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J/ApJ/818/73  Study of protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud  (Tobin+, 2016)

The VLA nascent disk and multiplicity survey of Perseus protostars (VANDAM). II. Multiplicity of protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud. Tobin J.J., Looney L.W., Li Z.-Y., Chandler C.J., Dunham M.M., Segura-Cox D., Sadavoy S.I., Melis C., Harris R.J., Kratter K., Perez L. <Astrophys. J., 818, 73 (2016)> =2016ApJ...818...73T (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Molecular clouds ; YSOs ; Stars, double and multiple ; Millimetric/submm sources Keywords: binaries: close - planetary systems - protoplanetary disks - stars: formation - stars: protostars - techniques: interferometric Abstract: We present a multiplicity study of all known protostars (94) in the Perseus molecular cloud from a Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array survey at Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 and 6.6 cm). The observed sample has a bolometric luminosity range between 0.1 L and ∼33 L, with a median of 0.7 L. This multiplicity study is based on the Ka-band data, having a best resolution of ∼0.065" (15 au) and separations out to ∼43" (10000 au) can be probed. The overall multiplicity fraction (MF) is found to be 0.40±0.06 and the companion star fraction (CSF) is 0.71±0.06. The MF and CSF of the Class 0 protostars are 0.57±0.09 and 1.2±0.2, and the MF and CSF of Class I protostars are both 0.23±0.08. The distribution of companion separations appears bi-modal, with a peak at ∼75 au and another peak at ∼3000 au. Turbulent fragmentation is likely the dominant mechanism on >1000 au scales and disk fragmentation is likely to be the dominant mechanism on <200 au scales. Toward three Class 0 sources we find companions separated by <30 au. These systems have the smallest separations of currently known Class 0 protostellar binary systems. Moreover, these close systems are embedded within larger (50-400 au) structures and may be candidates for ongoing disk fragmentation. Description: We conducted observations with the VLA in B-configuration between 2013 September 28 and 2013 November 20 and in A-configuration during 2014 February 24 to 2014 May 31 and 2015 June 19 to 2015 September 21. The B-configuration (also referred to as B-array) has a maximum baseline (antenna separation) of 11.1 km and at 8 mm provides a resolution of ∼0.2" (46 au). The A-configuration (A-array) has a maximum baseline of 36.4 km, providing a resolution of ∼0.065" (15 au). Objects: ---------------------------------------------------------------------- RA (ICRS) DE Designation(s) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 03 35.0 +31 13 Perseus molecular cloud = NAME Per Cloud ---------------------------------------------------------------------- File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 117 99 Source List table2.dat 126 128 Source Properties
See also: J/A+AS/106/165 : Near-IR imaging photometry of NGC 1333 (Aspin+ 1994) J/ApJS/125/427 : Radio sources in HH 7-11 region (Rodriguez+, 1999) J/ApJ/646/1009 : Structures of dust in Perseus molecular cloud (Kirk+, 2006) J/A+A/468/1009 : Star formation in Perseus. II. (Hatchell+, 2007) J/ApJ/668/1042 : Dense cores in Perseus molecular cloud (Kirk+, 2007) J/ApJ/683/822 : Star formation in Ophiuchus and Perseus II. (Jorgensen+, 2008) J/ApJ/692/973 : Protostars in Perseus, Serpens and Ophiuchus (Enoch+, 2009) J/ApJ/696/298 : Dense cores in Perseus (Foster+, 2009) J/ApJS/181/321 : Properties of Spitzer c2d dark clouds (Evans+, 2009) J/AJ/150/40 : The Spitzer c2d survey of clouds. XII. Perseus (Young+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Source Source name (1) 17- 18 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 20- 21 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 23- 28 F6.3 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 30 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 31- 32 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 34- 35 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 37- 42 F6.3 arcsec DEs Arcsec of Declination (J2000) 44- 68 A25 --- Other Other source name(s) (1) 70 A1 --- Detec [YN] Whether or not the associated source was detected above 5σ in the observation (at either 8 mm or 1 cm) 72 A1 --- Mult [YN] Whether or not the object comprises a multiple system or is a component of a multiple system based on our data 74- 76 A3 --- Config [A,B ] VLA configuration(s) in which observation was taken 78- 90 A13 --- Class Young Stellar Object classification (2) 92- 97 F6.2 Lsun Lbol ?=-99. Bolometric luminosity 99-104 F6.2 Lsun e_Lbol ?=-99. Uncertainty in Lbol 106-111 F6.1 K Tbol ?=-99. Bolometric temperature 113-117 F5.1 K e_Tbol ?=-99. Uncertainty in Tbol
Note (1): The sources denoted Per-emb-XX correspond to the sources published in Enoch et al. (2009, J/ApJ/692/973), EDJ2009 sources are from Evans et al. (2009, J/ApJS/181/321), ASR refers to Aspin et al. (1994, J/A+AS/106/165), SVS refers to Strom et al. (1976AJ.....81..314S), and RAC1999-VLA20 is from Rodriguez et al. (1999, J/ApJS/125/427). IRAS 4B' was observed in the same field as Per-emb-13, EDJ2009-233/235 were observed in the same field, and RAC1999-VLA20 was observed in the same field as Per-emb-44. Note (2): Based on Tbol from Enoch et al. (2009, J/ApJ/692/973), Sadavoy et al. (2014ApJ...787L..18S), and Young et al. (2015, J/AJ/150/40).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Source Source name 16- 20 A5 --- m_Source Component of the source 22- 23 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 25- 26 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 28- 33 F6.3 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 35 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 36- 37 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 39- 40 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 42- 47 F6.3 arcsec DEs Arcsec of Declination (J2000) 49 A1 --- l_Fnu8 [<] Limit flag on Fnu8 50- 54 F5.3 mJy Fnu8 Integrated flux density at 8mm 56- 60 F5.3 mJy e_Fnu8 Uncertainty in Fnu8 62 A1 --- l_Fnu8p [<] Limit flag on Fnu8p 63- 67 F5.3 mJy Fnu8p Peak flux density at 8mm 69- 73 F5.3 mJy e_Fnu8p rms uncertainty in Fnu8p 75 A1 --- l_Fnu10 [<] Limit flag on Fnu10 76- 80 F5.3 mJy Fnu10 Integrated flux density at 10mm 82- 86 F5.3 mJy e_Fnu10 Uncertainty in Fnu10 88 A1 --- l_Fnu10p [<] Limit flag on Fnu10p 89- 93 F5.3 mJy Fnu10p Peak flux density at 10mm 95- 99 F5.3 mJy e_Fnu10p rms uncertainty in Fnu10p 101-106 F6.3 --- SpIndex ? Integrated spectral index 108-113 F6.3 --- e_SpIndex ? Uncertainty in SpIndex 115-119 F5.2 --- SpIndexp ? Peak spectral index 121-126 F6.3 --- e_SpIndexp ? Uncertainty in SpIndexp
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Tobin et al. Paper I. 2015ApJ...798...61T Tychoniec et al. Paper III. 2018ApJ...852...18T
(End) Tiphaine Pouvreau [CDS] 30-Jan-2018
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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