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J/ApJ/834/185 IR-bright MSX sources in the SMC with Spitzer/IRS (Kraemer+, 2017)

Characterizing the population of bright infrared sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Kraemer K.E., Sloan G.C., Wood P.R., Jones O.C., Egan M.P. <Astrophys. J., 834, 185-185 (2017)> =2017ApJ...834..185K (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Magellanic Clouds ; Spectra, infrared ; Stars, giant ; Spectral types ; Photometry, infrared ; Photometry, UBV Keywords: circumstellar matter; infrared: stars; Magellanic Clouds Abstract: We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3µm. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z=0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer, and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Color-color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs. Description: Our original set of infrared spectra of MSX SMC sources was obtained in Spitzer Cycle 1 (Program ID 3277, P.I. M. Egan). This program included 35 targets from the MSX SMC catalog. 24 targets were discussed in previous papers; this paper examines the remaining 11 sources in the sample. We also selected 4 objects in the MSX SMC catalog with similar photometric characteristics in an effort to uncover additional sources with crystalline dust. We observed these targets in Spitzer Cycle 3 (Program ID 30355, P.I. J. Houck). See tables 1 and 2 for observation data and basic properties of the targets. Table 3 lists 20 additional MSX SMC sources that were observed by other Spitzer IRS programs. Overall, 59 MSX SMC sources were observed with the IRS. The spectra were observed using the low-resolution modules of the IRS, Short-Low (SL) and Long-Low (LL), which provided spectra in the 5-14 and 14-37um ranges, respectively, at a resolution between ∼60 and 120. For 10 evolved stars with oxygen-rich dust in our Cycle 1 program, we obtained spectra from 0.45 to 1.03um with the Double-Beam Spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring Observatory. A 0.45-0.89um spectrum for one of the stars in program 30355 was also observed. These spectra have a resolution of 10Å. Tables 5-7: catalog based on the 243 sources detected in the MSX survey of the SMC, updated with positions and photometry from more recent space-based missions and ground-based surveys. See the Appendix section for more details. The SMC catalog from MSX consists of the 243 sources in the main MSX catalog (Egan+ 2003, see V/114) that lie within the region 7°<RAJ2000<18.7° and -74.4°<DEJ2000←71.5l°. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 65 15 Spitzer/IRS observing log table2.dat 99 15 Observed program sources table3.dat 80 20 MSX SMC targets observed in other programs table4.dat 63 14 Oxygen-rich dust analysis table5.dat 101 247 MSX SMC source positions table6.dat 101 247 MSX SMC source photometry: mid-IR table7.dat 101 247 MSX SMC source photometry: optical and near-IR
See also: B/gcvs : General Catalogue of Variable Stars (Samus+ 2007-2013) II/228 : DENIS Catalogue toward Magellanic Clouds (DCMC) (Cioni+ 2000) V/114 : MSX6C Infrared Point Source Catalog (Egan+ 2003) II/288 : IRSF Magellanic Clouds Point Source Catalog (Kato+ 2007) VII/233 : The 2MASS Extended sources (IPAC/UMass, 2003-2006) J/A+AS/97/603 : C stars in SMC (Rebeirot+ 1993) J/ApJS/119/141 : Oxygen-rich dust shells IR spectral classif. (Sloan+ 1998) J/AJ/122/1844 : MSX and 2MASS cross-correlation in LMC (Egan+, 2001) J/AJ/124/2990 : MSX galaxy observations (Kraemer+, 2002) J/AJ/123/855 : Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey: SMC (Zaritsky+, 2002) J/AJ/126/1423 : MSX 8.3um fluxes of star-forming regions (Kraemer+, 2003) J/AJ/126/2867 : Red supergiants in Magellanic Clouds (Massey+, 2003) J/A+A/425/595 : OGLE+2MASS+DENIS LPV in Magellanic Clouds (Groenewegen, 2004) J/A+A/438/521 : SMC C stars B and R light curves (Raimondo+, 2005) J/AJ/132/2268 : SAGE calibration stars (Meixner+, 2006) J/ApJ/655/212 : S3MC IRAC and MIPS photometry (Bolatto+, 2007) J/A+A/469/799 : Torun catalog of post-AGB & related objects (Szczerba+, 2007) J/A+A/506/1277 : Modelisation of MCs C/O stars (Groenewegen+, 2009) J/AJ/142/103 : Cool evolved stars in SAGE-SMC and SAGE-LMC (Boyer+, 2011) J/AcA/61/217 : VI LCs of SMC long-period variables (Soszynski+, 2011) J/MNRAS/411/1597 : LMC point source classification in SAGE-Spec (Woods+, 2011) J/MNRAS/427/3209 : Galactic and MC O-AGBs and RSGs stars (Jones+, 2012) J/other/Ser/184.93 : 6cm and 3cm sources in SMC (Wong+, 2012) J/MNRAS/440/631 : IR photometry of LMC O-rich evolved stars (Jones+, 2014) J/ApJ/792/30 : NEOWISE magnitudes for near-Earth objects (Mainzer+, 2014) J/A+A/578/A3 : New survey of supergiants in MCs (Gonzalez-Fernandez+, 2015) J/ApJ/811/145 : LMC & SMC evolved stars detected with Herschel (Jones+, 2015) J/AJ/149/78 : Candidate IR variables from SAGE-SMC survey (Polsdofer+, 2015) J/MNRAS/449/639 : VMC survey. XIV. SFR in SMC (Rubele+, 2015) J/MNRAS/451/3504 : Classification of IRS sources in the SMC (Ruffle+, 2015) J/AJ/149/11 : Spectra of candidate standard stars in mid-IR (Sloan+, 2015) J/ApJ/826/44 : Spitzer/IRS obs. of Magellanic carbon stars (Sloan+, 2016) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- --- [MSXSMC] 7- 9 I03 --- MSXSMC [0/181] MSX SMC Designation (G1) 11- 12 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 14- 15 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 17- 21 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 23 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 24- 25 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 27- 28 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 30- 33 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 35- 39 I5 --- PID Spitzer Program ID 41- 48 I8 --- AOR Spitzer AOR ID 50- 52 I3 s exp1 Total exposure time, IRS Short-Low 54- 57 I4 s exp2 Total exposure time, IRS Long-Low 59- 65 F7.1 d MJD Observation Date, JD-2400000.5
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- --- [MSXSMC] 7- 9 I03 --- MSXSMC [0/181] MSX SMC Designation (G1) 11- 26 A16 --- AltName Alternative Name 28- 31 I4 d Per [141/1859]? Period from literature 33- 35 A3 --- r_Per Reference for Per (1) 37- 50 A14 --- SpT Optical MK Spectral Type 52- 64 A13 --- r_SpT Reference for SpT (2) 66- 76 A11 --- IR Infrared Spectral Class 78- 82 F5.2 mag Mbol [-8.5/-5] Bolometric magnitude (G2) 84- 93 A10 --- R15 Ruffle+ (2015, J/MNRAS/451/3504) class 95 A1 --- f_R15 [c] c: R15 class changed in this manuscript 97- 99 A3 --- Var Variable class, GCVS (Samus et al. Cat. B/gcvs)
Note (1): Period references as follows: P97 = Pojmanski (1997AcA....47..467P, 2014CoSka..43..523P); G09 = Groenewegen et al. (2009, J/A+A/506/1277); S11 = Soszynski et al. (2011, J/AcA/61/217). Note (2): Optical spectral type references as follows: B80 = Blanco et al. (1980ApJ...242..938B); E80 = Elias et al. (1980ApJ...242L..13E); P83 = Prevot et al. (1983, J/A+AS/53/255); W83 = Wood et al. (1983ApJ...272...99W); R93 = Rebeirot et al. (1993, J/A+AS/97/603); R05 = Raimondo et al. (2005, J/A+A/438/521); G98 = Groenewegen & Blommaert (1998A&A...332...25G); G15 = Gonzalez-Fernandez et al. (2015, J/A+A/578/A3); K16 = this work; Multiple = in five or more of the references. Additional, multiply-used references: Sanduleak (1989AJ.....98..825S); Elias et al. (1985ApJS...57...91E); Massey & Olsen (2003, J/AJ/126/2867); Levesque et al. (2006ApJ...645.1102L).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- --- [MSXSMC] 7- 9 I03 --- MSXSMC [27/234] MSX SMC Designation 11- 25 A15 --- AltName Alternative Name 27- 31 I5 --- PID Spitzer Program ID 33- 40 I8 --- AOR Spitzer AOR ID 42- 48 A7 --- IR Infrared Spectral Class 50- 58 A9 --- R15 Ruffle+ (2015, J/MNRAS/451/3504) class 60- 64 F5.2 mag Mbol Bolometric magnitude (G2) 66- 80 A15 --- Ref References (1)
Note (1): References as follows: L07 = Lagadec et al. (2007MNRAS.376.1270L); J12 = Jones et al. (2012, J/MNRAS/427/3209); BS08 = Bernard-Salas et al. (2008ApJ...672..274B) BS09 = Bernard-Salas et al. (2009ApJ...699.1541B); S14 = Sloan et al. (2014ApJ...791...28S); O13 = Oliveira et al. (2013MNRAS.428.3001O); S08 = Sloan et al. (2008ApJ...686.1056S); LK16 = Keller et al. in prep.; R15 = Ruffle et al. (2015, J/MNRAS/451/3504)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- --- [MSXSMC] 7- 9 I03 --- MSXSMC [0/181] MSX SMC Designation (G1) 11- 14 F4.2 mag [7]-[15] [0.2/2.1] The [7]-[15] color index 16- 19 F4.2 mag e_[7]-[15] [0/0.02] Uncertainty in [7]-[15] 21- 24 F4.2 --- DEC [0.02/3] Dust emission contrast (3) 26- 29 F4.2 --- e_DEC [0/0.03] Uncertainty in DEC 31- 34 F4.2 --- F10/F11 [0.7/1.4] Flux ratio, F10um/F11um 36- 39 F4.2 --- e_F10/F11 [0.01/0.2] Uncertainty in F10/F11 41- 44 F4.2 --- F10/F12 [0.5/2.4] Flux ratio, F10um/F12um 46- 49 F4.2 --- e_F10/F12 [0.02/0.2] Uncertainty in F10/F12 51- 54 F4.2 --- F11/F12 [0.9/1.7] Flux ratio, F11um/F12um, corrected 56- 59 F4.2 --- e_F11/F12 [0.02/0.3] Uncertainty in F11/F12 61- 63 A3 --- SEi SE Index (4)
Note (3): Dust emission contrast is the ratio of stellar continuum to dust excess from 7.67 to 14.03um. Note (4): SE index = floor(corrected 10*F11/F12-7.5).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- --- [MSXSMC] 7- 9 I03 --- MSXSMC [1/243] MSX SMC Designation 10 A1 --- m_MSXSMC [AB] Component on MSXSMC 12- 41 A30 --- AltName Alternative Name (1) 43- 51 F9.6 deg RAdeg Right Ascension (J2000) 53- 62 F10.6 deg DEdeg Declination (J2000) 64- 68 A5 --- r_Pos Position Reference (2) 70 A1 --- Q Morphological Grade (3) 72- 77 F6.3 mag Mbol [-8.5/0]? Bolometric Magnitude (G2) 78- 89 A12 --- IRSType IRS-based Source Type 91- 98 A8 --- r_IRSType Source Type Reference (4) 100-101 A2 --- Notes Comments (FG= probable foreground star; or CL = probable star in a cluster)
Note (1): OGLE SMC-LPV-10622 is very likely a misprint for OGLE SMC-LPV-10662; Note added by CDS. Note (2): Position references as follows: 2MASS = Cutri et al. (2003, Cat. II/281) IRAC = Gordon et al. (2011AJ....142..102G, Cat. II/305) MIPS = Gordon et al. (2011AJ....142..102G) MSX = Egan et al. (2003, Cat. V/114) Note (3): Morphological grade as follows: A = isolated point sources with little or no extended emission around them. B = an IRAC point source within 20" or extended emission which contaminates the MSX beam. C = complex and crowded fields D = more complex or crowded fields E = even more complex or crowded F = MSX SMC 032, with no point-like object in its vicinity at any wavelength. Note (4): Source Type References as follows: BS09 = Bernard-Salas et al. (2009ApJ...699.1541B) J12 = Jones et al. (2012, J/MNRAS/427/3209) K05 = Kraemer et al. (2005ApJ...631L.147K) K06 = Kraemer et al. (2006ApJ...652L..25K) K16 = This work L07 = Lagadec et al. (2007MNRAS.376.1270L) O13 = Oliveira et al. (2013MNRAS.428.3001O) R15 = Ruffle et al. (2015, J/MNRAS/451/3504) S06 = Sloan et al. (2006ApJ...645.1118S) S08 = Sloan et al. (2008ApJ...686.1056S) S14 = Sloan et al. (2014ApJ...791...28S) S16 = Sloan et al. (2016ApJ...826...44S)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- --- [MSXSMC] 7- 9 I03 --- MSXSMC [1/243] MSX SMC Designation 10 A1 --- m_MSXSMC [AB] Component on MSXSMC 12- 17 F6.3 mag 3.6mag [2.7/13.5]?=99.999 Mean 3.6um band magnitude (4) 19- 23 F5.3 mag e_3.6mag [0.01/0.9]?=9.999 Uncertainty in 3.6mag 25- 30 F6.3 mag 4.5mag [2/13.8]?=99.999 Mean 4.5um band magnitude (4) 32- 36 F5.3 mag e_4.5mag [0/0.7]?=9.999 Uncertainty in 4.5mag 38- 43 F6.3 mag 5.8mag [3/11.6]?=99.999 Mean Spitzer/IRAC 5.8um band magnitude 45- 49 F5.3 mag e_5.8mag [0.001/0.6]?=9.999 Uncertainty in 5.8mag 51- 56 F6.3 mag 8.0mag [3/9.8]?=99.999 Mean Spitzer/IRAC 8.0um band magnitude 58- 62 F5.3 mag e_8.0mag [0/0.5]?=9.999 Uncertainty in 8.0mag 64- 69 F6.3 mag 12mag [2.8/8.7]?=99.999 Mean WISE 12um band magnitude 71- 75 F5.3 mag e_12mag [0.01/0.2]?=9.999 Uncertainty in 12mag 77- 82 F6.3 mag 22mag [0.2/7.8]?=99.999 Mean WISE 22um band magnitude 84- 88 F5.3 mag e_22mag [0.01/0.3]?=9.999 Uncertainty in 22mag 90- 95 F6.3 mag 24mag [1/8.6]?=99.999 Mean Spitzer/MIPS 24um band magnitude 97-101 F5.3 mag e_24mag [0.001/0.6]?=9.999 Uncertainty in 24mag
Note (4): Mean photometry from multi-epoch, multi-instrument observations -- 3.6mag: combined Spitzer/IRAC 3.6um and WISE 3.4um data without color corrections; 4.5mag: combined Spitzer/IRAC 4.5um and WISE 4.6um data without color corrections;
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- --- [MSXSMC] 7- 9 I03 --- MSXSMC [1/243] MSX SMC Designation 10 A1 --- m_MSXSMC [AB] Component on MSXSMC 12- 17 F6.3 mag Umag [12.2/20.8]?=99.999 U band magnitude (5) 19- 23 F5.3 mag e_Umag [0.02/0.3]?=9.999 Uncertainty in Umag 25- 30 F6.3 mag Bmag [9.6/22.6]?=99.999 B band magnitude (5) 32- 36 F5.3 mag e_Bmag [0.01/0.4]?=9.999 Uncertainty in Bmag 38- 43 F6.3 mag Vmag [9.7/23]?=99.999 V band magnitude (5) 45- 49 F5.3 mag e_Vmag [0/3]?=9.999 Uncertainty in Vmag 51- 56 F6.3 mag Imag [8.3/21]?=99.999 I band magnitude (5) 58- 62 F5.3 mag e_Imag [0.002/1.3]?=9.999 Uncertainty in Imag 64- 69 F6.3 mag Jmag [4.7/19]?=99.999 J band magnitude (6) 71- 75 F5.3 mag e_Jmag [0.007/2]?=9.999 Uncertainty in Jmag 77- 82 F6.3 mag Hmag [3.7/17.2]?=99.999 H band magnitude (6) 84- 88 F5.3 mag e_Hmag [0/2]?=9.999 Uncertainty in Hmag 90- 95 F6.3 mag Kmag [3.4/16.2]?=99.999 K band magnitude (6) 97-101 F5.3 mag e_Kmag [0.005/1]?=9.999 Uncertainty in Kmag
Note (5): The MCPS (Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey; Zaritsky+ 2002, J/AJ/123/855) provides mean magnitudes at U, B, V and I. When mean magnitudes at V and I are available from the LPV catalogs from OGLE-III (Soszynski+ 2011, J/AcA/61/217), we substituted these for the MCPS values. Note (6): Several epochs are available in the near-IR. The 2MASS maps at J, H, and Ks were obtained in 1998 August and followed up with a deeper survey, known as 2MASS 6X, in 2000 December. DENIS adds epochs at I, J, and Ks from 1996 to 1999, and the IRSF adds more at J, H, and Ks from 2002 to 2006. We have not attempted to account for subtle differences between the filter sets from the different telescopes.
Global notes: Note (G1): MSXSMC000 ≡ HV 12122, was below the SNR threshold for inclusion in the MSXSMC catalog. Note (G2): Bolometric magnitudes calculated integrating MSX Catalog photometry, IRS spectra, a 3600K blackbody for the blue end of SED, a Rayleigh-Jeans tail for the red end of the SED, and an average distance modulus of 18.9 (Rubele et al. 2015, J/MNRAS/449/639)
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 13-Jul-2017
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