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J/ApJ/646/523    Exoplanet systems with stellar companions  (Raghavan+, 2006)

Two suns in the sky: stellar multiplicity in exoplanet systems. Raghavan D., Henry T.J., Mason B.D., Subasavage J.P., Jao W.-C., Beaulieu T.D., Hambly N.C. <Astrophys. J., 646, 523-542 (2006)> =2006ApJ...646..523R
ADC_Keywords: Stars, double and multiple ; Planets Keywords: binaries: general - planetary systems - surveys Abstract: We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131 radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known as of 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated using the multi-epoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching the trigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distances estimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refute companions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog (I/237), in the Catalogs of Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiss (V/70, in Hipparcos results (I/239, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey (1991A&A...248..485D). Our findings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanet systems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD 38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. We confirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six stars in five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions to exoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in the Washington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions. At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five (including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside in triple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, and Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planets at roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellar companions at projected separations of 20AU, similar to the SunUranus distance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarf companions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicates that solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicity environments - singles, binaries, and triples - and that planets survive the post-main-sequence evolution of companion stars. Description: Our sample includes all known exoplanet systems detected by radial velocity techniques as of 2005 July 1. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 57 131 Sample list of exoplanet systems searched for companions table2.dat 140 122 Exoplanet systems with stellar companions refs.dat 99 52 References table3.dat 42 20 WDS entries that are not gravitationally bound companions
See also: I/237 : Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1996.0 (Worley+ 1996) I/239 : The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA 1997) V/70 : Nearby Stars, Preliminary 3rd Version (Gliese+ 1991) J/A+A/398/363 : Statistical properties of exoplanets II (Santos+, 2003) J/MNRAS/372/1117 : SuperWASP exoplanetary transit survey (Christian+, 2006) J/A+A/479/865 : CoRoT exoplanet candidates (Loeillet+, 2008) J/ApJ/646/505 : Catalog of nearby exoplanets (Butler+, 2008) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- Name Object name 12 A1 --- n_Name Note about ρ CrB (1) 14- 18 F5.3 arcsec/yr pm Proper motion 20- 24 F5.1 deg pmPA Position angle of proper motion 26- 32 F7.2 yr Epoch1 Epoch of the 1st observation (2) 34- 40 F7.2 yr Epoch2 Epoch of the 2nd observation (2) 42- 47 F6.3 arcsec Dist Proper motion distance between Epoch1 and Epoch2 49- 51 A3 --- pmO Proper motion detectable in the DSS frames? (3) 53 A1 --- CPM Companions detected via Common Proper Motion (4) 55- 57 A3 --- Other Other companions (4)
Note (1): 1 = We conclude that this system (ρ CrB) has either a planetary or a stellar companion, but not both. See Section 2.3 for more details. Note (2): In fractional year (Besselian) format. Note (3): MAR = the proper motion was marginally detectable. Note (4): A "?" following the companion ID indicates that the source remains a candidate, and could not be confirmed or refuted with confidence. The absence of a question mark indicates that the companion is confirmed.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1 A1 --- St [CU] Status of stellar candidate companions, (C)onfirmed or (U)nconfirmed 3- 4 I2 --- Seq Sequence number 6- 11 I06 --- HD HD number 12 A1 --- m_HD Multiplicity index on HD 14- 27 A14 --- Name Object name 29 A1 --- m_Name Stellar/Planetary companion identification 31- 33 A3 --- f_Name [12356, ] Flag(s) on companion (1) 35- 36 I2 h RAh Hour of Right Ascension (J2000) (2) 38- 39 I2 min RAm Minute of Right Ascension (J2000) (2) 41- 45 F5.2 s RAs Second of Right Ascension (J2000) (2) 47 A1 --- DE- Sign of the Declination (J2000) (2) 48- 49 I2 deg DEd Degree of Declination (J2000) (2) 51- 52 I2 arcmin DEm Arcminute of Declination (J2000) (2) 54- 57 F4.1 arcsec DEs Arcsecond of Declination (J2000) (2) 59- 65 F7.5 arcsec plx ? Hipparcos trigonometric parallax 67- 70 F4.1 pc Dist ? Distance 72 I1 --- u_Dist [4]? Distance assumes equal brightness (3) 74 A1 --- n_Dist [CPT] Determination code for Dist (4) 76- 82 A7 --- SpType Spectral type 84- 89 F6.2 arcsec rho ? Stellar and exoplanet angular separation 91- 93 I3 deg PA ? Stellar and exoplanet position angle 95-101 F7.1 AU PSep ? Projected primary & secondary star spatial separation 103-108 F6.3 jovMass Msini ? Exoplanet mass in Jupiter masses 110-115 F6.3 AU asini ? Exoplanet spatial separation 117-121 F5.3 --- e ? Eccentricity 123-126 A4 --- Src [PWCDHOI ] Source(s) used to detect companion stars (5) 128-140 A13 --- Ref Reference(s), in refs.dat file
Note (1): Flag on Comp as follows: 1 = Known companion, but first identification of the star as a companion to an exoplanet host. 2 = New stellar companion reported by this work. 3 = Separation and position angle are listed with respect to component A. A and C have been referred to as Aa and Ab, respectively in other publications, but we follow a consistent naming convention, using uppercase letters to represent stars and lowercase letters to denote planets. 5 = Separation and position angle are listed with respect to component B. 6 = New candidate companion reported by this work, via Kevin Apps. Note (2): See text for more information. Note (3): Flag on Dist as follows: 4 = Photometry obtained is for the BC pair. Distance estimate assumes identical binary components. Note (4): Determination code for Dist follows: T = trigonometric parallax C = calculated CCD photometric distance using relations from Henry et al. (2004AJ....128.2460H) P = calculated plate magnitude distance from SuperCOSMOS using relations from Hambly et al. (2004AJ....128..437H). If both plate and CCD distance estimates are available, only the more reliable CCD distance is listed. Note (5): Source as follows: P = a CPM detection using the multi-epoch DSS images W = a companion listing in the WDS catalog H = a Hipparcos catalog companion identification C = a companion identification in the CNS catalog D = a companion identification in Duquennoy & Mayor (1991A&A...248..485D) I = confirmation via our recent VRI images taken to verify CPM O = the companion was not found by any of the above means, but reported in one or more refereed papers
Byte-by-byte Description of file: refs.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 --- Ref Reference number 4- 22 A19 --- BibCode BibCode 24- 43 A20 --- Aut Author's name 45- 99 A55 --- Com Comments
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 10 A10 --- WDS WDS name (1) 12- 17 I6 --- HD HD number 19- 22 A4 --- Comp Component designation (1) 24- 26 I3 deg theta Position angle (2) 28- 32 F5.1 arcsec rho Separation angle (2) 34- 37 I4 yr Epoch Epoch of most recent observation (2) 39- 40 I2 --- Number Component number (1) 42 I1 --- Notes Individual notes (3)
Note (1): Data listed here exactly as in the WDS catalog. Note (2): Correspond to the most recent observation. All data are as of 2005 June 20. Certain pairs of multiple systems omitted from this table are confirmed to be gravitationally bound companions (01368+4124AD, 11268+0301AB, 19091+3436Aa and Aa-B, 20283+1846AB, and 231590905A-BC and BC). One omitted pair (201400052BC) has several speckle observations (Jonckheere 1911 (MNRAS, 72, 45), 1917 (MmRAS, 61, 1), 1944 (JO, 27, 11); Vanderdonck 1911(MNRAS, 72, 45); Van Biesbroeck 1960 (Publ. Yerkes Obs., 9, Pt. 2, 1960)) and several failed attempts (van den Bos 1949 (Union Obs. Circ., 5, 312), 1960 (Publ. Yerkes Obs., 9, Pt. 1, 1960), 1963(AJ, 68, 582); Couteau 1954JO.....37...37C; Baize 1957JO.....40..165B) and is hence inconclusive. Note (3): Notes as follows: 1 = DSS multi-epoch plates do not show CPM for WDS entry. In fact, proper motion of the primary star causes change in separation and position angle, indicating that the companion is a background star. 2 = Primary star is epsilon Eri, the well-studied exoplanet system. WDS listing is based on a single speckle measure by Blazit et al. (1977ApJ...214L..79B). This system has been observed 13 other times and no companion was resolved (McAlister 1978PASP...90..288M; Hartkopf & McAlister 1984PASP...96..105H; Oppenheimer et al. 2001, Cat. J/AJ/121/2189). 3 = Primary's mu=0.264"/yr at 251° from Hipparcos is not detectable in DSS plates. For the WDS companion, SuperCOSMOS lists mu=0.013"/yr at 91°, clearly not matching the primary's. 4 = Primary does not show detectable proper motion in DSS plates. Planet discovery paper, Frink et al. (2002ApJ...576..478F), refuted the WDS entry based on distance estimate to WDS entry and proper-motion comparisons.
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Greg Schwarz [AAS], Patricia Vannier [CDS] 02-May-2008
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