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J/ApJ/797/116      Chemical properties of M31 star clusters     (Colucci+, 2014)

The detailed chemical properties of M31 star clusters. I. Fe, alpha and light elements. Colucci J.E., Bernstein R.A., Cohen J.G. <Astrophys. J., 797, 116 (2014)> =2014ApJ...797..116C (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Clusters, globular ; Equivalent widths ; Abundances, [Fe/H] Keywords: galaxies: halos - galaxies: individual (M31) - galaxies: star clusters: general - Local Group - stars: abundances Abstract: We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the α elements CaI, SiI, TiI, TiII, and light elements MgI, NaI, and AlI for 31 globular clusters (GCs) in M31, which were obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio >60 echelle spectra of their integrated light (IL). All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution IL abundance analysis of GCs. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The GCs are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5kpc<RM31<117kpc. Description: Our GC targets were chosen from the Revised Bologna Catalog (Galleti et al. 2004, Cat. J/A+A/416/917), and have all been previously spectroscopically confirmed as members of the M31 GC system. Our selection criteria required that the GCs be more luminous than V∼17mag, but less luminous than V∼15mag. We obtained high-resolution IL spectra of the M31 GCs using the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The data were taken over several observing runs from 2008 to 2012. In all observing runs, we used identical setups that utilized the D3 decker, which has a slit size of 1.7"x7.0" and spectral resolution of R=24,000, which is sufficient to resolve individual spectral lines of GCs with vσ≥7km/s. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 71 32 Observations and cluster properties table2.dat 61 26 Velocity dispersions and radial velocities table3.dat 37 14 EW versus synthesis analysis table4.dat 109 164 M31 GC FeI equivalent widths table5.dat 63 83 M31 GC FeI synthesis abundances table6.dat 50 31 M31 GC ages and FeI abundances table7.dat 182 100 M31 GC line abundances table8.dat 82 31 M31 GC mean abundances table9.dat 84 31 M31 GC abundances continued
See also: V/143 : Revised Bologna Catalog of M31 clusters V.5 (Galleti+, 2012) VII/195 : Globular Clusters in the Milky Way (Harris, 1996) J/AJ/119/727 : M31 globular clusters photometry (Barmby+, 2000) J/AJ/123/2490 : RV and [Fe/H] of M31 globular cluster system (Perrett+ 2002) J/A+A/416/917 : Rev. Bologna Cat. of M31 globular clusters (Galleti+, 2004) J/ApJS/161/304 : Star clusters in the MW and satellites (McLaughlin+, 2005) J/AJ/130/2140 : Abundances and velocities in GCs (Pritzl+, 2005) J/AJ/133/2764 : M31 GCs structural parameters (Barmby+, 2007) J/ApJ/704/385 : M31 integrated light abundances (Colucci+, 2009) J/A+A/508/1285 : Metallicity estimates of M31 GCs (Galleti+, 2009) J/MNRAS/402/803 : M31 globular cluster system (Peacock+, 2010) J/AJ/141/61 : Star clusters in M31. II. (Caldwell+, 2011) J/ApJ/735/55 : High-resolution GCs abundances. III. LMC (Colucci+, 2011) J/ApJ/746/29 : High-resolution GC abundances. IV. 8 LMC GCs (Colucci+ 2012) J/ApJS/199/37 : GALEX catalog of star clusters in M31 (Kang+, 2012) J/AJ/146/20 : Structural parameters for 79 GCs in M31 (Wang+, 2013) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Name Cluster name 11 A1 --- f_Name [*] Indicates a cluster analyzed in Colucci et al. 2009, Cat. J/ApJ/704/385 (1) 13- 14 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 16- 17 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 19- 22 F4.1 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 24 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 25- 26 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 28- 29 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 31- 34 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 36- 40 F5.2 mag Vmag [14.15/16.91]? V band magnitude 42- 45 F4.2 mag E(B-V) [0.05/0.46]? Reddening 46 A1 --- f_E(B-V) [a-d] Flag on E(B-V) (2) 48- 53 F6.2 kpc RM31 [1.77/117.05]? Projected galactocentric radius from M31 55- 58 I4 yr Obs.Y Year of Observation 60- 62 A3 "month" Obs.M Month of Observation 64- 66 F3.1 h Texp [1/6] Exposure time 68- 70 I3 --- S/N [54/114]? Signal-to-Noise ratio 71 A1 --- f_S/N [e] Indicates S/N of combined 2009 and 2011 spectrum
Note (1): Results from Colucci et al. 2009 (Cat. J/ApJ/704/385) are reproduced here for completeness. Note (2): Reddening values are taken from Caldwell et al. (2011, J/AJ/141/61), with exceptions defined as follows: a = Fan et al. (2008MNRAS.385.1973F), b = Mackey et al. (2007ApJ...655L..85M), c = Barmby et al. (2007, Cat. J/AJ/133/2764), d = Mackey et al. (2010MNRAS.401..533M)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Name Cluster name 12- 16 F5.2 km/s sigma [4.73/25.73] Velocity dispersion 18- 21 F4.2 km/s e_sigma [0.37/1.24] Error on sigma 23- 28 F6.1 km/s RV [-555.5/-53.1] Heliocentric radial velocity 30- 32 F3.1 km/s e_RV [0.1/0.6] Error on RV 34- 37 F4.1 km/s sigmal [6.8/27.2]? Velocity dispersion from the literature 39- 41 F3.1 km/s e_sigmal [0.3/2.2]? Error on sigmal 43- 48 F6.1 km/s RVl [-539/-55.8] Radial velocity from the literature 50- 53 F4.1 km/s e_RVl [0.3/48] Error on RVl 55- 61 A7 --- Refs References (1)
Note (1): Where two references are listed, we have calculated the average of the two results and an error equal to the standard deviation in the mean. The references are defined as follows: 1 = Strader et al. 2011AJ....142....8S. 2 = Galleti et al. 2004A&A...416..917G. 3 = Dubath & Grillmair 1997A&A...321..379D. 4 = Alves-Brito et al. 2009MNRAS.395L..34A. 5 = Djorgovski et al. 1997ApJ...474L..19D.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Name Cluster Name 12- 16 F5.2 --- [Fe/H] [-1.74/-0.26] [Fe/H] from the equivalent width 18- 21 F4.2 --- e_[Fe/H] [0.15/0.4] Error on [Fe/H] 23- 27 F5.2 --- [Fe/H]s [-1.81/-0.16] [Fe/H] from line synthesis 29- 32 F4.2 --- e_[Fe/H]s [0.1/0.2] Error on [Fe/H]s 34- 37 F4.1 km/s v [6.5/19.5] Velocity dispersion
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 F8.3 0.1nm lambda [4005.25/8239.13] Wavelength in Angstroms (1) 10- 14 F5.3 eV EP [0/4.77] Excitation potential 16- 21 F6.3 [-] log(gf) [-5.28/0.65] Log oscillator strength times degeneracy 23- 27 F5.1 10-13m EWB006 [35.7/149.2]? FeI equivalent width in B006 (2) 29- 33 F5.1 10-13m EWB048 [34.1/148.9]? FeI equivalent width in B048 (2) 35- 39 F5.1 10-13m EWB088 [45.4/150.1]? FeI equivalent width in B088 (2) 41- 45 F5.1 10-13m EWB232 [50.5/149.6]? FeI equivalent width in B232 (2) 47- 51 F5.1 10-13m EWB235 [27.3/144.6]? FeI equivalent width in B235 (2) 53- 57 F5.1 10-13m EWB240 [32.1/146.8]? FeI equivalent width in B240 (2) 59- 63 F5.1 10-13m EWB311 [41.5/139.8]? FeI equivalent width in B311 (2) 65- 69 F5.1 10-13m EWB312 [40.3/199.7]? FeI equivalent width in B312 (2) 71- 75 F5.1 10-13m EWB383 [22.4/146.4]? FeI equivalent width in B383 (2) 77- 81 F5.1 10-13m EWB403 [37.2/189.7]? FeI equivalent width in B403 (2) 83- 87 F5.1 10-13m EWB514 [38.5/143.6]? FeI equivalent width in B514 (2) 89- 93 F5.1 10-13m EWG002 [35.9/143.5]? FeI equivalent width in G002 (2) 95- 98 F4.1 10-13m EWG327 [34.1/99.2]? FeI equivalent width in G327 (2) 100-104 F5.1 10-13m EWMCGC5 [36.4/144.3]? FeI equivalent width in MCGC5 (2) 106-109 F4.1 10-13m EWMGC1 [47.7/97.8]? FeI equivalent width in MGC1 (2)
Note (1): Lines listed twice were measured in two orders with overlapping wavelength coverage. Note (2): In units of milli-Angstroms.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 F8.3 0.1nm lambda [4294.14/7583.79] Wavelength (in Angstroms) 10- 13 F4.2 [-] AB012 [5.2/6.2]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B012 (1) 15- 18 F4.2 [-] AB029 [6.7/7.4]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B029 (1) 20- 23 F4.2 [-] AB034 [6.3/7.1]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B034 (1) 25- 28 F4.2 [-] AB110 [6.5/7.1]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B110 (1) 30- 33 F4.2 [-] AB163 [6.5/7.3]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B163 (1) 35- 38 F4.2 [-] AB171 [6.8/7.9]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B171 (1) 40- 43 F4.2 [-] AB182 [5.9/7.0]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B182 (1) 45- 48 F4.2 [-] AB193 [6.8/7.6]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B193 (1) 50- 53 F4.2 [-] AB225 [6.6/7.3]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B225 (1) 55- 58 F4.2 [-] AB384 [6.5/7.1]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B384 (1) 60- 63 F4.2 [-] AB457 [5.8/6.9]? FeI synthesis log abundance in B457 (1)
Note (1): Abundances for individual lines are measured in steps of 0.1dex from the mean abundance using all lines. The typical statistical measurement uncertainty of individual lines is 0.05dex. Note that these statistical uncertainties do not dominate the total uncertainty. See text for further discussion. Abundances for each GC are calculated using its CMD solution that has the oldest age.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Name Cluster name 11 A1 --- f_Name [*] Indicates a cluster analyzed in Colucci et al. 2009, Cat. J/ApJ/704/385 (1) 13- 16 F4.1 Gyr Age Age 18- 20 F3.1 Gyr DAge Delta Age 22- 26 F5.2 [-] [FeI/H] Abundance [FeI/H] 28- 29 I2 --- N Number of FeI lines measured 31- 34 F4.2 --- e_N Statistical error of the mean FeI abundance (2) 36- 39 F4.2 --- sAge Uncertainty due to the dependence of the final abundance on the age of the CMD (2) 41- 44 F4.2 --- sT Final total uncertainty in abundance (2) 46- 48 A3 --- Fin Final analysis performed with GETJOB (EW) or line synthesis (SYN) 50 A1 --- Com Denotes whether solar-scaled (S) or α-enhanced (A) isochrones and stellar atmospheres were used in the final analysis.
Note (1): Results from Colucci et al. 2009 (Cat. J/ApJ/704/385) are reproduced here for completeness. Note (2): Final total uncertainty in abundance: σT=((σN/sqrt(N-1))2Age2)(1/2)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 5 A5 --- Species Species identifier 7- 14 F8.3 0.1nm lambda [4122.66/7932.35] Wavelength in Angstroms 16- 20 F5.3 eV EP [0/5.96] Excitation potential 22- 27 F6.3 [-] log(gf) [-5.569/0.504]? Log of oscillator strength times degeneracy 29- 32 F4.2 [-] B006 [4.33/7.48]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B006 34- 37 F4.2 [-] B012 [3.51/7.59]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B012 39- 42 F4.2 [-] B029 [4.25/7.3]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B029 44- 47 F4.2 [-] B034 [3.99/7.57]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B034 49- 52 F4.2 [-] B045 [4.14/7.25]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B045 54- 57 F4.2 [-] B048 [3.79/7.2]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B048 59- 62 F4.2 [-] B088 [2.81/7.15]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B088 64- 67 F4.2 [-] B110 [4.04/7.19]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B110 69- 72 F4.2 [-] B163 [4.28/7.63]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B163 74- 77 F4.2 [-] B171 [3.99/7.73]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B171 79- 82 F4.2 [-] B182 [3.85/7.65]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B182 84- 87 F4.2 [-] B193 [4.33/7.82]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B193 89- 92 F4.2 [-] B225 [4.65/7.93]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B225 94- 97 F4.2 [-] B232 [3/7.41]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B232 99-102 F4.2 [-] B235 [3.96/6.81]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B235 104-107 F4.2 [-] B240 [3.34/7.22]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B240 109-112 F4.2 [-] B311 [3.16/6.5]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B311 114-117 F4.2 [-] B312 [3.75/6.99]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B312 119-122 F4.2 [-] B358 [2.64/6.91]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B358 124-127 F4.2 [-] B381 [3.92/6.77]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B381 129-132 F4.2 [-] B383 [4.17/7.22]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B383 134-137 F4.2 [-] B384 [4.17/7.23]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B384 139-142 F4.2 [-] B386 [3.71/7.33]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B386 144-147 F4.2 [-] B403 [3.83/7.08]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B403 149-152 F4.2 [-] B405 [3.49/7.48]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B405 154-157 F4.2 [-] B457 [3.57/6.52]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B457 159-162 F4.2 [-] B514 [3.2/6.51]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in B514 164-167 F4.2 [-] G002 [2.77/6.12]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in G002 169-172 F4.2 [-] G327 [3.36/6.32]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in G327 174-177 F4.2 [-] MCGC5 [3.21/6.67]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in MCGC5 179-182 F4.2 [-] MGC1 [3.36/6.42]? 12+log(X/H) abundance in MGC1
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table8.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Name Cluster name 12- 16 F5.2 [-] [FeII/H] Mean [FeII/H] abundance (G1) 18- 21 F4.2 [-] e_[FeII/H] Statistical error on [FeII/H] (G2) 23- 24 I2 --- o_FeII Number of FeII lines 26- 29 F4.2 [-] eA[FeII/H] Uncertainy on [FeII/H] due to age (G3) 31- 35 F5.2 [-] [NaI/Fe] ? Mean abundance ratio [NaI/FeI] (G1) 37- 40 F4.2 [-] e_[NaI/Fe] ? Statistical error on NaI (G2) 42 I1 --- o_NaI ? Number of NaI lines 44- 47 F4.2 [-] eA[NaI/Fe] ? Uncertainy on [NaI/Fe] due to age (G3) 49- 53 F5.2 [-] [MgI/Fe] Mean abundance ratio [MgI/Fe] (G1) 55- 58 F4.2 [-] e_[MgI/Fe] Statistical error on [MgI/Fe] (G2) 60 I1 --- o_MgI Number of MgI lines 62- 65 F4.2 [-] eA[MgI/Fe] Uncertainy on [MgI/Fe] due to age (G3) 67- 70 F4.2 [-] [AlI/Fe] ? Mean abundance ratio [AlI/Fe] (G1) 72- 75 F4.2 [-] e_[AlI/Fe] ? Statistical error on AlI (G2) 77 I1 --- o_AlI ? Number of AlI lines 79- 82 F4.2 [-] eA[AlI/Fe] ? Uncertainy on [AlI/Fe] due to age (G3)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table9.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- Name Cluster name 12- 16 F5.2 [-] [CaI/Fe] Mean [CaI/Fe] abundance (G1) 18- 21 F4.2 [-] e_[CaI/Fe] Statistical error on [CaI/Fe] (G2) 23- 24 I2 --- o_Ca1 Number of CaI lines 26- 29 F4.2 [-] eACa1 Uncertainy on [CaI/Fe] due to age (G3) 31- 34 F4.2 [-] [SiI/Fe] ? Abundance [SiI/Fe] abundance (G1) 36- 39 F4.2 [-] e_[SiI/Fe] ? Statistical error on [SiI/Fe] (G2) 41 I1 --- o_Si1 ? Number of Si1 lines 43- 46 F4.2 [-] eA[SiI/Fe] ? Uncertainy on [SiI/Fe] due to age (G3) 48- 52 F5.2 [-] [TiI/FeI] ? Abundance [TiI/FeI] abundance (G1) 54- 57 F4.2 [-] e_[TiI/FeI] ? Statistical error on [TiI/FeI] (G2) 59- 60 I2 --- o_TiI ? Number of TiI lines 62- 65 F4.2 [-] eA[TiI/FeI] ? Uncertainy on [TiI/FeI] due to age (G3) 67- 71 F5.2 [-] [TiII/FeII] Abundance [TiII/FeII] abundance (G1) 73- 76 F4.2 [-] e_[TiII/FeII] Statistical error on [TiII/FeII] (G2) 78- 79 I2 --- o_TiII Number of TiII lines 81- 84 F4.2 [-] eA[TiII/FeII] Uncertainy on [TiII/FeII] due to age (G3)
Global Notes: Note (G1): All abundances are obtained from line synthesis. Note (G2): Statistical error in the mean for each species σX=σ/sqrt(NX-1). For species with only one line measurement σX is set to a value of 0.1dex, which is a typical line-to-line uncertainty in our analysis. Note (G3): Uncertainty in the abundance due to the age of the CMD (σA,X).
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Marianne Brouty [CDS] 22-Feb-2017
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