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J/ApJ/785/159    SONYC census of substellar objects in Lupus 3    (Muzic+, 2014)

Substellar objects in nearby young clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar population in Lupus 3. Muzic K., Scholz A., Geers V.C., Jayawardhana R., Lopez Marti B. <Astrophys. J., 785, 159 (2014)> =2014ApJ...785..159M (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: YSOs ; Stars, M-type ; Associations, stellar ; Proper motions ; Spectral types ; Effective temperatures ; Photometry, infrared Keywords: brown dwarfs - stars: formation - stars: low-mass - stars: luminosity function, mass function Abstract: SONYC -Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters- is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (∼1 Myr), nearby (∼200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ∼1.4 deg2 on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M, for AV≤5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and Teff≤3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong Hα or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: Teff=(4120±175)-(172±26)xSpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later. Description: The near-infrared observations were designed to provide J- and KS-band photometry in the area slightly larger than the one covered with MOSAIC-II. We used NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, providing an FOV of 28'x28' and a pixel scale of 0.4". The NEWFIRM detector is a mosaic of four 2048x2048 Orion InSb arrays, organized in a 2x2 grid. Data reduction was performed using the NEWFIRM pipeline. The data were dark- and sky-subtracted and were corrected for bad pixels and flat-field effects. The astrometry was calibrated with respect to the 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006AJ....131.1163S, Cat. VII/233) coordinate system, and each detector quadrant was re-projected onto an undistorted celestial tangent plane. Objects: ---------------------------------------------------------- RA (ICRS) DE Designation(s) ---------------------------------------------------------- 16 09.6 -39 03 Lupus 3 = NAME Lupus III ---------------------------------------------------------- File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table2.dat 128 27 Photometry and Spectral Types for the Objects of Spectral Type M, or Slightly Earlier, Identified Toward Lupus 3 table3.dat 34 27 Effective Temperature and Extinction Derived from Models, for the Objects of Spectral Type M (or Slightly Earlier) Toward Lupus 3 table4.dat 122 82 Spectroscopically Confirmed Very Low Mass Members of Lupus 3
See also: II/246 : 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003) VII/233 : The 2MASS Extended sources (IPAC/UMass, 2003-2006) J/A+A/454/595 : X-ray emission of T Tau stars in Lupus 3 (Gondoin, 2006) J/ApJS/177/551 : Spitzer c2d survey of Lupus dark clouds (Merin+, 2008) J/A+A/500/1045 : Cool stars and brown dwarfs in Lupus clouds (Comeron+, 2009) J/ApJ/744/6 : SONYC census of very low-mass objects in NGC1333 (Scholz+, 2012) J/ApJ/744/134 : SONYC new brown dwarfs in ρ Oph (Muzic+, 2012) J/A+A/561/A2 : 36 accreting YSOs emission lines (Alcala+, 2014) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- ID SONYC candidate identifier (S-NN) (G1) 6- 7 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 9- 10 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 12- 16 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 18 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 19- 20 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 22- 23 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 25- 28 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 30- 33 F4.1 mag imag MOSAIC-II i-band magnitude 35- 38 F4.1 mag Jmag NEWFIRM J-band magnitude 40- 43 F4.1 mag Ksmag NEWFIRM KS-band magnitude 45- 48 F4.1 mag Av Absorption in V band from photometry 50 A1 --- l_SpType [<] Limit flag on SpType 51- 56 A6 --- SpType Spectral type 58- 60 F3.1 mag AvSp ? Absorption in V band from spectral type 62- 66 F5.1 mas/yr pmRA ? Proper motion along RA (pmRA*cosDE) 68- 70 F3.1 mas/yr e_pmRA ? Error on pmRA 72- 76 F5.1 mas/yr pmDE ? Proper motion along DE 78- 80 F3.1 mas/yr e_pmDE ? Error on pmDE 82 A1 --- Cand [yn-] Proper motion candidate (y=yes, n=no) 84- 89 F6.1 0.1nm EW ? Equivalent width of the Hα line 91- 99 A9 --- Memb Cluster membership 101 A1 --- n_Memb [2/3] Note on Memb (1) 103-124 A22 --- Com Comment (2) 126-128 A3 --- r_Com [abcd, ] Comment reference(s) (3)
Note (1): Note as follows: 2 = Background giant; 3 = Field dwarf. Note (2): Comment as follows: C09 = Candidate member in Comeron et al. (2009, J/A+A/500/1045), Table 9; M08 = IRAC YSO candidate from Merin et al. (2008, J/ApJS/177/551); G06 = X-ray source from Gondoin (2006, J/A+A/454/595). Note (3): Reference as follows: a = Comeron et al. 2003A&A...406.1001C; b = Mortier et al. 2011MNRAS.418.1194M; c = Allen et al. 2007ApJ...655.1095A; d = Comeron et al. 2013A&A...554A..86C.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 A4 --- ID SONYC candidate identifier (S-NN) (G1) 6 A1 --- l_TeffAD [>] Limit flag on TeffAD 7- 10 I4 K TeffAD ? Effective temperature derived using AMES-Dusty models (Allard et al. 2001ApJ...556..357A) 12- 14 F3.1 mag AvAD ? Absorption in V band corresponding to TeffAD 16- 19 I4 K TeffBTS Effective temperature derived using BT-Settl models (Allard et al. 2011ASPC..448...91A) 21- 23 F3.1 mag AvBTS Absorption in V band corresponding to TeffBTS 25- 28 I4 K Teff ? Effective temperature 30 A1 --- n_Teff [ab] Note on Teff (1) 32- 34 F3.1 mag Avmean ? Absorption in V band
Note (1): Note as follows: a = Parameters derived by Comeron et al. (2009, J/A+A/500/1045); b = Parameters derived by Comeron et al. (2013A&A...554A..86C).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 17 A17 --- ID Member of Lupus 3 identifier (1) 19- 20 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 22- 23 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 25- 29 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 31 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 32- 33 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 35- 36 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 38- 41 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 43- 46 F4.1 mag Jmag ? J-band magnitude 48- 51 F4.1 mag Ksmag ? KS-band magnitude 53 A1 --- l_SpType1 [<] Limit flag on SpType1 54- 59 A6 --- SpType1 Spectral type 1 60- 62 A3 --- r_SpType1 [acdefgh, ] Spectral type 1 reference(s) (2) 64- 67 A4 --- SpType2 Spectral type 2 68- 70 A3 --- r_SpType2 [cdfgh, ] Spectral type 2 reference(s) (2) 72- 75 A4 --- SpType3 Spectral type 3 76 A1 --- r_SpType3 [fgh] Spectral type 3 reference (2) 78- 81 A4 --- SpType4 Spectral type 4 82 A1 --- r_SpType4 [h] Spectral type 4 reference (2) 84- 87 I4 K Teff1 ? Effective temperature 1 88- 90 A3 --- r_Teff1 [acgh, ] Effective temperature 1 reference(s) (2) 92- 95 I4 K Teff2 ? Effective temperature 2 96- 98 A3 --- r_Teff2 [bh, ] Effective temperature 2 reference(s) (2) 99-102 I4 K Teff3 ? Effective temperature 3 103 A1 --- r_Teff3 [c] Effective temperature 3 reference (2) 105-121 A17 --- Other Other name 122 A1 --- r_Other [c] Other name reference (2)
Note (1): Identifiers are from: Schwartz (1977ApJS...35..161S, Sz); Comeron et al. (2003A&A...406.1001C, Par-Lup3); Lopez Marti et al. (2005A&A...440..139L, Lup); Mortier et al. (2011MNRAS.418.1194M, M); 2MASS (Cat. II/246, J16) this paper (SONYC-Lup3). Note (2): Reference as follows: a = This work; b = Comeron et al. 2009, J/A+A/500/1045; c = Comeron et al. 2013A&A...554A..86C; d = Comeron et al. 2003A&A...406.1001C; e = Allen et al. 2007ApJ...655.1095A; f = Hughes et al. 1994AJ....108.1071H; g = Mortier et al. 2011MNRAS.418.1194M; h = Alcala et al. 2014, J/A+A/561/A2.
Global notes: Note (G1): The IDs SONYC-Lup3-X are abbreviated with S-X.
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Scholz et al. Paper I 2009ApJ...702..805S Geers et al. Paper II 2011ApJ...726...23G Muzic et al. Paper III 2011ApJ...732...86M Scholz et al. Paper IV 2012ApJ...744....6S, J/ApJ/744/6 Muzic et al. Paper V 2012ApJ...744..134M, J/ApJ/744/134 Scholz et al. Paper VI 2012ApJ...756...24S Scholz et al. Paper VII 2013ApJ...775..138S Muzic et al. Paper IX 2015ApJ...810..159M
(End) Prepared by Tiphaine Pouvreau [CDS] 13-Jun-2017
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