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J/ApJ/736/19          Kepler planetary candidates. II.          (Borucki+, 2011)

Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the first four months of data. Borucki W.J., Koch D.G., Basri G., Batalha N., Brown T.M., Bryson S.T., Caldwell D., Christensen-Dalsgaard J., Cochran W.D., Devore E., Dunham E.W., Gautier T.N., Geary J.C., Gilliland R., Gould A., Howell S.B., Jenkins J.M., Latham D.W., Lissauer J.J., Marcy G.W., Rowe J., Sasselov D., Boss A., Charbonneau D., Ciardi D., Doyle L., Dupree A.K., Ford E.B., Fortney J., Holman M.J., Seager S., Steffen J.H., Tarter J., Welsh W.F., Allen C., Buchhave L.A., Christiansen J.L., Clarke B.D., Das S., Desert J.-M., Endl M., Fabrycky D., Fressin F., Haas M., Horch E., Howard A., Isaacson H., Kjeldsen H., Kolodziejczak J., Kulesa C., Li J., Lucas P.W., Machalek P., McCarthy D., MacQueen P., Meibom S., Miquel T., Prsa A., Quinn S.N., Quintana E.V., Ragozzine D., Sherry W., Shporer A., Tenenbaum P., Torres G., Twicken J.D., Van Cleve J., Walkowicz L., Witteborn F.C., Still M. <Astrophys. J., 736, 19 (2011)> =2011ApJ...736...19B
ADC_Keywords: Stars, double and multiple ; Planets ; Surveys ; Stars, dwarfs ; Stars, diameters ; Stars, masses ; Effective temperatures Keywords: planetary systems - stars: statistics - planets and satellites: detection - surveys Abstract: On 2011 February 1 the Kepler mission released data for 156453 stars observed from the beginning of the science observations on 2009 May 2 through September 16. There are 1235 planetary candidates with transit-like signatures detected in this period. These are associated with 997 host stars. Distributions of the characteristics of the planetary candidates are separated into five class sizes: 68 candidates of approximately Earth-size (Rp<1.25R{earth}), 288 super-Earth-size (1.25R{earth}≤Rp<2R{earth}), 662 Neptune-size (2R{earth}≤Rp<6R{earth}), 165 Jupiter-size (6R{earth}<=Rp<15R{earth}_), and 19 up to twice the size of Jupiter (15R{earth}≤Rp<22R{earth}). In the temperature range appropriate for the habitable zone, 54 candidates are found with sizes ranging from Earth-size to larger than that of Jupiter. Six are less than twice the size of the Earth. Over 74% of the planetary candidates are smaller than Neptune. Multi-candidate, transiting systems are frequent; 17% of the host stars have multi-candidate systems, and 34% of all the candidates are part of multi-candidate systems. Description: The results discussed in this paper are based on three data segments: the first segment (labeled Q0) started on JD 2454953.53 and ended on 2454963.25 and was taken during commissioning operations, the second data segment (labeled Q1) taken at the beginning of science operations that started on JD 2454964.50 and finished on JD 2454997.99, and a third segment (labeled Q2) starting on JD 2455002.51 and finishing on JD 2455091.48. The durations of the segments are 9.7, 33.5, and 89.0 days, respectively. The observations span a total period of 137.95 days including the gaps. A total of 156097 long cadence (LC) targets in Q1, and 166247 LC and 1492 short cadence (SC) targets in Q2 were observed. The results reported here are for the LC observations of 153196 stars observed during Q2. The selected stars are primarily main-sequence dwarfs chosen from the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC, Cat. V/133). File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 66 997 Host star characteristics table2.dat 178 1297 List of planetary candidates and their characteristics table4.dat 164 498 Very probable false positives notes.dat 80 76 Notes (table 3 of the paper)
See also: V/133 : Kepler Input Catalog (Kepler Mission Team, 2009) J/ApJS/197/2 : Transit timing observations from Kepler. I. (Ford+, 2011) J/A+A/529/A89 : Kepler satellite variability study (Debosscher+, 2011) J/A+A/517/A3 : Stellar parameters of Kepler early-type targets (Catanzaro+, 2010) http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler : MAST Kepler home page Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- KOI Kepler Object of Interest number 6- 13 I8 --- KIC Kepler Input Catalog identifier (Cat. V/133) 15- 20 F6.3 mag Kp Kepler magnitude 22- 27 F6.1 10-6 CDPP ? Combined 6hr Differential Photometric Precision (1) 29- 36 F8.5 h RAhour Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 38- 44 F7.4 deg DEdeg Degree of Declination (J2000) 46- 49 I4 K Teff Stellar effective temperature 51- 54 F4.2 [cm/s2] log(g) Log of stellar surface gravity 56- 59 F4.2 Rsun Rad Stellar radius 61- 64 F4.2 Msun Mass Stellar mass; derived from log(g) and Rad 66 A1 --- f_Teff [1] Atmospheric parameters from KIC (2)
Note (1): from Quarter 3. In units of parts per million. Note (2): If f_Teff=1 then Teff, log(g), and Rad are derived using KIC (Kepler Input Catalog, Cat. V/133) J-K color and linear interpolation of luminosity class V stellar properties of Schmidt-Kaler (1982BICDS..23....2S).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 I8 --- KIC ?=0 Kepler Input Catalog Identifier (12) 10- 11 A2 --- f_KOI [d ] Single transit (1) 13- 19 F7.2 --- KOI Kepler Object of Interest number 21- 27 F7.4 h Dur Transit duration, first contact to last contact 29- 34 I6 10-6 Depth Transit depth at center of transit; part per million 36- 41 F6.1 --- SNR Total SNR of all transits detected (2) 43- 51 F9.5 d t0 Time of a transit center; BJD-2454900 (3) 53- 59 F7.5 d e_t0 Uncertainty in t0 61- 73 F13.7 d Per Average interval between transits (3) 75- 86 F12.7 d e_Per ? Uncertainty in Per 88- 98 F11.6 --- a/R* Ratio of semi-major axis to stellar radius (4) 100-110 F11.6 --- e_a/R* ? Uncertainty in a/R* 112-118 F7.5 --- r/R* Ratio of planet radius to stellar radius 120-126 F7.5 --- e_r/R* ? Uncertainty in r/R* 128-133 F6.4 --- b ? Impact parameter of transit (5) 135-139 F5.3 --- e_b ? Uncertainty in b 141-145 F5.1 Rgeo Rad Planetary radius; in Earth radii=6378 km 147-151 F5.3 AU a Semi-major axis of orbit (6) 153-156 I4 K Teq Equilibrium temperature of planet (7) 158-164 E7.2 --- Prob ? Probability of background eclipsing binary (8) 166 I1 --- Vet Vetting flag (1=best) (9) 168-176 A9 --- FOP Follow-up observation description (10) 178 A1 --- Note Note flag (11)
Note (1): dd = KOI was detected on the basis of a single transit with the period derived from the transit duration and stellar radius. Note (2): Where SNR=Depth/(Std*sqrt(N)) where Std is the standard deviation of all data outside of transits. Note (3): Based on a linear fit to all observed transits. Note (4): Assuming zero eccentricity, a parameter derived from the lightcurve. Note for planets in non-circular orbits, a/R* is the scaled planet-star separation at the time of transit. Note (5): Note that there is a strong co-variance between b and a/R*. Note (6): Based on Newton's generalization of Kepler's third law and the stellar mass in Appendix 1. Note (7): See main text. Note (8): Confused with planet's host star (see text for discussion). Note (9): Vetting flag as follows: 1 = Confirmed and published planet; 2 = Strong probability candidate, cleanly passes tests that were applied; 3 = Moderate probability candidate, not all tests cleanly passed but no definite test failures; 4 = Insufficient follow-up to perform full suite of vetting tests. Note (10): Follow-up observation code as follows: 1 = Reconnaissance spectra taken; 2 = Adaptive optics observations taken; 3 = Speckle observations taken; 4 = 10m/s RV spectra taken; 5 = 2m/s RV spectra taken. Note (11): 1 = note on this KOI or its host star in notes.dat file. Note (12): the KIC number was added at CDS from http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/planet_candidates.html (60 KOI numbers could not be found)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 7 F7.2 --- KOI Kepler Object of Interest number 9- 16 I8 --- KIC Kepler Input Catalog Identifier (Cat. V/133) 18- 26 F9.5 d t0 Time of a transit center; BJD-2454900 (1) 28- 37 F10.6 d Per Average interval between transits (1) 41- 46 I6 10-6 Depth Transit depth at center of transit; part per million 48- 53 F6.1 --- SNR Total SNR of all transits detected 55-164 A110 --- Com Comment(s) (2)
Note (1): Based on a linear fit to all observed transits. Note (2): Comment use the abbreviations: APO = Active pixel offset. The pixel that actually dims during a transit is offset from the position of the target star implying a background variable star. Double star = There is within 4" an object evident in images that has not been ruled out as the source of the transit. V-shaped = The transit light curve is "V" shaped, a possible indication of an eclipsing binary. Odd-even = Transit depths are alternately deeper and shallower, an indication of an eclipsing binary Occultation = Evidence of secondary eclipse, implying possible EB or self luminous planet. SB1 = Single-line eclipsing binary star. RV varies by over 1km/s in low SNR reconnaissance spectra. Double lines not seen. SB2 = Double-line eclipsing binary. Double lines seen in spectrum.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: notes.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 7 F7.2 --- KOI Kepler Object Identifier number (NNNN.NN) 9- 80 A72 --- Note Text of note
History: * 01-Dec-2011: From electronic version of the journal * 16-Jan-2012: in table2, added the KIC number from http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/planet_candidates.html References: Borucki et al. Paper I. 2011ApJ...728..117B
(End) Greg Schwarz [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 01-Dec-2011
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