J/ApJ/704/975 Rotational velocities for M dwarfs (Jenkins+, 2009)
Rotational velocities for M dwarfs. Jenkins J.S., Ramsey L.W., Jones H.R.A., Pavlenko Y., Gallardo J., Barnes J.R., Pinfield D.J. <Astrophys. J., 704, 975-988 (2009)> =2009ApJ...704..975J
ADC_Keywords: Stars, dwarfs ; Stars, M-type ; Rotational velocities Keywords: planetary systems - stars: fundamental parameters - stars:low-mass, brown dwarfs - stars: rotation Abstract: We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (vsini) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known vsini values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of vsini is peak at low velocities (∼3km/s). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link vsini to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with vsini≤10km/s and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Half emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Half profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Half emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low vsini. Description: Rotational velocities are presented for a sample of 56 M dwarf stars that were observed with the HRS instrument on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The star designation along with optical and near infrared colours, spectral types, effective temperatures, parallaxes, masses, metallicities and the rotational velocities are listed. In addition, the FWHM of the telluric absorption lines are listed as a proxy for the instrumental profile of HRS and if any H-α line emission was present this has been flagged also. Four binary M dwarfs have been listed, along with the individual rotational velocities found for each component. Literature rotational velocities are also included with the same information and including the source of the rotational velocity measurement. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 101 49 Spectral types, basic physical parameters, and chromospheric indices table2.dat 79 4 Stars beyond 40 parsecs identified by MK classification table3.dat 101 199 Candidate stars for terrestrial planet surveys
See also: III/226 : Rotational Velocities of Stars (Glebocki+ 2000) J/A+A/331/581 : Rotation and activity in field M dwarfs (Delfosse+ 1998) J/AJ/123/3356 : Palomar/MSU nearby star spec. survey. III. (Gizis+, 2002) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Star Star designation 9 A1 --- n_Star [*] Possible binary (1) 12- 16 F5.2 mag Vmag ?=- V magnitude 18- 22 F5.2 mag Jmag 2MASS J magnitude 24- 28 F5.2 mag Hmag 2MASS H magnitude 30- 34 F5.2 mag Ksmag 2MASS Ks magnitude 36- 39 A4 --- SpT M spectral type 41- 44 I4 K Teff Effective temperature 45- 46 A2 --- u_Teff [* ] Low accuracy on Teff (2) 48- 52 F5.1 mas plx ?=- Parallax 53 A1 --- ---  55- 58 F4.1 mas e_plx ?=- rms uncertainty on plx 59 A1 --- ---  61- 65 F5.3 Msun Mass ?=- Mass in solar masses 67- 71 F5.3 Msun e_Mass ?=- rms uncertainty on Mass 73- 77 F5.2 [Sun] [Fe/H] ?=- Metallicity 80- 81 A2 --- l_vsini [≤ ] Limit flag on vsini 82- 85 F4.1 km/s vsini Rotational velocity 87- 89 F3.1 km/s e_vsini ? rms uncertainty on vsini 91- 94 F4.1 km/s W(tell) Mean width (FWHM) of the telluric lines 96-101 A6 --- HaEm? [Yes/No ] Is Hα emission present?
Note (1): * indicates weak evidence for a binary in the deconvolution or a low S/N star that could affect the rotational velocity measurement. Note (2): A double asterisk is used to flag highly suspect values.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 8 A8 --- Star Star designation 10- 14 F5.2 mag Vmag ?=- V magnitude (Hipparcos) 16- 19 F4.2 mag Jmag 2MASS J magnitude 21- 24 F4.2 mag Hmag 2MASS H magnitude 26- 29 F4.2 mag Ksmag 2MASS Ks magnitude 31- 34 A4 --- SpT M spectral type 36- 41 F6.2 km/s dV Velocity separation (1) 43- 46 F4.2 km/s e_dV rms uncertainty on deltaV 48- 49 A2 --- l_vsini1 [≤ ] Limit flag on vsini1 50- 52 F3.1 km/s vsini1 Rotational velocity of primary 54- 56 F3.1 km/s e_vsini1 ? rms uncertainty on vsini1 58- 59 A2 --- l_vsini2 [≤ ] Limit flag on vsini2 60- 62 F3.1 km/s vsini2 Rotational velocity of secondary 64- 66 F3.1 km/s e_vsini2 ? rms uncertainty on vsini2 68- 79 A12 --- HaEm? Is H-alpha emission present? (2)
Note (1): The separation in velocity of the two deconvolved peaks. Note (2): Information is given if there is a clear double H-α emission peak, or if there is only a single emission peak.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 22 A22 --- Star Catalogue designation 24- 28 F5.2 mag Vmag ?=- V magnitude (Hipparcos) 30- 34 F5.2 mag Jmag ?=- 2MASS J magnitude 36- 40 F5.2 mag Hmag ? 2MASS H magnitude 42- 46 F5.2 mag Ksmag ? 2MASS Ks magnitude 48- 52 A5 --- SpT M spectral type 54- 57 I4 K Teff ?=- Effective temperature 59- 63 F5.1 mas plx ?=- Parallax 64 A1 --- ---  66- 69 F4.1 mas e_plx ?=- rms uncertainty on plx 70 A1 --- ---  72- 76 F5.3 Msun Mass ?=- Estimated stellar mass 78- 82 F5.3 Msun e_Mass ?=- rms uncertainty on Mass 84- 88 F5.2 [Sun] [Fe/H] ?=- Metallicity 90- 91 A2 --- l_vsini [≤ ] Limit flag on vsini 92- 95 F4.1 km/s vsini Rotational velocity 97- 99 F3.1 km/s e_vsini ? rms uncertainty on vsini 101 A1 --- r_vsini Source of rotational velocity (1)
Note (1): References as follows: a = Stauffer & Hartmann (1986ApJS...61..531S) b = Marcy & Chen (1992ApJ...390..550M) c = Delfosse et al. (1998, Cat. J/A+A/331/581) d = Glebocki & Stawikowski (2000AcA....50..509G, Cat. III/226) e = Gizis et al. (2002, Cat. J/AJ/123/3356) f = Mohanty & Basri (2003ApJ...583..451M) g = Bailer-Jones (2004A&A...419..703B) h = Fuhrmeister & Schmitt (2004A&A...420.1079F) i = Jones et al. (2005MNRAS.358..105J) j = Reiners (2007A&A...467..259R) k = West & Basri (2009ApJ...693.1283W)
Acknowledgements: James Jenkins, jjenkins(at)das.uchile.cl
(End) Patricia Vannier [CDS] 11-Jan-2011
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