Access to Astronomical Catalogues

← Click to display the menu
J/ApJ/725/842  New X-ray-selected SNRs detection with Chandra (Leonidaki+, 2010)

A multiwavelength study of supernova remnants in six nearby galaxies. I. Detection of new X-ray-selected supernova remnants with Chandra. Leonidaki I., Zezas A., Boumis P. <Astrophys. J., 725, 842-867 (2010)> =2010ApJ...725..842L (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Galaxies, nearby ; Supernova remnants ; X-ray sources ; Photometry ; Colors ; Spectroscopy Keywords: galaxies: individual (NGC 2403, NGC 4214, NGC 4395, NGC 4449, NGC 3077, NGC 5204) - galaxies: star formation - ISM: supernova remnants - X-rays: galaxies - X-rays: ISM Abstract: We present results from a study of the supernova remnant (SNR) population in a sample of six nearby galaxies (NGC 2403, NGC 3077, NGC 4214, NGC 4449, NGC 4395, and NGC 5204) based on Chandra archival data. We have detected 244 discrete X-ray sources down to a limiting flux of 10-15 erg/s/cm2. We identify 37 X-ray-selected thermal SNRs based on their X-ray colors or spectra, 30 of which are new discoveries. In many cases, the X-ray classification is confirmed based on counterparts with SNRs identified in other wavelengths. Three of the galaxies in our sample (NGC 4214, NGC 4395, and NGC 5204) are studied for the first time, resulting in the discovery of 13 thermal SNRs. We discuss the properties (luminosity, temperature, and density) of the X-ray-detected SNRs in the galaxies of our sample in order to address their dependence on their environment. We find that X-ray-selected SNRs in irregular galaxies appear to be more luminous than those in spirals. We attribute this to the lower metallicities and therefore more massive progenitor stars of irregular galaxies or the higher local densities of the interstellar medium. We also discuss the X-ray-selected SNR populations in the context of the star formation rate of their host galaxies. A comparison of the numbers of observed luminous X-ray-selected SNRs with those expected based on the luminosity functions of X-ray SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds and M33 suggest different luminosity distributions between the SNRs in spiral and irregular galaxies with the latter tending to have flatter distributions. Description: The sample used for this study consists of six nearby galaxies: NGC 2403, NGC 5204, NGC 4395, NGC 4449, NGC 3077, and NGC 4214. These galaxies are selected from the Third Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al. 1995, Cat. VII/155) to be (1) late type (T>4; Hubble type), (2) close (=<5 Mpc) in order to minimize source confusion (at 5 Mpc, 1"∼25 pc), (3) at low inclination (=<60°) in order to minimize internal extinction and projection effects, and (4) be above the Galactic plane (|b|>20°). All exposures were obtained with the back-illuminated Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer ACIS-S3 CCD chip (pixel size: 0.49"x0.49"; energy resolution ∼120 eV at 1 keV; Garmire et al. 2003SPIE.4851...28G) at the focal plane of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (van Speybroeck et al. 1997SPIE.3113...89V). File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 72 6 *Properties of Our Sample of Galaxies table5.dat 89 9 Photometric Properties of Potential SNRs in NGC 3077 table6.dat 89 9 Photometric Properties of Potential SNRs in NGC 4395 table7.dat 89 18 Photometric Properties of Potential SNRs in NGC 4449 table8.dat 89 22 Photometric Properties of Potential SNRs in NGC 4214 table9.dat 89 36 Photometric Properties of Potential SNRs in NGC 2403 table10.dat 89 3 Photometric Properties of Potential SNRs in NGC 5204 table11.dat 107 9 X-ray Colors for Potential SNRs in NGC 3077 table12.dat 107 9 X-ray Colors for Potential SNRs in NGC 4395 table13.dat 107 18 X-ray Colors for Potential SNRs in NGC 4449 table14.dat 107 22 X-ray Colors for Potential SNRs in NGC 4214 table15.dat 107 36 X-ray Colors for Potential SNRs in NGC 2403 table16.dat 107 3 X-ray Colors for Potential SNRs in NGC 5204 table17.dat 168 9 Spectral-fitting Results of the Point Sources in NGC 3077 table18.dat 168 9 Spectral-fitting Results of the Point Sources in NGC 4395 table19.dat 168 24 Spectral-fitting Results of the Point Sources in NGC 4449 table20.dat 168 50 Spectral-fitting Results of the Point Sources in NGC 4214 table21.dat 168 111 Spectral-fitting Results of the SNR Candidates in NGC 2403 table22.dat 168 18 Spectral-fitting Results of the Point Sources in NGC 5204
Note on table1.dat: Coordinates, diameters, Galactic latitudes, and types of galaxies are from NED
See also: VII/155 : Third Reference Cat. of Bright Galaxies (RC3) (de Vaucouleurs+ 1991) B/chandra : The Chandra Archive Log (CXC, 1999-2014) J/ApJ/573/306 : Radio emission from supernovae (Eck+, 2002) J/ApJ/649/730 : ULX population in nearby galaxies from XMM (Winter+, 2006) J/AJ/137/3869 : Radio SNRs in 4 irregular galaxies (Chomiuk+, 2009) J/AJ/139/1066 : X-ray view of NGC 2403 central region (Yukita+, 2010) J/A+A/549/A70 : NGC 4214 multiband images (Hermelo+, 2013) J/MNRAS/429/189 : SNRs in six nearby galaxies (Leonidaki+, 2013) J/A+A/569/A68 : Green Bank Telescope observations of NGC 2403 (de Blok+, 2014) J/AJ/150/94 : Chandra Local Volume Survey. I. (Binder+, 2015) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- --- [NGC] 5- 8 I4 --- NGC Galaxy name (NNNN) 10- 11 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 13- 14 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 16- 19 F4.1 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 20 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 21- 22 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 24- 25 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 27- 28 I2 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 30- 32 F3.1 Mpc Dist Distance 33 A1 --- n_Dist [efghi] Note on Dist (1) 35- 38 F4.1 arcmin amaj Major axis 40- 43 F4.1 arcmin bmin Minor axis 45- 46 I2 deg Incl [37/62]? Inclination (2) 48- 51 F4.2 10+20cm-2 NH Galactic hydrogen column density (3) 53- 54 I2 deg GLAT [29/82] Galactic latitude 56- 58 I3 deg PA [5/147]? Position angle (4) 60- 67 A8 --- Type Type (5) 69- 72 F4.1 pc Scale Physical scale corresponding to 0.5" at the distance of each galaxy
Note (1): Note as follows: e = Freedman & Madore (1988ApJ...332L..63F); f = Saha et al. (1994ApJ...425...14S); g = Annibali et al. (2008AJ....135.1900A); h = Freedman et al. (1994ApJ...427..628F); i = Tully (1988ngc..book.....T), see Cat. VII/118. Note (2): Tully (1988ngc..book.....T) apart from NGC 4449 (Summers et al. 2003MNRAS.342..690S). Note (3): (Leiden/Argentine/Bonn) LAB Survey of Galactic H I. Note (4): Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al. 1995, Cat. VII/155). Note (5): We note that the SA(s)m galaxies are Magellanic-type which are classified as irregulars with some spiral structure.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table[56789].dat table10.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 7 A7 --- ID Source identifier (LZB_NNN) 9- 10 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) 12- 13 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) 15- 19 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) 21 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) 22- 23 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) 25- 26 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) 28- 32 F5.2 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) 34- 38 I5 ct SctsObs Photometric counts in the soft band (G1) 40- 43 I4 ct SctsBkg Background counts in the soft band (G1) 45- 49 I5 ct MctsObs Photometric counts in the medium band (G1) 51- 54 I4 ct MctsBkg Background counts in the medium band (G1) 56- 59 I4 ct HctsObs Photometric counts in the hard band (G1) 61- 64 I4 ct HctsBkg Background counts in the hard band (G1) 66- 70 I5 ct TctsObs Photometric counts in the total band (G1) 72- 76 I5 ct TctsBkg Background counts in the total band (G1) 78- 84 F7.2 --- Area Area ratio (background/source) 86- 89 F4.2 --- EffArea Effective area ratio with respect to a reference point (see Section 3.3) in the soft-energy band
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1[123456].dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 7 A7 --- ID Source identifier (LZB_NNN) 9- 13 F5.2 --- Col(S/M) X-ray color in the soft/medium band (G1) 15- 19 F5.3 --- E_Col(S/M) Upper limit uncertainty in Col(S/M) (G1) 21- 25 F5.3 --- e_Col(S/M) Lower limit uncertainty in Col(S/M) (G1) 27- 32 F6.3 --- Col(M/H) X-ray color in the medium/hard band (G1) 34- 37 F4.2 --- E_Col(M/H) Upper limit uncertainty in Col(M/H) (G1) 39- 42 F4.2 --- e_Col(M/H) Lower limit uncertainty in Col(M/H) (G1) 44- 49 F6.3 --- Col(S/H) X-ray color in the soft/hard band (G1) 51- 55 F5.3 --- E_Col(S/H) Upper limit uncertainty in Col(S/H) (G1) 57- 60 F4.2 --- e_Col(S/H) Lower limit uncertainty in Col(S/H) (G1) 62- 64 A3 --- Spectrum [Yes No] Available X-ray spectrum? (see Section 3.4.2) 66- 80 A15 --- Class Classification of the source according to its spectrum (see Sections 3.4.2 and 4) 82 A1 --- n_Class [ab] Note on Class (1) 84-103 A20 --- Assoc Multi-wavelength association (2) 105-107 A3 --- n_Assoc Note on Assoc (3)
Note (1): Note as follows: a = We do not have a spectrum for this source (due to small number of counts) but its large error bars at the color-color diagram place it on the region of candidate SNRs; b = Sources 10, 11, 16, and 23 do not have adequate number of counts to allow us the extraction of their spectra, but their X-ray colors (within their error bars) place them in the region of candidate SNRs. Note (2): X-ray-detected sources by Summers et al. (2003MNRAS.342..690S), in table13. Associations as follows, in table15: MFBL = Optically identified SNRs by Matonick et al. (1997ApJS..112...49M); SP = X-ray-identified SNRs by Schlegel & Pannuti (2003AJ....125.3025S); TH = Radio candidate SNR by Turner & Ho (1994ApJ...421..122T); Eck = Radio candidate SNR by Eck et al. (2002, J/ApJ/573/306); ? = Large position offsets. Note (3): Note as follows: a = Sources identified by Ott et al. (2003ApJ...594..776O); b = Radio candidate SNR by Rosa-Gonzalez (2005MNRAS.364.1304R); c = The most oxygen-rich SNR known (see Section 2.1); d = It is also detected in radio as an H II region by Chomiuk & Wilcots (2009, J/AJ/137/3869); e = Radio candidate SNR by Vukotic et al. (2005SerAJ.170..101V), the source is denoted as ρ; f = Radio candidate SNRs by Chomiuk & Wilcots (2009, J/AJ/137/3869); g = The classification criteria of Chomiuk & Wilcots (2009, J/AJ/137/3869) for radio SNRs is the radio spectral index to be α=←0.2 and Hα emission associated with the source. In the case of this source, the radio spectral index is -0.32 but there is no detected Hα emission; therefore they classify this source as a radio background galaxy; h = This source is also X-ray-detected (SP-31) by Schlegel & Pannuti (2003AJ....125.3025S); i = Also X-ray-detected by Pannuti et al. (2007AJ....133.1361P); j = This source is also X-ray-detected (SP-16) by Schlegel & Pannuti (2003AJ....125.3025S) and Pannuti et al. (2007AJ....133.1361P); k = XRB by Schlegel & Pannuti (2003AJ....125.3025S) while it is also detected as ULX by Winter et al. (2006, J/ApJ/649/730); l = Schlegel & Pannuti (2003AJ....125.3025S) have extracted spectra for this source (SP20) without defining any classification. Also detected as ULX by Winter et al. (2006, J/ApJ/649/730); m = Winter et al. (2006, J/ApJ/649/730); n = Also X-ray-detected (SP-12) by Schlegel & Pannuti (2003AJ....125.3025S) and Pannuti et al. (2007AJ....133.1361P); o = Classified as ULX by Winter et al. (2006, J/ApJ/649/730) and Schlegel & Pannuti (2003AJ....125.3025S).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1[789].dat table2[012].dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 6 A6 --- Stat Statistics used, Χ2 or Cash 8- 14 A7 --- ID Source identifier (LZB_NNN) 16- 19 I4 --- IDobs ? The observation ID used (NNNN) (only in tables 20-22) 21- 29 A9 --- Model Fitted model (apec, PL, bbody) (1) 31- 36 F6.4 10+22cm-2 NHI ? H I column density 37 A1 --- n_NHI [a] Note on NHI (2) 39- 42 F4.2 10+22cm-2 E_NHI ? Upper limit uncertainty in NHI 44- 47 F4.2 10+22cm-2 e_NHI ? Lower limit uncertainty in NHI 49 A1 --- l_Gamma [>] Limit flag on Gamma 50- 53 F4.2 --- Gamma ? Best-fit value of the power-law photon index Γ 55- 58 F4.2 --- E_Gamma ? Upper limit unncertainty in Gamma 60- 63 F4.2 --- e_Gamma ? Lower limit uncertainty in Gamma 65 A1 --- l_kT [>] Limit flag on kT 66- 70 F5.2 keV kT ? Thermal component temperature 72 A1 --- lEkT [>] Limit flag on E_kT 73- 77 F5.2 keV E_kT ? Upper limit unncertainty in kT 79- 82 F4.2 keV e_kT ? Lower limit uncertainty in kT 84 A1 --- l_Norm [>] Limit flag on Norm 85- 91 F7.3 --- Norm Normalization factor given in units of 10-5A (3) 93- 97 F5.2 --- E_Norm ? Upper limit unncertainty in Norm 99-103 F5.3 --- e_Norm ? Lower limit uncertainty in Norm 105-111 F7.2 --- Chi2 ? Χ2 value 113-116 I4 --- DOF [4/1069]? Degrees of freedom 118-123 F6.2 --- Cash ? Cash statistics 125-129 F5.1 % Good ? Goodness-of-fit for Cash statistics 131-136 F6.1 10-18W/m2 Fabs ? Absorbed flux in 0.3-10 keV band (in 10-15 erg/s/cm2) 138-143 F6.1 10-18W/m2 Funabs ? Unabsorbed flux in 0.3-10 keV band (in 10-15 erg/s/cm2) 145-148 F4.1 10-7W logL ? Unabsorbed luminosity (0.3-10.0 keV) using Funabs and the distances from table1 (in erg/s) 150-164 A15 --- Class Source classification based on the X-ray spectral fits 166-168 A3 --- n_Class Note on Class (4)
Note (1): Fitted model as follows: apec = Thermal plasma model (Smith et al. 2001ApJ...556L..91S); PL = Power-law model; bbody = Black-body model. Note (2): Note as follows: a = Fixed to Galactic line-of-sight value. Note (3): For apec, A is 10-14(4πD2A)-1int{nenpdV}, where DA is the angular diameter distance to the source in cm and nenp are the electron and proton densities, respectively, in cm-3. For PL, A is: photons/keV/cm2/s at 1 keV. For bbody, A is: L39/D210, where L39 is the source luminosity in units of 1039 erg/s and D210 is the distance to the source in units of 10 kpc. In tables 20-22: Model normalization for the first observation used. In the case of multiple observations the number presented is the conversion factor which is multiplied to the model normalization. Note (4): Note as follows: b = Ott et al. (2003ApJ...594..776O) have classified our LZB6, LZB18 as X-ray SNRs, and LZB2 as an SSS; c = Radio candidate SNR by Rosa-Gonzalez (2005MNRAS.364.1304R); d = Oxygen-rich SNR detected in all bands; e = Radio observations by Chomiuk & Wilcots (2009, J/AJ/137/3869) denote this source as an H II region. f = Radio candidate SNR by Vukotic et al. (2005SerAJ.170..101V); g = Radio candidate SNR by Chomiuk & Wilcots (2009, J/AJ/137/3869); h = Radio SNR/H II detected by Chomiuk & Wilcots (2009, J/AJ/137/3869). i = Optically detected SNRs by Matonick et al. (1997ApJS..113..333M); j = Radio detected SNR by Turner & Ho (1994ApJ...421..122T); k = Radio detected SNR by Eck et al. (2002, J/ApJ/573/306).
Global notes: Note (G1): The four energy bands are: Soft = 0.3-1.0 keV; Medium = 1.0-2.5 keV; Hard = 2.5-7.0 keV; Total = 0.3-7.0 keV.
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Leonidaki et al., Paper II., 2013MNRAS.429..189L, Cat. J/MNRAS/429/189
(End) Prepared by Tiphaine Pouvreau [CDS] 24-Jan-2018
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

catalogue service

© UDS/CNRS

Contact