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J/ApJ/703/420               Red supergiants in M31               (Massey+, 2009)

Red supergiants in the Andromeda galaxy (M31). Massey P., Silva D.R., Levesque E.M., Plez B., Olsen K.A.G., Clayton G.C., Meynet G., Maeder A. <Astrophys. J., 703, 420-440 (2009)> =2009ApJ...703..420M
ADC_Keywords: Stars, supergiant ; Radial velocities ; Photometry, infrared ; Spectrophotometry ; Magnitudes ; Galaxies, nearby ; Surveys Keywords: stars: atmospheres - stars: evolution - stars: fundamental parameters - stars: late-type Abstract: Red supergiants (RSGs) are a short-lived stage in the evolution of moderately massive stars (10-25M), and as such their location in the H-R diagram provides an exacting test of stellar evolutionary models. Since massive star evolution is strongly affected by the amount of mass loss a star suffers, and since the mass-loss rates depend upon metallicity, it is highly desirable to study the physical properties of these stars in galaxies of various metallicities. Here we identify a sample of RSGs in M31, the most metal-rich of the Local Group galaxies. We determine the physical properties of these stars using both moderate resolution spectroscopy and broadband V-K photometry. We find that on average the RSGs of our sample are variable in V by 0.5mag, smaller but comparable to the 0.9mag found for Magellanic Cloud (MC) RSGs. No such variability is seen at K, also in accord with what we know of Galactic and MC RSGs. Description: 437 stars from the LGGS (Local Group Galaxies Survey) catalog of Massey et al. (2006, Cat. J/AJ/131/2478 and 2007, Cat. J/AJ/133/2393) met the photometric criteria required (see table 1). To confirm their membership in M31, we measured radial velocities using the CaII triplet (8498, 8542, 8662) observed with the Hydra multi-object fiber spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope. The observations were obtained on 2005 September 27, 28, and 30 (see table 2). Our optical spectroscopy was carried out with the 6.5m MMT telescope on 2.5 nights of 2006 October 26-28 using the Blue Channel spectrograph. All of the stars in our sample had broadband optical photometry in the LGGS, obtained circa 2000-2001, and many of the stars have Ks band from Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), obtained 1997-2000. For this paper, the Ks photometry data were obtained on 2006 October 4 UTC at the Kitt Peak National Observatory Mayall 4m telescope using the Florida Multi-object Imaging Near-IR Grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS) (see table 3). For the V-band photometry, we availed ourselves of two nights on the Lowell Observatory Perkins 1.8m telescope, 2008 November 21 and 22 (see table 4). File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 86 437 Photometrically selected RSG candidates in M31 table2.dat 79 124 New Radial Velocities (RV) of photometrically selected RSG candidates table3.dat 61 71 New Ks photometry and comparison with 2MASS PSC table4.dat 66 65 New V photometry and comparison with LGGS table5.dat 112 16 Physical properties of stars with spectrophotometry table6.dat 79 154 Derived bolometric luminosities for RSGs
See also: II/246 : 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003) II/236 : UBVR CCD survey of the Magellanic clouds (Massey+, 2002) J/ApJ/687/230 : Survey of M31 with Spitzer (Mould+, 2008) J/AJ/133/2393 : UBVRI phot. in seven Local Group dwarfs galaxies (Massey+, 2007) J/AJ/131/2478 : M31 and M33 UBVRI photometry (Massey+, 2006) J/ApJ/501/153 : VRB photometry of red supergiants (Massey 1998) J/AJ/96/1884 : BVRJHK photometry of M31 red supergiants (Humphreys+ 1988) J/MNRAS/289/729 : BVRIJHK photometry of red LMC supergiants (Oestreicher+ 1997) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 19 A19 --- [MSL2009] Star identification ( (1) 21- 25 F5.2 mag Vmag LGGS V band magnitude 27- 30 F4.2 mag B-V LGGS (B-V) color index 32- 35 F4.2 mag V-R LGGS (V-R) color index 37- 41 F5.2 mag R-I ? LGGS (R-I) color index 43- 47 F5.2 mag Ksmag ? 2MASS Ks band magnitude 49 I1 --- r_Ksmag ?=0 Reference for Ksmag: 1=2MASS, 2=this work 51- 54 F4.2 mag V-K ? (V-Ks) color index 56 I1 --- r_V-K ?=0 Reference for V-K (2) 58- 63 F6.1 km/s RV ? Radial velocity 65 I1 --- r_RV ?=0 Reference for RVel (1: this work or 2: Massey, 1998, Cat. J/ApJ/501/153) 67 I1 --- Crowd [0/3] Crowding code (3) 69- 77 A9 --- OID Other identification (4) 79- 84 A6 --- SpT MK spectral type 86 I1 --- r_SpT ?=0 Reference for SpT (5)
Note (1): From Massey et al. 2006 (LGSS; Cat. J/AJ/131/2478). Note (2): Code reference as follows: 1 = V from LGGS (Cat. J/AJ/131/2478) and Ks from 2MASS (Cat. II/246); 2 = V from LGGS (Cat. J/AJ/131/2478) and Ks from present work; 3 = V and Ks both from present work. Note (3): Crowding was determined by computing the contamination from neighbors under 1.2" seeing with a 1.2" slit; the value reported is the worst fraction in B, V, or R: 0 = <1%; 1 = 1-5%; 2 = 5-10%; 3 = >10%. Note (4): From Massey 1998, Cat. J/ApJ/501/153 for OB cross-IDs, and from Humphreys et al. 1988, Cat. J/AJ/96/1884 for R95. Note (5): Code reference as follows: 1 = present work; 2 = Massey 1998, Cat. J/ApJ/501/153; 3 = Humphreys et al. 1988, Cat. J/AJ/96/1884.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 19 A19 --- [MSL2009] Star designation ( 20 A1 --- f_[MSL2009] [b] b: Crowded 22- 27 F6.1 km/s RV Observed radial velocity 28 A1 --- f_RV [c] Problem on RV (1) 30 I1 --- Nobs Number of observations 32 A1 --- l_Sig Limit flag on Sig 33- 36 F4.1 km/s Sig Standard deviations of RV means 38- 43 F6.3 --- X/R X/R quantity (2) 45- 48 I4 km/s RVrot Radial velocity from rotating models 50- 58 A9 --- OID Previous identification (3) 60- 63 I4 km/s RVp ? Previous observed RV (3) 65- 70 A6 --- SpTp Previous MK spectral type (3) 72- 79 A8 --- SpTn New MK spectral type
Note (1): Observations made on two different nights of this star differed by 85km/s, although each measurement was well determined. Note (2): Quantity X/R is defined with X, the distance along the semi-major axis and R, the radial distance within the plane of M31. Note (3): From Massey (1998, Cat. J/ApJ/501/153), except for the star R95, classified as M1-2 I by Humphreys et al. (1988, Cat. J/AJ/96/1884)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 19 A19 --- [MSL2009] Star designation ( 21- 25 F5.2 mag Ksmag FLAMINGOS Ks-band magnitude 27- 30 F4.2 mag e_Ksmag Ksmag standard deviation of the mean 32- 34 I3 --- o_Ksmag Number of frames N used to measure Ks 36- 40 F5.2 mag Ks2M ? 2MASS Johnson Ks-band magnitude 42- 45 F4.2 mag e_Ks2M ? Ks2M uncertainty 47- 51 F5.2 mag DelKs ? ΔKs: Ksmag minus the Ks2M 53- 56 F4.2 mag e_DelKs ? Total uncertainty (the sum of the two errors added in quadrature) 58- 61 F4.1 --- NSig ? Sigma difference between this work and 2MASS (1)
Note (1): (Nσ) shows how many sigma different our results were from the 2MASS values. We can see from this that the 2MASS values always agree with ours within a few sigma. Of course, we believe that our new measurements are more accurate due to lower photon noise errors (due to large telescope aperture and longer effective exposure times) and better spatial resolution.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 19 A19 --- [MSL2009] Star designation ( 21- 25 F5.2 mag Vmag V-band magnitude 27- 30 F4.2 mag e_Vmag Vmag uncertainty 31 A1 --- f_Vmag [b] b: affected by crowding at the 0.02-0.05mag level 33- 34 I2 --- o_Vmag Number of observations 36- 40 F5.2 mag Vprev LGGS V-band magnitude 42- 45 F4.2 mag e_Vprev Vprev uncertainty 47- 51 F5.2 mag DelV New Vmag minus the LGGS V-band magnitude 52 A1 --- f_DelV [b] b: affected by crowding at the 0.02-0.05mag level 54- 57 F4.2 mag e_DelV DelV uncertainty 58 A1 --- feDelV [b] b: affected by crowding at the 0.02-0.05mag level 60- 65 F6.1 --- NSig Sigma difference between this work and LGGS 66 A1 --- f_NSig [b] b: affected by crowding at the 0.02-0.05mag level
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 19 A19 --- [MSL2009] Star identification ( 20 A1 --- f_[MSL2009] [e] e: hot companion? 22- 25 A4 --- SpT MK spectral type 27- 31 F5.2 mag Vmag V band magnitude (1) 32 A1 --- f_Vmag [f] f: from LGGS 34- 38 F5.2 mag Ksmag Ks band magnitude (1) 39 A1 --- f_Ksmag [d] d: from 2MASS 41- 44 F4.2 mag AV V-band extinction (2) 45 A1 --- u_AV [:] Uncertainty flag on AV (2) 47- 51 F5.2 mag VMAG Absolute V-band magnitude (MV) (3) 53- 56 I4 K Teff Effective temperature (4) 57 A1 --- u_Teff [:] Uncertainty flag on Teff (4) 59- 62 F4.1 [cm/s2] loggM Model surface gravity 64- 67 F4.1 [cm/s2] loggC Computed surface gravity 69- 72 I4 Rsun R1 Stellar radius from V band (5) 74- 78 F5.2 mag Mbol1 Bolometric magnitude from VMAG 80- 83 I4 Rsun R2 Stellar radius from K band (5) 85- 89 F5.2 mag Mbol2 Bolometric magnitude from KMAG 91- 96 F6.2 mag KMAG Absolute K-band magnitude from (V-K)0 98-101 I4 K Teff2 Effective temperature from (V-K)0 103-106 I4 Rsun R3 Stellar radius from (V-K)0 (5) 108-112 F5.2 mag Mbol Bolometric magnitude from (V-K)0 at a distance of 0.76Mpc
Note (1): Contemporaneous with the spectrophotometry, except as noted. Note (2): Uncertainties are ±0.10mag unless marked ":" (±0.15mag). Note (3): MV=V0-24.40 where V0=V-AV Note (4): Uncertainties are ±25K unless marked ":" (±50K). Note (5): The stellar radius, from the bolometric luminosity as: R/R=(L/L)0.5(5770/Teff)2 where we adopt Mbol=4.75 and Teff=5770K for the sun.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 3 A3 --- Gal Galaxy name (LMC, M31, MW or SMC) 5- 28 A24 --- Name Star identification 30- 36 A7 --- SpT MK spectral type 38- 41 F4.2 mag AV V band extinction 43- 46 I4 K Teff Effective temperature 48- 52 F5.2 mag VMAG Absolute V band magnitude 54- 57 I4 Rsun R1 Radius from V band magnitude 59- 62 F4.2 [Lsun] L1 Bolometric luminosity from V band magnitude 64- 69 F6.2 mag KMAG ? Absolute K band magnitude 71- 74 I4 Rsun R2 ? Radius from K band magnitude 76- 79 F4.2 [Lsun] L2 ? Bolometric luminosity from K band magnitude
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Levesque et al. Paper I. 2005ApJ...628..973L Levesque et al. Paper II. 2006ApJ...645.1102L
(End) Greg Schwarz [AAS], Emmanuelle Perret [CDS] 14-Oct-2011
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