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J/ApJ/837/40      The MASSIVE survey. VI. Warm ionized gas.      (Pandya+, 2017)

The MASSIVE survey. VI. The spatial distribution and kinematics of warm ionized gas in the most massive local early-type galaxies. Pandya V., Greene J.E., Ma C.-P., Veale M., Ene I., Davis T.A., Blakeslee J.P., Goulding A.D., McConnell N.J., Nyland K., Thomas J. <Astrophys. J., 837, 40-40 (2017)> =2017ApJ...837...40P (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Galaxies, spectra ; Velocity dispersion ; Interstellar medium Keywords: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: ISM; galaxies: kinematics and dynamics; ISM: kinematics and dynamics; ISM: lines and bands Abstract: We present the first systematic investigation of the existence, spatial distribution, and kinematics of warm ionized gas as traced by the [OII]3727Å emission line in 74 of the most massive galaxies in the local universe. All of our galaxies have deep integral-field spectroscopy from the volume- and magnitude-limited MASSIVE survey of early-type galaxies with stellar mass log(M*/M)>11.5 (MK←25.3mag) and distance D<108Mpc. Of the 74 galaxies in our sample, we detect warm ionized gas in 28, which yields a global detection fraction of 38±6% down to a typical [OII] equivalent width limit of 2Å. MASSIVE fast rotators are more likely to have gas than MASSIVE slow rotators with detection fractions of 80±10% and 28±6%, respectively. The spatial extents span a wide range of radii (0.6-18.2kpc; 0.1-4Re), and the gas morphologies are diverse, with 17/28∼61±9% being centrally concentrated, 8/28∼29±9% exhibiting clear rotation out to several kiloparsecs, and 3/28∼11±6% being extended but patchy. Three out of four fast rotators show kinematic alignment between the stars and gas, whereas the two slow rotators with robust kinematic measurements available exhibit kinematic misalignment. Our inferred warm ionized gas masses are roughly ∼105M. The emission line ratios and radial equivalent width profiles are generally consistent with excitation of the gas by the old underlying stellar population. We explore different gas origin scenarios for MASSIVE galaxies and find that a variety of physical processes are likely at play, including internal gas recycling, cooling out of the hot gaseous halo, and gas acquired via mergers. Description: This paper is based on integral-field spectra obtained with the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The spectra cover the wavelength range from ∼3500Å to ∼5800Å. We generally have three dithered pointings for a total of 738 spectra per galaxy. See the MASSIVE survey description in Paper I: Ma+, 2014, J/ApJ/795/158 File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 113 28 Sample of MASSIVE galaxies with warm ionized gas
See also: VII/237 : HYPERLEDA. I. Catalog of galaxies (Paturel+, 2003) J/A+AS/120/257 : Ionized gas velocity in 6 galaxies (Zeilinger+ 1996) J/ApJS/112/315 : Spectroscopic parameters of Seyfert nuclei (Ho+ 1997) J/ApJS/127/39 : Stellar & gas kinematics in early-type galaxies (Caon+ 2000) J/ApJ/655/790 : Groups of galaxies in 2MASS survey (Crook+, 2007) J/A+A/519/A40 : Spectroscopic study of 65 nearby galaxies (Annibali+, 2010) J/MNRAS/413/813 : ATLAS3D project. I. (Cappellari+, 2011) J/MNRAS/414/888 : ATLAS3D project. III. (Emsellem+, 2011) J/MNRAS/414/940 : ATLAS3D project. IV. (Young+, 2011) J/ApJS/199/26 : The 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) (Huchra+, 2012) J/ApJ/795/158 : The MASSIVE survey : 116 candidate galaxies (Ma+, 2014) J/A+A/573/A111 : Group-dominant elliptical gal. CO spectra (O'Sullivan+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Name Galaxy name 10- 14 F5.1 Mpc Dist [34/108] Distance taken from Ma+, J/ApJ/795/158 16- 20 F5.2 kpc Reff [2/19] Stellar effective radius 22- 26 F5.2 kpc Rgas [0.6/18.3] Maximum gas radius 28- 33 F6.2 mag KMag [-26.3/-25.4] Absolute K-band AB magnitude 35- 39 F5.2 [Msun] logM* [11.6/12.1] Logarithm of stellar mass 41- 44 F4.1 [Msun] logMd [10/15]? Logarithm of the dark matter halo mass 46- 49 F4.2 [Msun] logMg [3.5/6] Logarithm of the warm ionized gas mass (1) 51- 54 F4.1 [10-7W] logLHb [37/39.4] Logarithm of Hβ luminosity, in erg/s units 56- 61 F6.2 km/s sigma [231/354] Central stellar velocity dispersion 63 A1 --- l_OIII/Hb Limit flag on OIII/Hb, if Hβ is non-detected 65- 68 F4.2 --- OIII/Hb [0.6/5.8] Flux ratio [OIII]/Hβ in the central spectrum 70- 74 F5.1 deg PAgas [148/357]? Kinematic position angle of rotating warm ionized gas (2) 76- 79 F4.1 deg e_PAgas [1.6/16.5]? Uncertainty in PAgas 81- 85 F5.1 deg PAstars [1.6/343] Kinematic position angle of the stars (2) 87- 90 F4.1 deg e_PAstars [0.2/22] Uncertainty in PAstars 92 A1 --- f_PAstars Flag on PAstars (3) 94- 97 F4.1 deg PAdiff [1/98]? Kinematic misalignment angle, warm ionized gas relative to stars 99-102 F4.1 deg e_PAdiff [3/18]? Uncertainty in PAdiff 104-105 A2 --- F/S Kinematic classification (4) 107-109 A3 --- Ext [Yes/No ] Is warm ionized gas extended beyond the central three dithered fibers 111-113 A3 --- Rot Does warm ionized gas show regular rotation
Note (1): The warm ionized gas mass is derived using the Hβ luminosity according to Equation 1: M=28.2x108LHβ,43ne,100-1M where LHβ,43 is the Hβ luminosity in units of 1043erg/s and ne,100 is the electron number density in units of 100cm-3. See section 4.6. Note (2): PA is measured counterclockwise from north to the redshifted emission side. Note (3): A flag=1 identifies "non-rotators" for which kinemetry was unable to determine a kinematic stellar position angle; for these galaxies, their photometric stellar position angles are given instead with an assumed 10% fractional uncertainty (see subsection 4.4 for details). Note (4): Kinematic classification as fast or slow rotator from Veale+ (2017MNRAS.464..356V) based on angular momentum within Reff.
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Ma et al. Paper I. 2014ApJ...795..158M Cat. J/ApJ/795/158 Green et al. Paper II. 2015ApJ...807...11G Davis et al. Paper III. 2016MNRAS.455..214D Goulding et al. Paper IV. 2016ApJ...826..167G Veale et al. Paper V. 2017MNRAS.464..356V Pandya et al. Paper VI. 2017ApJ...837...40P This catalog
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 13-Oct-2017
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