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J/ApJ/810/158  M,L,T dwarfs fundamental parameters and SEDs  (Filippazzo+, 2015)

Fundamental parameters and spectral energy distributions of young and field age objects with masses spanning the stellar to planetary regime. Filippazzo J.C., Rice E.L., Faherty J., Cruz K.L., Van Gordon M.M., Looper D.L. <Astrophys. J., 810, 158 (2015)> =2015ApJ...810..158F (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Stars, dwarfs ; Spectral types ; Photometry, SDSS ; Photometry, UBVRIJKLMNH ; Parallaxes, trigonometric ; Stars, ages Keywords: brown dwarfs - stars: fundamental parameters - stars: low-mass Abstract: We combine optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra and photometry to construct expanded spectral energy distributions for 145 field age (>500 Myr) and 53 young (lower age estimate <500 Myr) ultracool dwarfs (M6-T9). This range of spectral types includes very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects, providing fundamental parameters across both the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses for the largest sample assembled to date. A subsample of 29 objects have well constrained ages as probable members of a nearby young moving group. We use 182 parallaxes and 16 kinematic distances to determine precise bolometric luminosities (Lbol) and radius estimates from evolutionary models give semi-empirical effective temperatures (Teff) for the full range of young and field age late-M, L, and T dwarfs. We construct age-sensitive relationships of luminosity, temperature, and absolute magnitude as functions of spectral type and absolute magnitude to disentangle the effects of degenerate physical parameters such as Teff, surface gravity, and clouds on spectral morphology. We report bolometric corrections in J for both field age and young objects and find differences of up to a magnitude for late-L dwarfs. Our correction in Ks shows a larger dispersion but not necessarily a different relationship for young and field age sequences. We also characterize the NIR-MIR reddening of low gravity L dwarfs and identify a systematically cooler Teff of up to 300 K from field age objects of the same spectral type and 400 K cooler from field age objects of the same MH magnitude. Description: The primary sources of optical, NIR, and MIR photometry were the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; York et al. 2000AJ....120.1579Y), the 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. VII/233), and WISE (Cutri et al. 2012, Cat. II/311), respectively. Additional magnitudes came from the Looper Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS; Epchtein et al. 1997Msngr..87...27E; Cat. B/denis) and the literature using the Mauna Kea Observatory Near-Infrared (Simons & Tokunaga 2002PASP..114..169S; Tokunaga et al. 2002PASP..114..180T), Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and Johnson-Cousins V(RI)C filter sets. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 91 198 The Sample of Ultracool Dwarfs with Measured SEDs table3.dat 135 129 Optical Photometry for the Sample table4.dat 109 197 NIR Photometry for the Sample table5.dat 150 197 MIR Photometry for the Sample table7.dat 63 197 Optical, NIR, and MIR Spectra Used to Construct SEDs table8.dat 61 137 Comparison of Lbol Values with the Literature table9.dat 94 197 Fundamental Parameters of the Sample refs1.dat 170 123 References in table1 refs7.dat 170 76 References in table7
See also: I/238 : Yale Trigonometric Parallaxes, Fourth Edition (van Altena+ 1995) II/246 : 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003) VII/233 : The 2MASS Extended sources (IPAC/UMass, 2003-2006) B/denis : The DENIS database (DENIS Consortium, 2005) I/311 : Hipparcos, the New Reduction (van Leeuwen, 2007) II/311 : WISE All-Sky Data Release (Cutri+ 2012) II/328 : AllWISE Data Release (Cutri+ 2013) J/AJ/103/638 : USNO Photographic Parallaxes. I. (Monet+, 1992) J/AJ/123/2806 : Nearby stars in the NLTT catalogue (Reid+, 2002) J/AJ/123/3409 : SDSS M, L, and T dwarfs (Hawley+, 2002) J/AJ/126/1526 : IR photometry of ultracool dwarfs (Bouy+, 2003) J/AJ/127/3553 : JHK photometry and spectroscopy for L and T dwarfs (Knapp+, 2004) J/A+A/446/515 : Distances of nearby ultracool dwarfs (Phan-Bao+, 2006) J/AJ/131/2722 : New L and T dwarfs from the SDSS (Chiu+, 2006) J/ApJ/651/502 : Spitzer IRAC photometry of M, L, and T dwarfs (Patten+, 2006) J/PASP/118/659 : RI photometry of 2MASS late M and L dwarfs (Liebert+, 2006) J/AJ/133/2258 : Activity and kinematics of ultracool dwarfs (Schmidt+, 2007) J/A+A/493/L27 : Parallaxes of 10 ultracool subdwarfs (Schilbach+, 2009) J/AJ/137/4186 : UBVRI standards around celestial equator (Landolt, 2009) J/A+A/522/A112 : i'z' photometry of L5 and later dwarf candidates (Reyle+, 2010) J/ApJ/710/1627 : Mid-IR photometry of cold brown dwarfs (Leggett+, 2010) J/MNRAS/404/1817 : 2MASS/SDSS data for 806 ultracool dwarfs (Zhang+, 2010) J/ApJS/197/19 : First brown dwarfs discovered by WISE (Kirkpatrick+, 2011) J/AJ/144/148 : Infrared photometry of brown dwarf and Hyper-LIRG (Griffith+, 2012) J/ApJ/752/56 : BDKP. III. Parallaxes for 70 ultracool dwarfs (Faherty+, 2012) J/ApJ/753/156 : T/Y brown dwarfs with WISE photometry (Kirkpatrick+, 2012) J/ApJS/201/19 : Hawaii Infrared Parallax Program. I. (Dupuy+, 2012) J/A+A/549/A129 : Equivalent widths of cool stars (Cesetti+, 2013) J/A+A/564/A55 : 1.1-2.4um spectra of 7 young M and L dwarfs (Manjavacas+, 2014) J/AJ/147/94 : Solar neighborhood. XXXII. L and M dwarfs (Dieterich+, 2014) J/ApJS/225/10 : Kinematic analysis of M7-L8 dwarfs (Faherty+, 2016) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 4- 5 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 7- 11 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 13 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 14- 15 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 17- 18 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 20- 23 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 25- 51 A27 --- Name Source name 53- 55 I3 --- r_Name [1/123] Source discovery reference (see refs1.dat file) 57- 70 A14 --- SpT Spectral type 72 A1 --- n_SpT [a] Note on SpT (1) 74- 79 A6 --- r_SpT SpT reference(s) (see refs1.dat file) 81- 91 A11 --- ID Source name as in tables 3,4,5,7,8 and 9
Note (1): Note as follows: a = We adopt a type of "0355-type" from K. Cruz et al. (2015, in preparation) due to this object's spectral uniqueness compared to other M, L, and T dwarfs.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- ID Designation of the source (HHMM+DDMM) 13- 18 F6.3 mag umag ? SDSS u-band magnitude (0.35 µm) 20- 24 F5.3 mag e_umag ? Uncertainty in umag 26- 31 F6.3 mag gmag ? SDSS g-band magnitude (0.48 µm) 33- 37 F5.3 mag e_gmag ? Uncertainty in gmag 39- 44 F6.3 mag rmag ? SDSS r-band magnitude (0.62 µm) 46- 50 F5.3 mag e_rmag ? Uncertainty in rmag 52- 57 F6.3 mag imag ? SDSS i-band magnitude (0.76 µm) 59- 63 F5.3 mag e_imag ? Uncertainty in imag 65- 70 F6.3 mag zmag ? SDSS z-band magnitude (0.91 µm) 72- 76 F5.3 mag e_zmag ? Uncertainty in zmag 78- 83 F6.3 mag Vmag ? Johnson V-band magnitude (0.54 µm) 85- 89 F5.3 mag e_Vmag ? Uncertainty in Vmag 91- 96 F6.3 mag Rmag ? Cousins R-band magnitude (0.64 µm) 98-102 F5.3 mag e_Rmag ? Uncertainty in Rmag 104-109 F6.3 mag Imag1 ? Cousins I-band magnitude (0.80 µm) 111-115 F5.3 mag e_Imag1 ? Uncertainty in Imag1 117-122 F6.3 mag Imag2 ? DENIS I-band magnitude (0.79 µm) 124-128 F5.3 mag e_Imag2 ? Uncertainty in Imag2 130-135 A6 --- Ref Reference(s) (1)
Note (1): Reference as follows: 1 = Ahn et al. (2012ApJS..203...21A); 2 = Dieterich et al. (2014, J/AJ/147/94); 3 = Gizis et al. (2012AJ....144...94G); 4 = DENIS Consortium (2003, Cat. B/denis); 5 = Naud et al. (2014ApJ...787....5N); 6 = Liebert & Gizis (2006, J/PASP/118/659); 7 = Chiu et al. (2006, J/AJ/131/2722); 8 = Abazajian et al. (2009ApJS..182..543A); 9 = Leggett et al. (2012ApJ...748...74L); 10 = Costa et al. (2005AJ....130..337C); 11 = Boffin et al. (2014A&A...561L...4B); 12 = Landolt (2009, J/AJ/137/4186); 13 = Landolt (1992AJ....104..340L); 14 = Reyle et al. (2010, J/A+A/522/A112); 15 = Costa et al. (2006AJ....132.1234C); 16 = Adelman-McCarthy et al. (2008ApJS..175..297A); 17 = Liu et al. (2013ApJ...777L..20L).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- ID Designation of the source (HHMM+DDMM) 13- 18 F6.3 mag Jmag1 ? 2MASS J-band magnitude (1.24 µm) 20- 24 F5.3 mag e_Jmag1 ? Uncertainty in Jmag1 26- 31 F6.3 mag Hmag1 ? 2MASS H-band magnitude (1.66 µm) 33- 37 F5.3 mag e_Hmag1 ? Uncertainty in Hmag1 39- 44 F6.3 mag Ksmag ? 2MASS Ks-band magnitude (2.16 µm) 46- 50 F5.3 mag e_Ksmag ? Uncertainty in Ksmag 52- 57 F6.3 mag Ymag ? MKO Y-band magnitude (1.03 µm) 59- 63 F5.3 mag e_Ymag ? Uncertainty in Ymag 65- 70 F6.3 mag Jmag2 ? MKO J-band magnitude (1.25 µm) 72- 76 F5.3 mag e_Jmag2 ? Uncertainty in Jmag2 78- 83 F6.3 mag Hmag2 ? MKO H-band magnitude (1.64 µm) 85- 89 F5.3 mag e_Hmag2 ? Uncertainty in Hmag2 91- 96 F6.3 mag Kmag ? MKO K-band magnitude (2.20 µm) 98-102 F5.3 mag e_Kmag ? Uncertainty in Kmag 104-109 A6 --- Ref Reference(s) (1)
Note (1): Reference as follows: 1 = Cutri et al. (2003, Cat. II/246); 2 = Leggett et al. (2002ApJ...564..452L); 3 = Knapp et al. (2004, J/AJ/127/3553); 4 = Leggett et al. (2010, J/ApJ/710/1627); 5 = Naud et al. (2014ApJ...787....5N); 6 = Leggett et al. (1998ApJ...509..836L); 7 = Chiu et al. (2006, J/AJ/131/2722); 8 = Leggett et al. (2000ApJ...536L..35L); 9 = Hewett et al. (2006MNRAS.367..454H); 10 = Leggett et al. (2002MNRAS.332...78L); 11 = Lawrence et al. (2007MNRAS.379.1599L); 12 = Currie et al. (2013ApJ...776...15C); 13 = Golimowski et al. (2004AJ....127.3516G); 14 = Burgasser et al. (2013ApJ...772..129B); 15 = Chauvin et al. (2004A&A...425L..29C); 16 = Mohanty et al. (2007ApJ...657.1064M); 17 = Burningham et al. (2010MNRAS.404.1952B); 18 = Geballe et al. (2001ApJ...556..373G); 19 = Strauss et al. (1999ApJ...522L..61S); 20 = Liu et al. (2013ApJ...777L..20L); 21 = Luhman et al. (2007ApJ...654..570L).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- ID Designation of the source (HHMM+DDMM) 13- 18 F6.3 mag W1mag ? WISE W1-band magnitude (3.35 µm) 20- 24 F5.3 mag e_W1mag ? Uncertainty in W1mag 26- 31 F6.3 mag W2mag ? WISE W2-band magnitude (4.60 µm) 33- 37 F5.3 mag e_W2mag ? Uncertainty in W2mag 39- 44 F6.3 mag W3mag ? WISE W3-band magnitude (11.56 µm) 46- 50 F5.3 mag e_W3mag ? Uncertainty in W3mag 52- 56 F5.3 mag W4mag ? WISE W4-band magnitude (22.09 µm) 58- 62 F5.3 mag e_W4mag ? Uncertainty in W4mag 64- 69 F6.3 mag Lmag ? MKO L-band magnitude (3.75 µm) 71- 75 F5.3 mag e_Lmag ? Uncertainty in Lmag 77- 82 F6.3 mag Mmag ? MKO M-band magnitude (4.70 µm) 84- 88 F5.3 mag e_Mmag ? Uncertainty in Mmag 90- 95 F6.3 mag 3.6mag ? Spitzer/IRAC 3.51µm band magnitude 97-101 F5.3 mag e_3.6mag ? Uncertainty in 3.6mag 103-108 F6.3 mag 4.5mag ? Spitzer/IRAC 4.44µm band magnitude 110-114 F5.3 mag e_4.5mag ? Uncertainty in 4.5mag 116-121 F6.3 mag 5.8mag ? Spitzer/IRAC 5.63µm band magnitude 123-127 F5.3 mag e_5.8mag ? Uncertainty in 5.8mag 129-134 F6.3 mag 8mag ? Spitzer/IRAC 7.59µm band magnitude 136-140 F5.3 mag e_8mag ? Uncertainty in 8mag 142-150 A9 --- Ref Reference(s) (1)
Note (1): Reference as follows: 1 = Cutri et al. (2012, Cat. II/311); 2 = Patten et al. (2006, J/ApJ/651/502); 3 = Leggett et al. (1998ApJ...509..836L); 4 = Cushing et al. (2008, Precision Tests of Ultracool Dwarf Atmospheric Models, Spitzer Proposal); 5 = Luhman et al. (2009ApJ...703..399L); 6 = Leggett et al. (2002ApJ...564..452L); 7 = Leggett et al. (2010, J/ApJ/710/1627); 8 = Golimowski et al. (2004AJ....127.3516G); 9 = Cutri et al. (2014, Cat. II/328); 10 = Leggett et al. (2001ApJ...548..908L); 11 = Burgasser et al. (2008, Direct Observations of Clouds on Brown Dwarfs: A Spitzer Study of Extreme Cases, Spitzer Proposal); 12 = Cruz et al. (2004, The Mid-Infrared Spectrophotometric Properties of a Complete Sample of the Nearest L Dwarfs, Spitzer Proposal); 13 = Kirkpatrick et al. (2011, J/ApJS/197/19); 14 = Currie et al. (2013ApJ...776...15C) 15 = Leggett et al. (2007ApJ...655.1079L); 16 = Reid & Cruz (2002, J/AJ/123/2806); 17 = Houck & Roellig (2004, IRS Observations of the Brown Dwarf L and T Sequence, Spitzer Proposal); 18 = Burgasser et al. (2008ApJ...689L..53B); 19 = Osorio et al. (2010ApJ...715.1408Z); 20 = Houck et al. (2006, Disk Structure and Planet Formation around Young Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs, Spitzer Proposal); 21 = Houck & Watson (2004, Spectroscopy of Protostellar, Protoplanetary and Debris Disks, Spitzer Proposal); 22 = Jayawardhana et al. (2003AJ....126.1515J); 23 = Chauvin et al. (2004A&A...425L..29C); 24 = Griffith et al. (2012, J/AJ/144/148); 25 = Burningham et al. (2010MNRAS.404.1952B); 26 = Jones et al. (1996MNRAS.280...77J); 27 = Geballe et al. (2001ApJ...556..373G); 28 = Dupuy & Liu (2012, J/ApJS/201/19); 29 = Luhman et al. (2007ApJ...654..570L).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- ID Designation of the source (HHMM+DDMM) 13- 30 A18 --- OPT Optical spectra used to construct SEDs 32- 33 I2 --- r_OPT [3/71]? OPT reference (see refs7.dat file) 36- 50 A15 --- NIR NIR spectra used to construct SEDs 52- 56 A5 --- r_NIR NIR reference (see refs7.dat file) 58- 60 A3 --- MIR MIR spectra used to construct SEDs 62- 63 I2 --- r_MIR [2/72]? MIR reference (see refs7.dat file)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table8.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- ID Designation of the source (HHMM+DDMM) 13- 18 F6.2 mas Plx Trigonometric parallax used in that work 20- 24 F5.2 mas e_Plx Uncertainty in Plx 26- 31 F6.3 [Lsun] logL Bolometric luminosity (log(L*/L) 33- 37 F5.3 [Lsun] e_logL Uncertainty in logL 39- 44 F6.3 [Lsun] logL1 Previously published value of bolometric luminosity (log(L*,Lit/L) 46- 50 F5.3 [Lsun] e_logL1 Uncertainty in logL1 52- 61 A10 --- r_logL1 logL1 reference(s) (1)
Note (1): Reference as follows: 1 = van Altena et al. (1995gcts.book.....V); 2 = Golimowski et al. (2004AJ....127.3516G); 3 = Tinney et al. (1995AJ....110.3014T); 4 = Dieterich et al. (2014, J/AJ/147/94); 5 = Cushing et al. (2005ApJ...623.1115C); 6 = Vrba et al. (2004AJ....127.2948V); 7 = Zapatero Osorio et al. (2014A&A...568A...6Z); 8 = Dahn et al. (2002AJ....124.1170D); 9 = Luhman et al. (2007ApJ...654..570L); 10 = Gizis et al. (2015ApJ...799..203G); 11 = Naud et al. (2014ApJ...787....5N); 12 = Tinney (1996MNRAS.281..644T); 13 = Henry et al. (2006AJ....132.2360H); 14 = Gatewood & Coban (2009AJ....137..402G); 15 = Liu et al. (2013ApJ...777L..20L); 16 = Saumon et al. (2007ApJ...656.1136S); 17 = Dahn et al. (2002AJ....124.1170D); 18 = Vrba et al. (2004AJ....127.2948V); 19 = Leggett et al. (2012ApJ...748...74L); 20 = Burgasser et al. (2008ApJ...689L..53B); 21 = Tinney et al. (2003AJ....126..975T); 22 = Faherty et al. (2014ApJ...790...90F); 23 = Mamajek (2005ApJ...634.1385M); 24 = Manjavacas et al. (2014, J/A+A/564/A55); 25 = Burningham et al. (2011MNRAS.414.3590B); 26 = Geballe et al. (2001ApJ...556..373G); 27 = van Altena et al. (1995gcts.book.....V, Cat. I/238); 28 = van Leeuwen (2007A&A...474..653V, Cat. I/311); 29 = Monet et al. (1992, J/AJ/103/638).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table9.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- ID Designation of the source (HHMM+DDMM) 13- 18 F6.2 mas Plx Trigonometric parallax 20- 24 F5.2 mas e_Plx Uncertainty in Plx 25 A1 --- n_Plx [b] Note on Plx (1) 27- 28 I2 --- r_Plx [1/41] Plx reference (2) 30- 34 F5.2 [Lsun] logL Bolometric luminosity (log(L*/L) 36- 39 F4.2 [Lsun] e_logL Uncertainty in logL 41- 45 F5.3 Gyr b_Age Age range, lower value 47- 52 F6.3 Gyr B_Age Age range, upper value 54- 57 F4.2 Rjup Rad ? Radius 59- 62 F4.2 Rjup e_Rad ? Uncertainty in Rad 64- 67 F4.2 [cm/s2] log(g) ? Log surface gravity 69- 72 F4.2 [cm/s2] e_log(g) ? Uncertainty in log(g) 74- 77 I4 K Teff ? Effective temperature 79- 81 I3 K e_Teff ? Uncertainty in Teff 83- 88 F6.2 Mjup Mass ? Mass 90- 94 F5.2 Mjup e_Mass ? Uncertainty in Mass
Note (1): Note as follows: b = Parallax calculated from kinematic distance. Note (2): Reference as follows: 1 = Dupuy & Liu (2012, J/ApJS/201/19); 2 = van Leeuwen (2007A&A...474..653V, Cat. I/311); 3 = Dieterich et al. (2014, J/AJ/147/94); 4 = Faherty et al. (2016, J/ApJS/225/10); 5 = Tinney et al. (1995AJ....110.3014T); 6 = Dahn et al. (2002AJ....124.1170D); 7 = Vrba et al. (2004AJ....127.2948V); 8 = Zapatero Osorio et al. (2014A&A...568A...6Z); 9 = Faherty et al. (2012, J/ApJ/752/56); 10 = Gizis et al. (2015ApJ...799..203G); 11 = Dupuy & Kraus (2013Sci...341.1492D); 12 = Marocco et al. (2013AJ....146..161M); 13 = Costa et al. (2005AJ....130..337C); 14 = Naud et al. (2014ApJ...787....5N); 15 = Marocco et al. (2010A&A...524A..38M); 16 = Tinney (1996MNRAS.281..644T); 17 = van Altena et al. (1995gcts.book.....V, Cat. I/238); 18 = Patten et al. (2006, J/ApJ/651/502); 19 = Kirkpatrick et al. (2012, J/ApJ/753/156); 20 = Costa et al. (2006AJ....132.1234C); 21 = Monet et al. (1992, J/AJ/103/638); 22 = Gelino et al. (2014AJ....148....6G); 23 = Andrei et al. (2011AJ....141...54A); 24 = Thorstensen & Kirkpatrick (2003PASP..115.1207T); 25 = Leggett et al. (2012ApJ...748...74L); 26 = Gatewood & Coban (2009AJ....137..402G); 27 = Artigau et al. (2010ApJ...718L..38A); 28 = Schilbach et al. (2009, J/A+A/493/L27); 29 = Burgasser et al. (2008ApJ...689L..53B); 30 = Tinney et al. (2003AJ....126..975T); 31 = Lurie et al. (2014AJ....148...91L); 32 = Boffin et al. (2014A&A...561L...4B); 33 = Teixeira et al. (2008A&A...489..825T); 34 = Weinberger et al. (2013ApJ...762..118W); 35 = Ducourant et al. (2008A&A...477L...1D); 36 = Cesetti et al. (2013, J/A+A/549/A129); 37 = Kirkpatrick et al. (2011, J/ApJS/197/19); 38 = Reid et al. (2003AJ....125..354R); 39 = Smart et al. (2013MNRAS.433.2054S); 40 = Allers et al. (2009ApJ...697..824A); 41 = Subasavage et al. (2009AJ....137.4547S).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs1.dat refs7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- Ref [1/123] Reference number 7- 38 A32 --- Aut Author's name(s) 42- 60 A19 --- Bibcode Reference bibcode 62-170 A109 --- Com Comment on reference
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