J/ApJ/787/80139 Kepler planets transit time variations (Hadden+, 2014)

Densities and eccentricities of 139 Kepler planets from transit time variations. Hadden S., Lithwick Y. <Astrophys. J., 787, 80 (2014)> =2014ApJ...787...80H (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)ADC_Keywords: Stars, double and multiple ; Planets ; Stars, masses ; Stars, diametersKeywords: planets and satellites: composition - planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stabilityAbstract: We extract densities and eccentricities of 139 sub-Jovian planets by analyzing transit time variations (TTVs) obtained by the Kepler mission through Quarter 12. We partially circumvent the degeneracies that plague TTV inversion with the help of an analytical formula for the TTV. From the observed TTV phases, we find that most of these planets have eccentricities of the order of a few percent. More precisely, the rms eccentricity is 0.018_{-0.004}^{+0.005}, and planets smaller than 2.5 R_{{earth}}are around twice as eccentric as those bigger than 2.5 R_{{earth}}. We also find a best-fit density-radius relationship ρ∼3 g/cm^{3}x(R/3 R_{{earth}})^{-2.3}for the 56 planets that likely have small eccentricity and hence small statistical correction to their masses. Many planets larger than 2.5 R_{{earth}}are less dense than water, implying that their radii are largely set by a massive hydrogen atmosphere.Description: Mazeh et al. (2013, J/ApJS/208/16) catalog the transit times of 1960 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) with high signal-to-noise ratio, using Kepler data up to Q12. We select planet pairs from their catalog that lie sufficiently close to the first-order resonances 2:1, 3:2, 4:3, or 5:4, such that |Δ|<0.06. This reduces the sample size to 133 pairs, which is around one-third of all pairs of adjacent planets in their list. For each planet in a pair, we fit the Mazeh et al. (2013, J/ApJS/208/16) transit times with a sum of two components: one linear in time and the other sinusoidal.File Summary:

FileName Lrecl Records Explanations

ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 132 95 TTV Amplitudes table2.dat 75 139 Planet Nominal Masses

See also: V/133 : Kepler Input Catalog (Kepler Mission Team, 2009) J/ApJS/208/16 : Kepler transit timing observations. VIII. (Mazeh+, 2013) J/MNRAS/429/2001 : New transiting planet candidates from Kepler (Huang+, 2013)Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat

Bytes Format Units Label Explanations

1- 4 I4 --- KOI [82/2433] Kepler Object of Interest number (NNNN) 6 I1 --- I [1/6] KOI decimal of inner planet 8 I1 --- I1 [1/5] KOI decimal of outer planet 10- 15 F6.3 d P Inner planet orbital period 17- 23 F7.3 d P1 Outer planet orbital period 25 I1 --- J [2/5] Closest j:j-1 resonance 27- 34 F8.5 --- Delta Normalized distance to resonance 36- 42 F7.2 min V ? Transit time variation (TTV) amplitude of inner planet 44- 49 F6.2 min E_V ? The 1σ upper error bound on V 51- 56 F6.2 min e_V ? The 1σ lower error bound on V 58- 64 F7.2 min V1 ? TTV amplitude of outer planet 66- 71 F6.2 min E_V1 ? The 1σ upper error bound on V1 73- 78 F6.2 min e_V1 ? The 1σ lower error bound on V1 80- 85 F6.1 deg Phi ? TTV phase of inner planet 87- 91 F5.1 deg E_Phi ? The 1σ upper error bound on Phi 93- 97 F5.1 deg e_Phi ? The 1σ lower error bound on Phi 99-104 F6.1 deg Phi1 ? TTV phase of outer planet 106-110 F5.1 deg E_Phi1 ? The 1σ upper error bound on Phi1 112-116 F5.1 deg e_Phi1 ? The 1σ lower error bound on Phi1 118-132 A15 --- KName Designated Kepler planet name, where applicable (Kepler -NNNNAa in Simbad)

Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat

Bytes Format Units Label Explanations

1- 7 F7.2 --- KOI KOI Number (NNNN.NN) 9- 20 A12 --- KName Designated Kepler planet name, where applicable (Kepler -NNNNAa in Simbad) 22- 27 F6.1 Mgeo Mass Planet nominal mass 29- 33 F5.1 Mgeo E_Mass The 1σ upper error bound on Mass 35- 39 F5.1 Mgeo e_Mass The 1σ lower error bound on Mass 41- 45 F5.2 Rgeo Rad Planet radius 47- 50 F4.2 Rgeo E_Rad The 1σ upper error bound on Rad 52- 55 F4.2 Rgeo e_Rad The 1σ upper error bound on Rad 57 A1 --- Ecc [lh] Eccentricity flag (1) 59- 63 F5.3 Msun Mass* Mass of host star 65- 69 F5.3 Rsun Rad* Radius of host star 71- 75 A5 --- MSource Source code (2)

Note (1): Flag as follows: l = the planet pair is classified as low-e; h = the planet pair is classified as high-e.Note (2): For planets with two transit time variation (TTV) partners, MSource indicates whether the nominal mass measurement is based on the TTV of the inner or outer planet.

History: From electronic version of the journal(End)Prepared by [AAS], Tiphaine Pouvreau [CDS] 26-Jun-2017

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