; stars: neutron; surveys Abstract: We present the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) discovery of the optical counterpart of the first binary neutron star merger detected through gravitational-wave emission, GW170817. Our observations commenced 10.5hr post-merger, as soon as the localization region became accessible from Chile. We imaged 70deg2 in the i and z bands, covering 93% of the initial integrated localization probability, to a depth necessary to identify likely optical counterparts (e.g., a kilonova). At 11.4hr post-merger we detected a bright optical transient located 10.6" from the nucleus of NGC 4993 at redshift z=0.0098, consistent (for H0=70km/s/Mpc) with the distance of 40±8Mpc reported by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration (LVC). At detection the transient had magnitudes of i=17.3 and z=17.4, and thus an absolute magnitude of Mi=-15.7, in the luminosity range expected for a kilonova. We identified 1500 potential transient candidates. Applying simple selection criteria aimed at rejecting background events such as supernovae, we find the transient associated with NGC 4993 as the only remaining plausible counterpart, and reject chance coincidence at the 99.5% confidence level. We therefore conclude that the optical counterpart we have identified near NGC 4993 is associated with GW170817. This discovery ushers in the era of multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves and demonstrates the power of DECam to identify the optical counterparts of gravitational-wave sources. Description: Our Dark Energy Camera (DECam) observations on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) commenced on 2017 August 17 at at 23:13 UT (10.53hr post-merger) with 30s exposures in the i and z bands. The resulting 5σ limiting magnitudes are i∼22.0 and z∼21.3 for point sources. The areal coverage was 70.4deg2, corresponding to an integrated probability of 93.4% of the initial GW skymap. Objects: ---------------------------------------------------------- RA (ICRS) DE Designation(s) ---------------------------------------------------------- 13 09 48.09 -23 22 53.3 GrW 170817 = NAME AT 2017gfo ---------------------------------------------------------- File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 27 48 Light curve constructed from u, g, r, i, z, Y observations
See also: J/ApJ/848/L29 : Opt. follow-up of GW170817 counterpart (Diaz+, 2017) J/ApJ/848/L33 : Opt. follow-up of GW events with LCO (Arcavi+, 2017) J/ApJ/851/L21 : UV-NIR obs. compilation of GW170817 counterpart (Villar+, 2017) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 12 F12.6 d MJD [57983/57996] Time of observation in Modified Julian Days 14 A1 --- Band [ugrizY] Band used for observation 16- 21 F6.3 mag mag [17.2/25.3] Reddening corrected AB PSF magnitude in Band (1) 23- 27 F5.3 mag e_mag [0.004/2.7]? Error in mag (2)
Note (1): Magnitudes are galactic extinction corrected AB PSF magnitudes. E(B-V)SFD98=0.123, and RV=3.963, 3.186, 2.140, 1.569, 1.196, 1.048 for u, g, r, i, z, Y bands, respectively. Note (2): When value of the magnitude error is lower than 1e-2, it is not considered.
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Cowperthwaite et al. Paper II. 2017ApJ...848L..17C Nicholl et al. Paper III. 2017ApJ...848L..18N Chornock et al. Paper IV. 2017ApJ...848L..19C Margutti et al. Paper V. 2017ApJ...848L..20M Alexander et al. Paper VI. 2017ApJ...848L..21A Blanchard et al. Paper VII. 2017ApJ...848L..22B Fong et al. Paper VIII. 2017ApJ...848L..23F
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 12-Jun-2018
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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