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J/ApJ/834/210  Spectroscopy of strong lensing galaxy clusters  (Carrasco+, 2017)

VLT/Magellan spectroscopy of 29 strong lensing selected galaxy clusters. Carrasco M., Barrientos L.F., Anguita T., Garcia-Vergara C., Bayliss M., Gladders M., Gilbank D., Yee H.K.C., West M. <Astrophys. J., 834, 210-210 (2017)> =2017ApJ...834..210C (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Clusters, galaxy ; Gravitational lensing ; Spectroscopy ; Redshifts Keywords: dark matter; galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: kinematics and dynamics; gravitational lensing: strong Abstract: We present an extensive spectroscopic follow-up campaign of 29 strong lensing (SL) selected galaxy clusters discovered primarily in the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2). Our spectroscopic analysis yields redshifts for 52 gravitational arcs present in the core of our galaxy clusters, which correspond to 35 distinct background sources that are clearly distorted by the gravitational potential of these clusters. These lensed galaxies span a wide redshift range of 0.8≤z≤2.9, with a median redshift of zs=1.8±0.1. We also measure reliable redshifts for 1004 cluster members, allowing us to obtain robust velocity dispersion measurements for 23 of these clusters, which we then use to determine their dynamical masses by using a simulation-based σDM-M200 scaling relation. The redshift and mass ranges covered by our SL sample are 0.22≤z≤1.01 and 5x1013M200/h70-1M≤1.9x1015, respectively. We analyze and quantify some possible effects that might bias our mass estimates, such as the presence of substructure, the region where cluster members are selected for spectroscopic follow-up, the final number of confirmed members, and line-of-sight effects. We find that 10 clusters of our sample with Nmem≳20 show signs of dynamical substructure. However, the velocity data of only one system is inconsistent with a uni-modal distribution. We therefore assume that the substructures are only marginal and not of comparable size to the clusters themselves. Consequently, our velocity dispersion and mass estimates can be used as priors for SL mass reconstruction studies and also represent an important step toward a better understanding of the properties of the SL galaxy cluster population. Description: The cluster sample presented here is a subset of a larger sample of more than one hundred strong lensing (SL)-selected clusters that have been identified primarily in Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2; Gilbank+ 2011AJ....141...94G) imaging data. The median seeing of the RCS-2 survey is ∼0.7". We supplement the RCS-2 SL-selected cluster sample with a few systems chosen to fill R.A. gaps that were similarly selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, see II/294). We performed a comprehensive spectroscopic follow-up of 29 SL-selected galaxy clusters primarily from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey Giant Arc (RCSGA; Bayliss 2012ApJ...744..156B; M. D. Gladders et al. 2016, in preparation); 7 of these clusters were previously unpublished. The cluster sample is presented in Table 1. Most of the imaging data presented here have been obtained from the RCS-2 survey. They were collected in queue-scheduled mode with MegaCam at the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), between the semesters 2003A and 2007B inclusive. We have also obtained pre-imaging of our clusters in B, R, and I bands, with the Focal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the ESO 8.2m Very Large Telescope (VLT), in queue mode. The FORS2/VLT observations were carried out between 2006 October and 2010 March using the Multi-object spectroscopy. We have also performed spectroscopic observations with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on the 6.5m Magellan (Baade) telescope at LCO. The IMACS/Magellan observations were collected during six different runs between 2008 June and 2011 March. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 92 29 Summary of VLT/Magellan spectroscopic observations table2.dat 52 53 Spectroscopic redshift of individual lensed galaxies table3.dat 50 1003 The VLT/Magellan spectroscopic redshifts of the cluster members table4.dat 115 29 Summary of dynamical properties of the strong lensing-selected galaxy clusters
See also: IX/10 : ROSAT All-Sky Bright Source Catalogue (1RXS) (Voges+ 1999) II/294 : The SDSS Photometric Catalog, Release 7 (Adelman-McCarthy+, 2009) J/A+A/425/367 : REFLEX Galaxy Cluster Survey catalogue (Boehringer+, 2004) J/ApJS/172/561 : The 400d cluster Survey (Burenin+, 2007) J/ApJS/191/254 : GMBCG galaxy cluster catalog from SDSS DR7 (Hao+, 2010) J/MNRAS/406/1318 : Lensed-arc statistics of galaxy clusters (Horesh+, 2010) J/ApJS/193/8 : Spectroscopy of 26 lensing cluster cores (Bayliss+, 2011) J/MNRAS/413/3059 : 4098 galaxy clusters in SDSS Stripe 82 (Geach+, 2011) J/ApJ/736/21 : Galaxy clusters opt. cat. from AMF on SDSS DR6 (Szabo+ 2011) J/ApJ/749/97 : Multiple lensed images in MCS J1206.2-0847 (Zitrin+, 2012) J/ApJS/199/34 : Clusters of galaxies in SDSS-III (Wen+, 2012) J/ApJ/772/25 : Massive SZE clusters observations with ACT (Sifon+, 2013) J/ApJ/792/45 : SPT-SZ survey galaxy clusters opt. spectroscopy (Ruel+, 2014) J/ApJS/216/27 : Galaxy clusters discovered in the SPT-SZ survey (Bleem+, 2015) J/ApJ/807/178 : Newly rich galaxy clusters from SDSS-DR12 (Wen+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Name Galaxy cluster designation 17 A1 --- n_Name Note on Name (1) 19- 20 I2 h RAh Hour of right ascension (J2000) (G1) 22- 23 I2 min RAm Minute of right ascension (J2000) 25- 30 F6.3 s RAs Second of right ascension (J2000) 32 A1 --- DE- Sign of declination (J2000) (G1) 33- 34 I2 deg DEd Degree of declination (J2000) (G1) 36- 37 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of declination (J2000) 39- 43 F5.2 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of declination (J2000) 45- 48 F4.2 h ExpF FORS2/VLT total exposure time (2) 49 A1 --- --- [/] 50 I1 --- o_ExpF FORS2/VLT number of masks (2) 52- 55 F4.2 h ExpI ? IMACS/Magellan total exposure time (2) 56 A1 --- --- [/ ] 57 I1 --- o_ExpI ? IMACS/Magellan number of masks (2) 59- 92 A34 --- Ref Clusters formerly identified and/or described in previous studies
Note (1): d = Clusters reported in the ROSAT all-sky bright source catalog (Voges+ 1999, IX/10) as RX J0034.4+0225 and RX J2151.4-0139, respectively. Note (2): Total integration time for lensed galaxy candidates (for instrument/telescope), distributed across the number of masks listed in the spectroscopic follow-up. Slits targeting cluster members varied between each mask; therefore, the total integration time shown in this table does not necessarily correspond to the total integration time of these objects.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Name Cluster lens designation 17- 20 A4 --- Gal Lensed galaxy designation (1) 22- 23 I2 h RAh Hour of right ascension (J2000) (2) 25- 26 I2 min RAm Minute of right ascension (J2000) 28- 32 F5.2 s RAs Second of right ascension (J2000) 34 A1 --- DE- Sign of declination (J2000) (2) 35- 36 I2 deg DEd Degree of declination (J2000) (2) 38- 39 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of declination (J2000) 41- 44 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of declination (J2000) 46- 50 F5.3 --- z [0.7/2.9]? Spectroscopic redshift 52 I1 --- q_z [0/3] Classification of the redshift measurement (3=highest confidence) (3)
Note (1): Lensed galaxy labels that correspond to the label markers in Figures 5-12. S1.X spectra correspond to the "primary" arcs of each cluster, following the notation in Bayliss+ (2011, J/ApJS/193/8). Note (2): Coordinates of the lensed galaxies in sexagesimal degrees (J2000). Note (3): See Section 3.1 for further explanations.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Name Cluster identifier 17- 29 F13.9 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 31- 43 F13.9 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 45- 50 F6.4 --- z [0.2/1.1] Spectroscopic redshift
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Name Cluster designation 17- 19 A3 --- f_Name Flag(s) on Name (3) 21- 22 I2 h RAh Hour of right ascension (J2000) (G1) 24- 25 I2 min RAm Minute of right ascension (J2000) 27- 32 F6.3 s RAs Second of right ascension (J2000) 34 A1 --- DE- Sign of declination (J2000) (G1) 35- 36 I2 deg DEd Degree of declination (J2000) (G1) 38- 39 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of declination (J2000) 41- 45 F5.2 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of declination (J2000) 47- 52 F6.4 --- z [0.2/1.1] Spectroscopic redshift 54- 55 I2 --- NMm [4/93] Number of cluster members 57- 60 I4 km/s Sigc [386/1234] The rest-frame velocity dispersion of the clusters 62- 64 I3 km/s e_Sigc [52/555] Sigc uncertainty 66- 70 F5.2 --- M200 [0.4/18] Mass M200 in h70-1.1014M units 72- 75 F4.2 --- e_M200 [0.2/4.2] M200 uncertainty 77- 80 F4.2 --- r200 [0.5/2.3] Virial radius r200 in h70-1Mpc 82- 85 F4.2 --- e_r200 [0.07/0.9] r200 uncertainty 87- 90 F4.2 --- P-nu(DS) [0.02/0.3]? P-values of the DS test (4) 92- 95 F4.2 --- e_P-nu(DS) [0.01/0.2]? Lower 68% confidence interval (4) 97-100 F4.2 --- E_P-nu(DS) [0.03/0.1]? Upper 68% confidence interval (4) 102-105 F4.2 --- P-nu(KS) [0.04/1]? P-values of the KS test (5) 107-110 F4.2 --- e_P-nu(KS) [0.02/0.4]? Lower 68% confidence interval (5) 112-115 F4.2 --- E_P-nu(KS) [0.03/0.3]? Upper 68% confidence interval (5)
Note (3): Flag on Name as follows: e = Systems with few spectroscopically confirmed cluster members, NMm≲20. Their velocity dispersion and mass measurements represent only a first guess and should not be considered as the final estimates. f = Systems showing signs of dynamical substructure based on DS test results. g = The null hypothesis of the KS test is rejected, suggesting that the velocity data of this system is not consistent with a uni-modal distribution. Its velocity dispersion and mass measurements represent only a first guess and should not be considered as the final estimates. Note (4): The threshold for substructure detection is set to an s.l. of 0.05 within uncertainties. Note (5): The threshold for rejecting the null hypothesis is set to an s.l. of 0.05 within uncertainties.
Global notes: Note (G1): Coordinates correspond to the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) centroids in sexagesimal degrees (J2000).
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 31-Jul-2017
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