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J/ApJ/844/38      MHOs toward 22 regions with H2 fluxes      (Wolf-Chase+, 2017)

MHOs toward HMOs: a search for Molecular Hydrogen emission-Line Objects toward High-Mass Outflows. Wolf-Chase G., Arvidsson K., Smutko M. <Astrophys. J., 844, 38 (2017)> =2017ApJ...844...38W
ADC_Keywords: Photometry, infrared ; H II regions ; Interstellar medium ; YSOs Keywords: ISM: jets and outflows; stars: formation; stars: massive; stars: pre-main sequence; stars: protostars Abstract: We present the results of a narrow-band near-infrared imaging survey for Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs) toward 26 regions containing high-mass protostellar candidates and massive molecular outflows. We have detected a total of 236 MHOs, 156 of which are new detections, in 22 out of the 26 regions. We use H22.12µm/H22.25µm flux ratios, together with morphology, to separate the signatures of fluorescence associated with photo- dissociation regions (PDRs) from shocks associated with outflows in order to identify the MHOs. PDRs have typical low flux ratios of ∼1.5-3, while the vast majority of MHOs display flux ratios typical of C-type shocks (∼6-20). A few MHOs exhibit flux ratios consistent with expected values for J-type shocks (∼3-4), but these are located in regions that may be contaminated with fluorescent emission. Some previously reported MHOs have low flux ratios, and are likely parts of PDRs rather than shocks indicative of outflows. We identify a total of 36 outflows across the 22 target regions where MHOs were detected. In over half these regions, MHO arrangements and fluorescent structures trace features present in CO outflow maps, suggesting that the CO emission traces a combination of dynamical effects, which may include gas entrained in expanding PDRs as well as bipolar outflows. Where possible, we link MHO complexes to distinct outflows and identify candidate driving sources. Description: We obtained H2 2.12um, H2 2.25um, and H2r 2.13um (narrow-band continuum) images of 26 regions thought to contain massive YSOs, using the Near-infrared Camera and Fabry-Perot Spectrometer (NICFPS) on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory (APO) in Sunspot, NM. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . this file table1.dat 89 78 Observation log of the 26 regions table2.dat 94 41 Source detections and associations with massive star formation in the 26 regions table3.dat 233 237 Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs) and fluxes in 22 regions
See also: II/125 : IRAS catalogue of Point Sources, Version 2.0 (IPAC 1986) J/ApJS/91/659 : Ultracompact HII regions radio images (Kurtz+ 1994) J/A+A/308/573 : Ammonia on YSOs IRAS sources (Molinari+ 1996) J/A+AS/132/211 : Interstellar SiO sources (Harju+ 1998) J/A+A/336/339 : VLA obs. of ultracompact HII regions (Molinari+, 1998) J/AJ/117/446 : AFGL 5157 near-IR imaging (Chen+, 1999) J/ApJ/629/288 : Infrared sources near AFGL 5142 (Chen+, 2005) J/ApJ/649/759 : Bubbles in the galactic disk (Churchwell+, 2006) J/A+A/481/345 : SED evolution in massive YSOs (Molinari+, 2008) J/A+A/511/A24 : MHO Catalogue (Davis+, 2010) J/A+A/510/A5 : CO(2-1) maps of IRAS 00117+6412 (Palau+, 2010) J/MNRAS/404/661 : Young stellar outflows near-IR imaging (Varricatt+ 2010) J/MNRAS/418/1994 : GM 2-4 H2 emission-line objects (Khanzadyan+, 2011) J/ApJS/208/11 : Red MSX Source Survey: massive protostars (Lumsden+, 2013) J/ApJS/212/1 : The WISE catalog of Galactic HII regions (Anderson+, 2014) J/ApJ/784/111 : Cand. intermediate-mass SFRs morphology (Lundquist+, 2014) J/ApJ/799/153 : Yellowballs in Milky Way project (Kerton+, 2015) J/ApJ/827/96 : WISE census of YSOs in Canis Major (Fischer+, 2016) J/MNRAS/462/1444 : MHO catalogue for Cassiopeia and Auriga (Froebrich+, 2016) http://astro.kent.ac.uk/~df/MHCat/ : MHO online catalogue Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- IRAS IRAS designation (HHMMm+DDMM, B1950) 12- 14 I3 --- Mol [2/160] Molinari number (G1) 16- 17 I2 h RAh Center position: hour of RA (J2000) 19- 20 I2 min RAm Center position: minute of RA (J2000) 22- 25 F4.1 s RAs Center position: second of RA (J2000) 27 A1 --- DE- Center position: sign of DE (J2000) 28- 29 I2 deg DEd Center position: degree of DE (J2000) 31- 32 I2 arcmin DEm Center position: arcminute of DE (J2000) 34- 35 I2 arcsec DEs Center position: arcsecond of DE (J2000) 37- 51 A15 --- Filter Filter 53- 79 A27 --- Date UT date(s) of observation (YYMMDD) 81- 84 I4 s Exp [1200/5400]? Total exposure time 86- 89 F4.2 arcsec FWHM [0.7/1.5]? Resolution
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- IRAS IRAS designation (HHMMm+DDMM, B1950) 12- 14 I3 --- Mol [2/160] Molinari number (G1) 16- 18 A3 --- f_Mol Flag on target (1) 20- 24 A5 --- Type Type (2) 26- 29 A4 --- MHOs? [Y/N ] Whether a targeted region contains MHOs 31- 34 A4 --- Col? [Y/N ] Collimated outflow(s) identified? 36- 50 A15 --- [ABB2014] WISE name (GLLL.lll+BB.bbb) (3) 52- 55 A4 --- HII HII type (4) 57- 74 A18 --- RMS MSX name (GLLL.llll+BB.bbbbA) (5) 76- 94 A19 --- Cl RMS type (5)
Note (1): Flag as follows: * = target were included in a near-infrared imaging survey conducted by Varricatt+ (2010, J/MNRAS/404/661). c = G077.4622+01.7600A is coincident with core C and anomalous H2 emission reported by Wolf-Chase+ (2013ApJ...762...87W) and a deeply embedded source reported by Yao+ (2000ApJ...542..392Y). d = Bipolar, but very compact, MHOs about Mol 160 A (Wolf-Chase+ 2012ApJ...745..116W). Note (2): Refers to objects that have IRAS colors similar to ultra-compact (UC) HII regions (H: high) and redder colors (L: low) (Wood & Churchwell 1989ApJ...340..265W ; Palla+ 1991A&A...246..249P). The designation (UC) indicates a candidate UC HII region based on the detection of centimeter-radio continuum emission at levels >1mJy within 40" of the IRAS position (Kurtz+ 1994, J/ApJS/91/659 ; Molinari+ 1998, J/A+A/336/339 ; Palau+ 2010, J/A+A/510/A5 ; Gomez-Ruiz+ 2016ApJS..222...18G). Note (3): Entries are from the WISE catalog of Galactic HII regions (Anderson+ 2014, J/ApJS/212/1 ; <[ABB2014] WISE GLLL.lll+BB.bbb> in Simbad). Note (4): Classifications (Anderson+ 2014, J/ApJS/212/1) indicate known (K), grouped (G), and candidate (C) HII regions, and radio-quiet (Q) objects. Note (5): Red Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX: Egan+ 2003, V/114) Source catalog (RMS: Lumsden+ 2013, J/ApJS/208/11) located within each targeted region and their type.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- IRAS IRAS designation 14- 16 I3 --- Mol [2/160] Molinari number (G1) 19- 25 A7 --- MHO MHO identifier 27- 28 I2 h RAh Right Ascension hours (J2000) 30- 31 I2 min RAm Right Ascension minutes (J2000) 33- 34 I2 s RAs Right Ascension seconds (J2000) 36 A1 --- DE- Sign of declination (J2000) 37- 38 I2 deg DEd Declination degrees (J2000) 40- 41 I2 arcmin DEm Declination arcmin (J2000) 43- 44 I2 arcsec DEs Declination arcsec (J2000) 46- 51 F6.3 10-10sr Area [0.2/46.3]? Area of MHO region 53- 59 F7.3 10-18W/m2 F2.12 [0.3/825]? NICFPS flux in 2.12um band 61- 66 F6.3 10-18W/m2 e_F2.12 [0.03/54]? Error in F2.12 68- 73 F6.2 10-18W/m2 F2.25 [0.1/138]? NICFPS flux in 2.25um band 75- 78 F4.2 10-18W/m2 e_F2.25 [0.04/10]? Error in F2.25 80 A1 --- l_F2.12/F2.25 Limit flag on F2.12/F2.25 82- 87 F6.3 --- F2.12/F2.25 [1/85]? Ratio of 2.12 to 2.25um fluxes 89- 92 F4.1 --- e_F2.12/F2.25 [0.1/11]? Error in F2.12/F2.25 94-233 A140 --- Comm Comments on each source (1)
Note (1): References are as below: C99 = Chen et al. (1999, J/AJ/117/446); C03 = Chen et al. (2003A&A...405..655C); C05 = Chen et al. (2005, J/ApJ/629/288) and references therein; K11 = Khanzadyan et al. (2011, J/MNRAS/418/1994); V10 = Varricatt et al. (2010, J/MNRAS/404/661); W12 = Wolf-Chase et al. (2012ApJ...745..116W); W13 = Wolf-Chase et al. (2013ApJ...762...87W);
Global notes: Note (G1): Molinari+ 1996, J/A+A/308/573 ; 1998, J/A+A/336/339 ; 2000A&A...355..617M and 2002ApJ...570..758M
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 02-Mar-2018
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