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J/ApJ/788/154     Palomar Transient Factory SNe IIn photometry     (Ofek+, 2014)

Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity. Ofek E.O., Arcavi I., Tal D., Sullivan M., Gal-Yam A., Kulkarni S.R., Nugent P.E., Ben-Ami S., Bersier D., Cao Y., Cenko S.B., De Cia A., Filippenko A.V., Fransson C., Kasliwal M.M., Laher R., Surace J., Quimby R., Yaron O. <Astrophys. J., 788, 154 (2014)> =2014ApJ...788..154O (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Supernovae ; Redshifts ; Extinction ; Photometry, RI ; Photometry, SDSS Keywords: stars: massive - stars: mass-loss - supernovae: general Abstract: Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ∼104 km/s). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events. Description: The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Law et al. 2009PASP..121.1395L; Rau et al. 2009PASP..121.1334R) and its extension the intermediate PTF (iPTF) found over 2200 spectroscopically confirmed SNe. We selected 19 SNe IIn for which PTF/iPTF has good coverage of the light-curve rise and peak; they are listed in Table 1. Optical spectra were obtained with a variety of telescopes and instruments, including the Double Spectrograph (Oke & Gunn 1982PASP...94..586O) at the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, the Kast spectrograph (Miller & Stone 1993, Lick Observatory Technical Report 66 (Santa Cruz, CA: Lick Observatory)) at the Lick 3 m Shane telescope, the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (Oke et al. 1995PASP..107..375O) on the Keck-1 10 m telescope, and the Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (Faber et al. 2003SPIE.4841.1657F) on the Keck-2 10 m telescope. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 106 19 Supernovae Sample table2.dat 39 1006 Supernovae Photometry
See also: II/313 : Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) photometric catalog 1.0 (Ofek+, 2012) J/ApJ/789/104 : SNe IIn observations and properties (Ofek+, 2014) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 A9 --- PTF SN identifier (PTF YYaaa; iPTF YYaaa in Simbad) 11 A1 --- n_PTF [n] Note on PTF (1) 13- 20 F8.4 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 22- 29 F8.4 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 31- 35 F5.3 --- z Redshift 37- 41 F5.2 mag MOD Distance modulus of the SN host galaxy 43- 47 F5.3 mag E(B-V) Galactic extinction in the SN direction 49- 55 F7.1 d t0 MJD of the fitted zero flux 57- 63 F7.1 d tmax MJD of the R-band light-curve peak 65- 70 E6.2 10-7W Lmax Peak luminosity corresponding to tmax 72- 77 E6.2 10-7W L0 Luminosity extrapolated to a time of 1 s (2) 79- 82 F4.1 d te Exponential rise time of the early-time light curve 84- 87 F4.1 d e_te ? Uncertainty in te 89- 93 F5.1 --- chi2 The χ2 value 94 A1 --- --- [/] 95- 96 I2 --- DOF [2/58] Degree of freedom 98-101 I4 km/s vbo Lower limit on the shock velocity (3) 103-106 F4.1 [g/cm] log10K Log of the mass-loading parameter (4)
Note (1): Note as follows: n = SN has relative error in te larger than 50% and was excluded from our correlation analysis. Note (2): L0=Lmax(t/tbo), where the time is measured in seconds (e.g., Equation (2)). Note (3): Deduced from Equation (1) and assuming ε=0.3, w=2, and m=10; κ=0.34 cm2/g. Note (4): K=M/(4πνw) is calculated assuming a wind profile with w=2.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 A9 --- PTF SN identifier (PTF YYaaa; iPTF YYaaa in Simbad) 12- 14 A3 --- Tel Telescope (1) 16 A1 --- Filter [grRi] Filter 18- 26 F9.3 d MJD Modified Julian Date 28- 33 F6.3 mag mag The PTF magnitude in Filter 35- 39 F5.3 mag e_mag Error in mag
Note (1): Telescope as follows: PTF = Palomar Transient Factory; P60 = Palomar 60-inch telescope; LT = Liverpool 2-m telescope.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Tiphaine Pouvreau [CDS] 17-Jul-2017
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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