J/ApJ/788/154 Palomar Transient Factory SNe IIn photometry (Ofek+, 2014)
Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity. Ofek E.O., Arcavi I., Tal D., Sullivan M., Gal-Yam A., Kulkarni S.R., Nugent P.E., Ben-Ami S., Bersier D., Cao Y., Cenko S.B., De Cia A., Filippenko A.V., Fransson C., Kasliwal M.M., Laher R., Surace J., Quimby R., Yaron O. <Astrophys. J., 788, 154 (2014)> =2014ApJ...788..154O (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Supernovae ; Redshifts ; Extinction ; Photometry, RI ; Photometry, SDSS Keywords: stars: massive - stars: mass-loss - supernovae: general Abstract: Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ∼104 km/s). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events. Description: The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Law et al. 2009PASP..121.1395L; Rau et al. 2009PASP..121.1334R) and its extension the intermediate PTF (iPTF) found over 2200 spectroscopically confirmed SNe. We selected 19 SNe IIn for which PTF/iPTF has good coverage of the light-curve rise and peak; they are listed in Table 1. Optical spectra were obtained with a variety of telescopes and instruments, including the Double Spectrograph (Oke & Gunn 1982PASP...94..586O) at the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, the Kast spectrograph (Miller & Stone 1993, Lick Observatory Technical Report 66 (Santa Cruz, CA: Lick Observatory)) at the Lick 3 m Shane telescope, the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (Oke et al. 1995PASP..107..375O) on the Keck-1 10 m telescope, and the Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (Faber et al. 2003SPIE.4841.1657F) on the Keck-2 10 m telescope. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 106 19 Supernovae Sample table2.dat 39 1006 Supernovae Photometry
See also: II/313 : Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) photometric catalog 1.0 (Ofek+, 2012) J/ApJ/789/104 : SNe IIn observations and properties (Ofek+, 2014) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 A9 --- PTF SN identifier (PTF YYaaa; iPTF YYaaa in Simbad) 11 A1 --- n_PTF [n] Note on PTF (1) 13- 20 F8.4 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 22- 29 F8.4 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 31- 35 F5.3 --- z Redshift 37- 41 F5.2 mag MOD Distance modulus of the SN host galaxy 43- 47 F5.3 mag E(B-V) Galactic extinction in the SN direction 49- 55 F7.1 d t0 MJD of the fitted zero flux 57- 63 F7.1 d tmax MJD of the R-band light-curve peak 65- 70 E6.2 10-7W Lmax Peak luminosity corresponding to tmax 72- 77 E6.2 10-7W L0 Luminosity extrapolated to a time of 1 s (2) 79- 82 F4.1 d te Exponential rise time of the early-time light curve 84- 87 F4.1 d e_te ? Uncertainty in te 89- 93 F5.1 --- chi2 The χ2 value 94 A1 --- --- [/] 95- 96 I2 --- DOF [2/58] Degree of freedom 98-101 I4 km/s vbo Lower limit on the shock velocity (3) 103-106 F4.1 [g/cm] log10K Log of the mass-loading parameter (4)
Note (1): Note as follows: n = SN has relative error in te larger than 50% and was excluded from our correlation analysis. Note (2): L0=Lmax(t/tbo)-α, where the time is measured in seconds (e.g., Equation (2)). Note (3): Deduced from Equation (1) and assuming ε=0.3, w=2, and m=10; κ=0.34 cm2/g. Note (4): K=M/(4πνw) is calculated assuming a wind profile with w=2.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 A9 --- PTF SN identifier (PTF YYaaa; iPTF YYaaa in Simbad) 12- 14 A3 --- Tel Telescope (1) 16 A1 --- Filter [grRi] Filter 18- 26 F9.3 d MJD Modified Julian Date 28- 33 F6.3 mag mag The PTF magnitude in Filter 35- 39 F5.3 mag e_mag Error in mag
Note (1): Telescope as follows: PTF = Palomar Transient Factory; P60 = Palomar 60-inch telescope; LT = Liverpool 2-m telescope.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS], Tiphaine Pouvreau [CDS] 17-Jul-2017
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