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J/ApJ/841/116    Herschel spectra of 11 very low mass stars    (Hendler+, 2017)

Hints for small disks around very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. Hendler N.P., Mulders G.D., Pascucci I., Greenwood A., Kamp I., Henning T., Menard F., Dent W.R.F., Evans II N.J. <Astrophys. J., 841, 116-116 (2017)> =2017ApJ...841..116H (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Spectra, infrared ; Stars, masses ; Stars, brown dwarf Keywords: brown dwarfs; circumstellar matter; protoplanetary disks Abstract: The properties of disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (hereafter VLMOs) provide important boundary conditions on the process of planet formation and inform us about the numbers and masses of planets than can form in this regime. We use the Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectrometer to measure the continuum and [OI]63µm line emission toward 11 VLMOs with known disks in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions. We fit radiative transfer models to the spectral energy distributions of these sources. Additionally, we carry out a grid of radiative transfer models run in a regime that connects the luminosity of our sources with brighter T Tauri stars. We find that VLMO disks with sizes 1.3-78au, smaller than typical T Tauri disks, fit well the spectral energy distributions assuming that disk geometry and dust properties are stellar mass independent. Reducing the disk size increases the disk temperature, and we show that VLMOs do not follow previously derived disk temperature-stellar luminosity relationships if the disk outer radius scales with stellar mass. Only 2 out of 11 sources are detected in [OI] despite a better sensitivity than was achieved for T Tauri stars, suggesting that VLMO disks are underluminous. Using thermochemical models, we show that smaller disks can lead to the unexpected [OI]63µm nondetections in our sample. The disk outer radius is an important factor in determining the gas and dust observables. Description: Our sample comprises 11 very low mass stars (VLMOs) and brown dwarfs from two nearby star-forming regions, Taurus and Chamaeleon I (d=162pc). Because we use stellar parameters from Rebull+ (2010, J/ApJS/186/259) for the majority of our Taurus sources, we adopt their distance of 137pc for the Taurus star-forming region. Ten of the sources were selected by us and observed in 2013 February and March with the Herschel/PACS spectrograph as part of Proposal ID OT2ipascucc2. CIDA-1 is the only other VLMO observed with the same setting (Proposal ID OT1ascholz1); hence, we include it in our analysis. Spectra were centered on the [OI]63um line and covered from 62.93 to 63.43um. The red channel observations were a bonus and covered from 188.77 to 190.35um. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 74 11 Source properties table3.dat 62 11 Observed continuum flux densities and line fluxes table4.dat 880 11 Source photometry
See also: J/A+A/337/403 : Low-mass stars evolutionary models (Baraffe+ 1998) J/A+A/416/555 : Brown Dwarfs in ChaI Dark Cloud (Lopez-Marti+ 2004) J/A+A/446/485 : New very low-mass members in Taurus (Guieu+, 2006) J/ApJ/645/676 : Spatial distribution of brown dwarfs in Taurus (Luhman+, 2006) J/ApJ/675/1375 : IRAC/MIPS photometry in Cha I (Luhman+, 2008) J/ApJ/684/654 : Low-mass members of Chamaeleon I (Luhman+, 2008) J/ApJS/186/111 : Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010) J/ApJS/186/259 : Taurus Spitzer survey: new candidate members (Rebull+, 2010) J/ApJ/731/8 : Multiple star formation in Taurus-Auriga (Kraus+, 2011) J/PASP/125/477 : Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems. I. (Dent+, 2013) J/ApJ/771/129 : Submillimetric Class II sources of Taurus (Andrews+, 2013) J/ApJ/773/168 : Submm fluxes of very low-mass stars and BDs (Mohanty+, 2013) J/ApJ/788/40 : Late-type targets in Taurus, ChaI & Upper Sco (Todorov+, 2014) J/A+A/570/A29 : TBOSS Survey I: Herschel/PACS (Bulger+, 2014) J/MNRAS/444/1157 : Members of ONC and Tau-Aur (Davies+, 2014) J/A+A/594/A59 : Far-IR lines in YSOs Herschel-PACS (Riviere-Marichalar+, 2016) J/ApJ/831/125 : ALMA 887um obs. of ChaI star-forming region (Pascucci+, 2016) J/AJ/153/46 : Spectroscopy of candidate members in Taurus (Luhman+, 2017) J/AJ/154/46 : Proper motions & photom. for members of Cha I (Esplin+, 2017) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 17 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS name (JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 19- 28 A10 --- Name Common name 30- 35 A6 --- Reg Region (1) 37- 41 A5 --- SpT MK spectral type 43- 45 A3 --- r_SpT Reference (2) 47- 50 F4.2 mag Av [0/4.6] Visual extinction 52 A1 --- f_Av [b] Flag on Av (3) 54- 58 F5.2 [Lsun] logLbol [-2.3/-0.7] Log of bolometric luminosity 60 A1 --- f_logLbol [a] a: GM Tau luminosity from Davies+ 2014, J/MNRAS/444/1157 62- 64 A3 --- Ref Reference (2) 66- 69 I4 K Teff [2765/3125] Effective temperature 71- 74 F4.2 Msun Mass [0.04/0.2] Mass
Note (1): A distance of 137 and 162pc is assumed for the Taurus (Rebull+ 2010, J/ApJS/186/25) and Chamaeleon I sources (Luhman+ 2007ApJ...666.1219L). Note (2): Reference as follows: D14 = Davies et al. 2014, J/MNRAS/444/1157 H08 = Herczeg & Hillenbrand 2008ApJ...681..594H L07 = Luhman et al. 2007ApJ...666.1219L L09 = Luhman et al. 2009ApJ...703..399L L17 = Luhman et al. 2017, J/AJ/153/46 R10 = Rebull et al. 2010, J/ApJS/186/259 Note (3): b = Luhman+ 2007ApJ...666.1219L report the extinction at J band. From those values we computed the AV in this table using the interstellar extinction law in Cardelli+ (1989) and an Rv of 3.1.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Name Common name 12- 13 A2 --- l_FOI [≤] Limit flag on FOI 15- 18 F4.2 10-18W/m2 FOI [2.2/5.2] Herschel/PACS [OI] flux density 20- 23 F4.2 10-18W/m2 e_FOI [1/1.3]? FOI uncertainty 25- 26 A2 --- l_F63 [≤] Limit flag on F63 28- 32 F5.1 mJy F63 [98/359] Herschel/PACS 63.2um line flux 34- 37 F4.1 mJy e_F63 [32/51]? F63 uncertainty 39- 40 A2 --- l_F189 [≤] Limit flag on F189 42- 46 F5.1 mJy F189 [66/318] Herschel/PACS 189um line flux 48- 51 F4.1 mJy e_F189 [40/84]? F189 uncertainty 53- 55 I3 mJy F70 [36/266]? 70um line flux 57- 58 I2 mJy e_F70 [1/17]? F70 uncertainty 60- 62 A3 --- r_F70 Reference for F70 (1)
Note (1): Reference as follows: B14 = Bulger et al. 2014, J/A+A/570/A29 R10 = Rebull et al. 2010, J/ApJS/186/259
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 17 A17 --- 2MASS 2MASS name; JHHMMSSss+DDMMSSs 19- 25 F7.5 Jy F0.875 [0.0001/0.005]? Flux at 0.875um 27- 36 F10.8 Jy F1.25 [0.001/0.08] Flux 2MASS (J) at 1.25um 38- 47 F10.8 Jy F1.75 [0.002/0.2] Flux 2MASS (H) at 1.75um 49- 58 F10.8 Jy F2.5 [0.004/0.2] Flux 2MASS (Ks) at 2.5um 60- 66 F7.5 Jy F3.35001 [0.01/0.2]? Flux WISE (W1) at 3.35001um 68- 74 F7.5 Jy F4.49302 [0.01/0.2]? Flux Spitzer/IRAC at 4.49302um 76- 82 F7.5 Jy F5.73096 [0.01/0.2]? Flux Spitzer/IRAC at 5.73096um 84- 90 F7.5 Jy F7.87208 [0.01/0.2]? Flux Spitzer/IRAC at 7.87208um 92- 98 F7.4 Jy F11.5598 [0.02/0.2]? Flux at 11.5598um 100-106 F7.4 Jy F23.6747 [0.05/0.3]? Flux Spitzer/MIPS at 23.6747um 108-114 F7.4 Jy F70.0008 [0.07/0.3]? Flux Herschel/PACS at 70.0008um 116-123 F8.4 Jy F100.0 [0.03/0.3]? Flux Herschel/PACS at 100.0um 125-132 F8.4 Jy F160.0 [0.03/0.3]? Flux at 160.0um 134-138 F5.1 mJy F189.0 [66/318] Herschel/PACS flux at 189.0um 140-147 F8.4 Jy F890.0 [0.004/0.05]? Flux SMA at 890.0um 149-157 F9.4 Jy F1300.0 [0.001/0.02]? Flux at 1300.0um 159-167 F9.4 Jy F2600.0 [0.002/0.008]? Flux IRAM at 2600.0um 169-174 F6.3 Jy F71.42 [0.04/0.2]? Flux Spitzer/MIPS at 71.42um 176-182 F7.3 Jy F100.001 [0.039]? Flux Herschel/PACS at 100.001um 184-189 E6.1 Jy F0.675 [/0.0001]? Flux at 0.675um 191-199 F9.5 Jy F860.0 [0.00087]? Flux JCMT/SCUBA-2 at 860.0um 201-208 F8.4 Jy F850.0 [0.01/46.6]? Flux at 850.0um 210-219 F10.8 Jy F3.4 [0.006/0.06]? Flux at 3.4um 221-230 F10.8 Jy F4.5 [0.006/0.05]? Flux Spitzer/IRAC at 4.5um 232-241 F10.8 Jy F5.8 [0.005/0.05]? Flux Spitzer/IRAC at 5.8um 243-251 F9.7 Jy F8.0 [0.008/0.05]? Flux Spitzer/IRAC at 8.0um 253-262 F10.7 Jy F12.0 [0.01/0.04]? Flux at 12.0um 264-273 F10.7 Jy F24.0 [0.02/0.07]? Flux Spitzer/MIPS at 24.0um 275 A1 --- l_F0.875 Limit flag on flux at 0.875um 286 A1 --- l_F1.25 Limit flag on flux at 1.25um 296 A1 --- l_F1.75 Limit flag on flux at 1.75um 306 A1 --- l_F2.5 Limit flag on flux at 2.5um 315 A1 --- l_F3.35001 Limit flag on flux at 3.35001um 328 A1 --- l_F4.49302 Limit flag on flux at 4.49302um 341 A1 --- l_F5.73096 Limit flag on flux at 5.73096um 354 A1 --- l_F7.87208 Limit flag on flux at 7.87208um 367 A1 --- l_F11.5598 Limit flag on flux at 11.5598um 380 A1 --- l_F23.6747 Limit flag on flux at 23.6747um 393 A1 --- l_F70.0008 Limit flag on flux at 70.0008um 406 A1 --- l_F100.0 Limit flag on flux at 100.0um 417 A1 --- l_F160.0 Limit flag on flux at 160.0um 428 A1 --- l_F189.0 Limit flag on flux at 189.0um 439 A1 --- l_F890.0 Limit flag on flux at 890.0um 450 A1 --- l_F1300.0 Limit flag on flux at 1300.0um 462 A1 --- l_F2600.0 Limit flag on flux at 2600.0um 474 A1 --- l_F71.42 Limit flag on flux at 71.42um 485 A1 --- l_F100.001 Limit flag on flux at 100.001um 498 A1 --- l_F0.675 Limit flag on flux at 0.675um 509 A1 --- l_F860.0 Limit flag on flux at 860.0um 520 A1 --- l_F850.0 Limit flag on flux at 850.0um 531 A1 --- l_F3.4 Limit flag on flux at 3.4um 540 A1 --- l_F4.5 Limit flag on flux at 4.5um 549 A1 --- l_F5.8 Limit flag on flux at 5.8um 558 A1 --- l_F8.0 Limit flag on flux at 8.0um 567 A1 --- l_F12.0 Limit flag on flux at 12.0um 577 A1 --- l_F24.0 Limit flag on flux at 24.0um 587-595 A9 --- r_F0.875 Reference for flux at 0.875um (1) 597-604 A8 --- r_F1.25 Reference for flux at 1.25um (1) 606-613 A8 --- r_F1.75 Reference for flux at 1.75um (1) 615-621 A7 --- r_F2.5 Reference for flux at 2.5um (1) 623-633 A11 --- r_F3.35001 Reference for flux at 3.35001um (1) 635-645 A11 --- r_F4.49302 Reference for flux at 4.49302um (1) 647-657 A11 --- r_F5.73096 Reference for flux at 5.73096um (1) 659-669 A11 --- r_F7.87208 Reference for flux at 7.87208um (1) 671-681 A11 --- r_F11.5598 Reference for flux at 11.5598um (1) 683-693 A11 --- r_F23.6747 Reference for flux at 23.6747um (1) 695-705 A11 --- r_F70.0008 Reference for flux at 70.0008um (1) 707-715 A9 --- r_F100.0 Reference for flux at 100.0um (1) 717-725 A9 --- r_F160.0 Reference for flux at 160.0um (1) 727-735 A9 --- r_F189.0 Reference for flux at 189.0um (1) 737-745 A9 --- r_F890.0 Reference for flux at 890.0um (1) 747-756 A10 --- r_F1300.0 Reference for flux at 1300.0um (1) 758-767 A10 --- r_F2600.0 Reference for flux at 2600.0um (1) 769-777 A9 --- r_F71.42 Reference for flux at 71.42um (1) 779-789 A11 --- r_F100.001 Reference for flux at 100.001um (1) 791-799 A9 --- r_F0.675 Reference for flux at 0.675um (1) 801-809 A9 --- r_F860.0 Reference for flux at 860.0um (1) 811-819 A9 --- r_F850.0 Reference for flux at 850.0um (1) 821-827 A7 --- r_F3.4 Reference for flux at 3.4um (1) 829-835 A7 --- r_F4.5 Reference for flux at 4.5um (1) 837-843 A7 --- r_F5.8 Reference for flux at 5.8um (1) 845-851 A7 --- r_F8.0 Reference for flux at 8.0um (1) 853-860 A8 --- r_F12.0 Reference for flux at 12.0um (1) 862-869 A8 --- r_F24.0 Reference for flux at 24.0um (1) 871-880 A10 --- Name Other name
Note (1): Reference as follows: B14 = Bulger et al. (2014, J/A+A/570/A29); G06 = Guieu et al. (2006, J/A+A/446/485); L10 = Luhman et al. (2010, J/ApJS/186/111); M01 = Martin et al. (2001ApJ...561L.195M); R10 = Rebull et al. (2010, J/ApJS/186/259); C03 = Cutri et al. (2003, II/246); W10 = Wright et al. (2010AJ....140.1868W); A13 = Andrews et al. (2013, J/ApJ/771/129); M13 = Mohanty et al. (2013, J/ApJ/773/168); S09 = Schaefer et al. (2009ApJ...701..698S); K03 = Klein et al. (2003ApJ...593L..57K); G07 = Guieu et al. (2007A&A...465..855G); L00 = Luhman (2000ApJ...544.1044L); P16 = Pascucci et al. (2016, J/ApJ/831/125); D16 = Daemgen et al. (2016A&A...594A..83D) L08 = Luhman+ (2008, J/ApJ/675/1375) H17 = This work.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 24-Jan-2018
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