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J/ApJ/710/1111     Observations of interplanetary shocks     (Gopalswamy+, 2010)

Interplanetary shocks lacking type II radio bursts. Gopalswamy N., Xie H., Makela P., Akiyama S., Yashiro S., Kaiser M.L., Howard R.A., Bougeret J.-L. <Astrophys. J., 710, 1111-1126 (2010)> =2010ApJ...710.1111G
ADC_Keywords: Sun Keywords: shock waves - solar wind - Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - Sun: flares - Sun: particle emission - Sun: radio radiation Abstract: We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks (∼34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed ∼535km/s) and only ∼40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237km/s and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. Description: The starting point of this paper is the set of interplanetary (IP) shocks detected near Earth by one or more of the following spacecraft: the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), and Wind. Table 1 contains information on the shocks, the associated ejecta (EJ), the solar source (coronal mass ejection (CME), flare), and type II radio emission (metric and IP). For shocks and EJ, the starting time and speed at 1AU are given along with the shock observing spacecraft (A = ACE, W = Wind, S = SOHO). File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 142 230 List of IP shocks observed during solar cycle 23 and their source information notes.dat 75 67 Notes
See also: J/ApJ/709/1238 : Comparison of global model with CMEs (Yeates+, 2010) J/A+AS/119/489 : Solar Type II Radio Bursts, 1990.09 - 1993.12 (Mann+ 1996) J/A+A/304/563 : Cool X-ray flares of Sun with GOES (Phillips+, 1995) J/A+AS/110/99 : White-light flares models (Fang+, 1995) : WIND spacecraft Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) home page : CfA interplanetary shock database : SOHO LASCO CME catalog online : Wind/WAVES type II burst catalog online TypeII/TypeII_1994-2009 : type II burst data available on line at the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 "YYYY/MM/DD" Interplanetary shock arrival date 12- 16 A5 "h:m" IP.time Interplanetary shock arrival time 18- 22 A5 --- Inst [WAS, ] shock observing spacecrafts (Wind, ACE or SOHO) 24- 30 F7.2 km/s IP-Vel Interplanetary shock speed 32- 36 F5.2 --- Ma Interplanetary shock Alfvenic Mach number (MA; Eq. 1 and section 3.1) 38 I1 --- r_Ma Source of Mach number computation (2) 40- 41 A2 --- CMEt Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) type (3) 43- 46 F4.1 h Tstd ? IP CME shock standoff distance expressed as arrival time difference 48 A1 --- f_CMEtime [*] Flag indicating CMEtime was the next day 49- 53 A5 "h:m" CMEtime IP CME arrival time 55- 58 I4 km/s CME-Vel ? IP CME shock speed 60- 69 A10 "YYYY/MM/DD" Coronal Mass Ejection white-light date 71- 75 A5 "h:m" CME.time Coronal Mass Ejection white-light time 77- 79 I3 deg PA ? Coronal Mass Ejection white-light central position angle 80 A1 --- f_PA [H/D]? H: Halo ; D: DG (4) 82 A1 --- l_CME-W Limit flag on CME-W 83- 85 I3 deg CME-W ? Coronal Mass Ejection white-light width 87- 90 I4 km/s CME-V ? Coronal Mass Ejection white-light speed 92- 97 F6.1 m/s2 CME-a ? Coronal Mass Ejection white-light acceleration 99-104 A6 --- SF-Loc Solar Flare location 106-114 A9 --- SF-Dur Solar Flare duration (hhmm-hhmm) 116-120 A5 --- SF-Size Solar Flare size in soft X-rays (5) 122 I1 --- MC [0/1]? Type II Burst metric type II code (1: metric emission or 0: no metric) 124-128 A5 "h:m" IIBtime Type II Burst metric onset time 130 I1 --- DH [0,3]? Type II Burst decameter-hectometric type II code (6) 132-136 A5 "h:m" DHtime Type II Burst decameter-hectometric onset time 138-142 A5 --- Note Comment number(s) (see notes.dat file)
Note (2): The Mach numbers were obtained from one of the following three methods: 1 = J. C. Kasper compilation of shocks:; 2 = Vinas & Scudder, 1986JGR....91...39V, analysis method based on the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation equations; 3 = Approximation - see section 3.1 (Eq 1). Note (3): Interplanetary CME type as follows: S = Sheath only; EJ = Ejecta; MC = magnetic cloud. Note (4): DG indicates CME data gap. CME-W=360 degrees if Halo. Note (5): Abbreviations as follows: EP = eruptive prominence; DIM = dimming; Wave = EIT wave. Note (6): code as follows: 0 = no radio emission; 1 = radio emission in RAD2 (1-14MHz); 2 = radio emission in RAD1 (30kHz-1MHz); 3 = radio emission in RAD1+RAD2.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: notes.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 --- Note Code of note 4- 75 A72 --- Text Text of note
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Greg Schwarz [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 15-Mar-2012
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