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J/ApJ/714/25              AMUSE-Virgo survey. II.                 (Gallo+, 2010)

AMUSE-virgo. II. Down-sizing in black hole accretion. Gallo E., Treu T., Marshall P.J., Woo J.-H., Leipski C., Antonucci R. <Astrophys. J., 714, 25-36 (2010)> =2010ApJ...714...25G
ADC_Keywords: X-ray sources ; Clusters, galaxy ; Galaxies, nearby ; Surveys ; Velocity dispersion Keywords: black hole physics - galaxies: clusters: individual (Virgo) Abstract: We complete the census of nuclear X-ray activity in 100 early-type Virgo galaxies observed by the Chandra X-ray Telescope as part of the AMUSE-Virgo survey, down to a (3σ) limiting luminosity of 3.7x1038erg/s over 0.5-7keV. The stellar mass distribution of the targeted sample, which is mostly composed of formally "inactive" galaxies, peaks below 1010M, a regime where the very existence of nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is debated. Out of 100 objects, 32 show a nuclear X-ray source, including 6 hybrid nuclei which also host a massive nuclear cluster as visible from archival Hubble Space Telescope images. After carefully accounting for contamination from nuclear low-mass X-ray binaries based on the shape and normalization of their X-ray luminosity function (XLF), we conclude that between 24% and 34% of the galaxies in our sample host an X-ray active SMBH (at the 95% confidence level). This sets a firm lower limit to the black hole (BH) occupation fraction in nearby bulges within a cluster environment. Description: In Cycle 8 we proposed and were awarded a large Chandra/Spitzer program to observe 100 (84 new + 16 archival) spheroidal galaxies in the Virgo Cluster (AMUSE-Virgo; PI: Treu, 454ks). The targeted sample is that of the Hubble Virgo Cluster Survey (VCS; Cote et al. 2004, Cat. J/ApJS/153/223). For each galaxy, the high-resolution g- and z-band images enable us to resolve, when present, the nuclear star cluster, infer its enclosed mass, and thus estimate the chance contamination from a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) as bright/brighter than the detected X-ray core based on the shape and normalization of the LMXB luminosity function in external galaxies. As a part of the AMUSE-Virgo survey, each VCS galaxy was observed with Chandra/ACIS for a minimum of 5.4ks. The Chandra results from the first 32 targets (16 new + 16, typically more massive, archival observations) have been presented by Gallo et al. (Paper I; 2008ApJ...680..154G). In Paper II, we complete the X-ray analysis of the whole AMUSE-Virgo sample. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 59 100 AMUSE-Virgo. II. Nuclear properties
See also: J/ApJS/164/334 : ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. VI (Ferrarese+, 2006) J/ApJ/600/729 : Chandra LMXB in NGC 4649 (Randall+, 2004) J/ApJS/153/223 : ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. I. (Cote+, 2004) J/ApJ/599/218 : Chandra LMXB in NGC 4365 and NGC 4382 (Sivakoff+, 2003) J/ApJ/586/814 : NGC 4472 Chandra/HST study (Maccarone+, 2003) J/A+AS/142/65 : Galaxies morphology and IR photometry III. (Gavazzi+, 2000) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 I3 --- ACSVCS ACS Virgo Cluster Survey target number 5- 8 I4 --- VCC VCC source name (Cat. J/AJ/90/1681) 10- 18 A9 --- OName Other designation(s) (N=NGC, I=IC) 20- 24 F5.2 Mpc Dist Distance (1) 26- 30 F5.2 mag Bmag Extinction corrected B-band magnitude (2) 32- 34 I3 km/s sigma ? Velocity dispersion 36- 37 I2 km/s e_sigma ? Sigma uncertainty 39 I1 --- r_sigma [1/2]? Sigma reference when not from ENEARc (3) 41- 43 F3.1 [Msun] logMBH Log of black hole mass (4) 45 A1 --- l_logLx Limit flag on logLx 46- 50 F5.2 [10-7W] logLx Nuclear luminosity between 0.3 and 10keV, corrected for absorption 52- 54 A3 --- r_logLx Reference(s) (from Paper I) for logLx (5) 56- 59 F4.1 [Msun] logM* Log of stellar mass of the host galaxy (6)
Note (1): Distance (from the surface brightness fluctuations method; Mei et al. 2007ApJ...655..144M; see also Blakeslee et al. 2009ApJ...694..556B). The average distance to the Virgo Cluster (of 16.5Mpc) is employed in the case of no available distance modulus. Note (2): Extinction-corrected B magnitude, estimated as described in Paper I (Gallo et al. 2008ApJ...680..154G); E(B-V) values are from Ferrarese et al. (2006, Cat. J/ApJS/164/334). Note (3): Stellar velocity dispersion, from ENEARc (Bernardi et al. 2002AJ....123.2990B), unless otherwise indicated as follows: 1 = Gavazzi et al. (2000, Cat. J/A+AS/142/65) 2 = Davies et al. (1987ApJS...64..581D) Note (4): BH mass, estimated according to the "fiducial distribution" described in Section 4 of Paper I (Gallo et al. 2008ApJ...680..154G). Note (5): Reference (from Paper I; Gallo et al. 2008ApJ...680..154G) as follows: 3 = Biller et al. 2004ApJ...613..238B 4 = Soldatenkov et al. 2003AstL...29..298S 5 = Di Matteo et al. 2003ApJ...582..133D 6 = Wilson & Yang 2002ApJ...568..133W 7 = Randall et al. 2004, Cat. J/ApJ/600/729, report on a point-like X-ray source at 1.6" from the nucleus. After cross-matching the Chandra astrometry to SDSS, the position of the nuclear X-ray source is found to be consistent with the galaxy nucleus. 8 = Sivakoff et al. 2003, Cat. J/ApJ/599/218 9 = Finoguenov & Jones 2001ApJ...547L.107F 10 = Xu et al. 2005ApJ...631..809X 11 = Satyapal et al. 2005ApJ...633...86S 12 = Dudik et al. 2005ApJ...620..113D 13 = Soria et al. 2006ApJ...640..143S, 2006ApJ...640..126S; the nuclear X-ray source in VCC 1297 has a soft spectrum. However, a thermal model provides a statistically worse fit that a power law model (employing Cash statistics), implying that most of the X-ray emission is likely accretion-powered. 14 = The X-ray source appears slightly elongated; LX,nucl is estimated within the Chandra PSF at 1.5keV. Note (6): Stellar mass of the host galaxy derived from g0 and z0 band AB model magnitudes following Bell et al. (2003ApJS..149..289B), as described in Paper I (Gallo et al. 2008ApJ...680..154G; eq. (3)): log(M*/Lg0)=0.698(g0-z0)-0.367
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Gallo et al. Paper I. 2008ApJ...680..154G Leipski et al. Paper III. 2012ApJ...744..152L
(End) Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 16-Apr-2012
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