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J/AJ/154/69    ACRONYM II. The β Pictoris Moving Group    (Shkolnik+, 2017)

All-sky Co-moving Recovery Of Nearby Young Members (ACRONYM). II. The β Pictoris Moving Group. Shkolnik E.L., Allers K.N., Kraus A.L., Liu M.C., Flagg L. <Astron. J., 154, 69-69 (2017)> =2017AJ....154...69S (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Stars, nearby ; Clusters, open ; Stars, double and multiple ; Photometry, RI ; Photometry, infrared ; Spectral types ; Radial velocities ; Equivalent widths ; Space velocities Keywords: binaries: spectroscopic - open clusters and associations: individual: (β Pictoris Moving Group) - stars: activity - stars: kinematics and dynamics - stars: low-mass - stars: pre-main sequence Abstract: We confirm 66 low-mass stellar and brown dwarf systems (K7-M9) plus 19 visual or spectroscopic companions of the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG). Of these, 41 are new discoveries, increasing the known low-mass members by 45%. We also add four objects to the 14 known with masses predicted to be less than 0.07 M. Our efficient photometric + kinematic selection process identified 104 low-mass candidates, which we observed with ground-based spectroscopy. We collected infrared observations of the latest spectral types (>M5) to search for low-gravity objects. These and all <M5 candidates were observed with high-resolution optical spectrographs to measure the radial velocities and youth indicators, such as lithium absorption and Hα emission, needed to confirm BPMG membership, achieving a 63% confirmation rate. We also compiled the most complete census of BPMG membership, with which we tested the efficiency and false-membership assignments using our selection and confirmation criteria. Using the new census, we assess a group age of 22±6 Myr, consistent with past estimates. With the now-densely sampled lithium depletion boundary, we resolve the broadening of the boundary by either an age spread or astrophysical influences on lithium-burning rates. We find that 69% of the now-known members with AFGKM primaries are M stars, nearing the expected value of 75%. However, the new initial mass function for the BPMG shows a deficit of 0.2-0.3 M stars by a factor of ∼2. We expect that the AFGK census of the BPMG is also incomplete, probably due to biases of searches toward the nearest stars. Description: To summarize, we combined astrometry and photometry from USNO-B1.0 (Monet et al. 2003, Cat. I/284), 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. VII/233), SDSS DR9 (Ahn et al. 2012, V/139), DENIS (Epchtein et al. 1994Ap&SS.217....3E, see B/denis), and UCAC3 (Zacharias et al. 2010, Cat. I/315). These data yielded proper motions from the astrometry and spectral types (SpTs) and bolometric fluxes from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of the photometry for all sources in those catalogs. To concentrate our search on the most probable candidates, we narrowed our input sample using two spatial cuts. First, to avoid crowding and its effects on the inferred stellar properties, we neglected sources near the galactic plane and center (|b|<5°, or |b|<10° and 310°<l<50°). Second, to focus our consideration on the locus of known BPMG members (Figure 1), we disregarded targets with 7h<α<18h. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 118 104 Selection Criteria and Observations of Candidate BPMG Members table2.dat 68 42 NIR Spectroscopy Log table3.dat 130 104 Results of Optical Spectroscopy and Membership Assessments table4.dat 120 187 Known Members from the Literature + New Members from This Work
See also: III/21 : General Catalogue of Stellar Radial Velocities (Wilson, 1953) III/133 : Michigan Catalogue of HD stars, Vol.4 (Houk+, 1988) V/73 : Emission-Line Stars of the Orion Population (Herbig+ 1988) I/239 : The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA 1997) I/284 : The USNO-B1.0 Catalog (Monet+ 2003) VII/233 : The 2MASS Extended sources (IPAC/UMass, 2003-2006) B/denis : The DENIS database (DENIS Consortium, 2005) I/311 : Hipparcos, the New Reduction (van Leeuwen, 2007) I/315 : UCAC3 Catalogue (Zacharias+ 2009) V/139 : The SDSS Photometric Catalog, Release 9 (Adelman-McCarthy+, 2012) III/272 : RAVE 4th data release (Kordopatis+, 2013) I/337 : Gaia DR1 (Gaia Collaboration, 2016) J/ApJ/300/779 : High-latitude H-alpha emission stars (Stephenson+, 1986) J/MNRAS/328/45 : Late-type stars members of young groups (Montes+, 2001) J/AJ/123/3356 : Palomar/MSU nearby star spectroscopic survey. III. (Gizis+, 2002) J/AJ/126/2048 : NStars project: the Northern Sample. I. (Gray+, 2003) J/other/ARA+A/42.685 : Young stars near the Sun (Zuckerman+, 2004) J/A+A/460/695 : Search for Associations Containing Young stars (Torres+, 2006) J/AJ/132/866 : New M dwarfs in solar neighborhood (Riaz+, 2006) J/AJ/133/2524 : Spectra of young nearby stars (White+, 2007) J/AJ/133/2825 : Star beyond the NLTT catalog (Reid+, 2007) J/AJ/136/1290 : Ultracool dwarfs from the 2MASS (Reid+, 2008) J/A+A/508/833 : SACY III. Li abundances (da Silva+, 2009) J/ApJ/699/649 : Young M dwarfs within 25pc. I. (Shkolnik+, 2009) J/A+A/514/A97 : High-resolution spectra of Late-type stars (Lopez-Santiago+ 2010) J/AJ/140/119 : βPic and AB Dor moving groups members (Schlieder+, 2010) J/A+A/542/A18 : βPic Harps radial velocity data (Lagrange+, 2012) J/AJ/143/80 : R Low-mass stars of beta Pic and AB Dor groups (Schlieder+, 2012) J/AJ/143/134 : Candidate members of β Pic / AB Dor groups (McCarthy+, 2012) J/AJ/144/8 : Spectroscopy of ∼100 G/K/M-type Sco-Cen complex members (Song+, 2012) J/ApJ/749/15 : The Kepler-20 planetary system (Gautier+, 2012) J/ApJ/758/56 : Young M dwarfs within 25pc. II. Kinematics (Shkolnik+, 2012) J/AJ/145/102 : Spectroscopy of bright M dwarfs in the northern sky (Lepine+, 2013) J/ApJ/762/88 : Young stellar kinematic group candidate members (Malo+, 2013) J/A+A/568/A26 : SACY. V. Multiple systems (Elliott+, 2014) J/AJ/147/85 : Solar neighborhood. XXXIII. 45 M dwarfs (Riedel+, 2014) J/AJ/147/146 : Spectroscopy of Tuc-Hor candidate members (Kraus+, 2014) J/ApJ/788/81 : BANYAN III. RVel and rotation of low-mass stars (Malo+, 2014) J/ApJS/214/17 : Orbital monitoring of AstraLux binaries (Janson+, 2014) J/MNRAS/443/2561 : CONCH-SHELL catalog of nearby M dwarfs (Gaidos+, 2014) J/A+A/577/A128 : CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I (Alonso-Floriano+, 2015) J/A+A/583/A85 : Binaries in beta Pic moving group (Alonso-Floriano+, 2015) J/ApJ/798/73 : BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) catalog. V. Nearby YMGs (Gagne+, 2015) J/ApJS/219/33 : BANYAN. VII. Candidate YMG members from BASS (Gagne+, 2015) J/other/Sci/350.64 : 51 Eri b near-infrared spectrum (Macintosh+, 2015) J/A+A/590/A13 : New candidate members in young associations (Elliott+, 2016) J/ApJS/225/10 : Kinematic analysis of M7-L8 dwarfs (Faherty+, 2016) J/A+A/600/A83 : Photometry of beta Pic members (Messina+, 2017) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- 2MASS 2MASS name (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 18- 22 F5.2 mag Rmag [8.85/19.59]? USNO-B1.0 R-band magnitude 24- 28 F5.2 mag Ksmag [5.77/12.71] Ks-band magnitude 30- 34 F5.1 mas/yr pmRA [-81.9/137.9] Proper motion along RA (pmRA*cosDE) 36- 41 F6.1 mas/yr pmDE [-152.8/102.6] Proper motion along DE 43- 46 F4.1 mas/yr e_pm [0.9/21] Uncertainty in proper motion 48- 51 A4 --- SpType Spectral type measured from the SED fitting process described by Kraus et al. (2014, J/AJ/147/146) 53- 56 F4.2 --- e_SpType [0.1/1.2] Uncertainty in SpType 57 A1 --- n_SpType [bd] Note on SpType (1) 59- 63 F5.2 mag Mbol [8.36/15.9] Bolometric magnitude 65- 68 F4.2 mag e_Mbol [0.01/0.09] Uncertainty in Mbol 70- 74 F5.2 mag DMphot [-0.28/3.14] Spectrophotometric distance modulus 76- 79 F4.2 mag e_DMphot [0.05/0.77] Uncertainty in DMphot 81- 84 F4.1 mas/yr DPM [0.3/33.6] Difference in proper motion ΔPM (2) 86- 88 F3.1 mag DMkin [2.1/4.5] Kinematic distance modulus 90- 92 A3 --- SpecIR [SXD-] Instrument used for the infrared spectroscopy (3) 93 A1 --- n_SpecIR [c] Note on SpecIR (4) 95-107 A13 --- SpecOpt Instrument used for the optical spectroscopy (Magellan/MIKE or Keck/HIRES) 109-118 A10 "date" Date UT date of observation
Note (1): Note as follows: b = NIR SpType indicates M9 (Allers & Liu 2013ApJ...772...79A); d = Optical spectrum appears as early-type SB2, not an M star. Note (2): We first computed the kinematic distance modulus (DMkin) that would minimize the difference between a source's observed proper motion and the expected proper motion for a BPMG member at that position on the sky. The magnitude of this discrepancy is reported as ΔPM. Note (3): Instrument as follows: SXD = IRTF's (Infrared Telescope Facility) short cross-dispersed mode: 0.8-2.4 µm. See Table 2 for log of observations. Note (4): Note as follows: c = This object was observed with SXD by Allers & Liu (2013ApJ...772...79A).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- 2MASS 2MASS name (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 18- 28 A11 "date" Date UT date of observation 30- 32 F3.1 arcsec Slit [0.3/0.8] Slit width 34- 37 F4.2 --- (sec)z [1.01/2.23] Airmass 39- 40 I2 --- Nexp [4/16] Number of exposure 42- 46 F5.1 s Time [15/120] Time of exposure 48- 50 I3 --- S/N(J) [19/301] Signal-to-noise ratio in J-band 52- 54 I3 --- S/N(H) [24/312] Signal-to-noise ratio in H-band 56- 58 I3 --- S/N(K) [21/296] Signal-to-noise ratio K-band 60 A1 --- l_SpType [<] Limit flag on SpType 61- 62 A2 --- SpType NIR spectral type (1) 64- 68 A5 --- GType Gravity type (FLD-G, INT-G or VL-G) (G1)
Note (1): Stars with SpTypes earlier than M4 are outside the valid range of the Allers & Liu (2013ApJ...772...79A, AL13) NIR spectral-typing method. Uncertainty in the SpTypes is ±1 subclass, as discussed in AL13. Stars with SpTypes earlier than M5 cannot be classified with the AL13 NIR gravity classification.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- 2MASS 2MASS name (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 18- 21 A4 --- SpType Spectroscopic spectral type 22 A1 --- n_SpType [*] Note on SpType (1) 24- 26 A3 --- Spec Source of spectral type (IR or Optical spectroscopy) 28 A1 --- r_SpType Reference for SpType (2) 30- 35 F6.2 km/s RV [-35.12/261.02]? Radial velocity (3) 37- 40 F4.2 km/s e_RV [0.16/5.21]? Uncertainty in RV 41 A1 --- n_RV [l] Note on RV (4) 43- 48 F6.2 km/s DRV [-28.32/243.7]? Radial velocity difference ΔRV=RVobs-RVkin 50- 52 A3 --- Memb Membership status (5) 54- 57 A4 --- r_Memb Reference(s) for Memb (6) 59 A1 --- l_EW(Li) [<] Limit flag on EW(Li) 60- 63 F4.2 0.1nm EW(Li) [0.05/1.34]? Li equivalent width (Å) (7) 64 A1 --- n_EW(Li) [l] Note on EW(Li) (4) 66- 71 F6.2 0.1nm EW(Ha) [-34.14/1.77]? Hα equivalent width (Å) (7) 72 A1 --- n_EW(Ha) [l] Note on EW(Ha) (4) 74- 78 F5.1 km/s U [-70.4/13.1]? U space velocity (8) 80- 85 F6.1 km/s V [-223.4/17.8]? V space velocity (8) 87- 92 F6.1 km/s W [-139.7/-0.9]? W space velocity (8) 94- 98 F5.1 pc X [-56.7/65.8]? X coordinate (8) 100-104 F5.1 pc Y [-37.9/57.6]? Y coordinate (8) 106-110 F5.1 pc Z [-54.5/39.1]? Z coordinate (8) 112-113 A2 --- MmRV Membership assessment of the RV (G2) 115 A1 --- MmHa Membership assessment of the Hα emission (G2) 117-118 A2 --- MmLi Membership assessment of the Li absorption (G2) 120-121 A2 --- BPMG β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) member? (G2) 123 A1 --- n_BPMG [hij] Note on BPMG (9) 125-130 A6 --- Ref Reference(s) (10)
Note (1): Note as follows: * = Target for which we were unable to get reliable SpType. Note (2): For the few targets for which we were unable to get reliable SpType, we include literature values. Sources and references for these are as follows: A = Methods of Allers & Liu (2013ApJ...772...79A), this work; B = Narrow TiO-band index defined by Shkolnik et al. (2009, J/ApJ/699/649), this work; C = TiO5-band index from Riaz et al. (2006, J/AJ/132/866); D = Gagne et al. (2015, J/ApJ/798/73); E = TiO-band index from Alonso-Floriano et al. (2015, J/A+A/577/A128); F = Schlieder et al. (2012, J/AJ/143/80); G = Lepine et al. (2013, J/AJ/145/102); H = Spectral fitting following the method of Kraus et al. (2014, J/AJ/147/146), this work. Note (3): Systemic RVs are reported for the spectroscopic binaries (SBs). Note (4): Note as follows: l = RV, Hα, and/or Li data from the literature: 05061292+0439272 (Alcala et al. 1996A&AS..119....7A; Alcala et al. 2000A&A...353..186A; Lepine et al. 2013, J/AJ/145/102); 06352229-5737349 (Kordopatis et al. 2013, Cat. III/272); 20434114-2433534 (Shkolnik et al. 2012, J/ApJ/758/56; 2009, J/ApJ/699/649). Note (5): Membership status as follows: VB = Visual binary; SB1 = Unresolved binarity; SB2 = Double-lined spectroscopic binary; SB3 = Triple-lined spectroscopic binary. Note (6): Literature references for binarity are as follows: 1 = Nicholson (2015, Binary star discoveries in the URAT1 catalog); 2 = Malo et al. (2014, J/ApJ/788/81); 3 = Liu et al. (2010SPIE.7736E..18L); 4 = Reiners et al. (2010A&A...513L...9R); 5 = Bergfors et al. (2010A&A...520A..54B); 6 = Elliott et al. (2014, J/A+A/568/A26); 7 = Shkolnik et al. (2009, J/ApJ/699/649); 8 = Janson et al. (2014, J/ApJS/214/17); 9 = Bowler et al. (2015ApJ...806...62B). Note (7): Uncertainties in the EW of Li are typically less than 0.05 Å and in Hα are 0.1 Å. Note (8): UVWs and XYZs are not reported for nonmembers, as the kinematic distance used in the calculations of these values is meaningless if they are not actual members. Note (9): Note as follows: h = These SBs have system RVs consistent with the BPMG, strong Hα emission, and inconclusive Li observations. To avoid biasing the sample away from SBs, we designate them "Y?". These systems should be followed up for full orbital solutions and/or parallaxes to better understand their ages; i = Schlieder et al. (2010, J/AJ/140/119) reported an RV of 10.4±2.0 km/s and a ΔRV of 3.8 km/s and thus considered this a likely BPMG member; j = Binks & Jeffries (2016MNRAS.455.3345B) reported Hα in absorption and thus rejected this star as a BPMG member. Note (10): The first reference to list these targets as BPMG members: 1 = Malo et al. (2013, J/ApJ/762/88); 2 = Lepine & Simon (2009AJ....137.3632L); 3 = Gagne et al. (2015, J/ApJS/219/33); 4 = Kiss et al. (2011MNRAS.411..117K); 5 = Shkolnik et al. (2012, J/ApJ/758/56); 6 = Binks & Jeffries (2016MNRAS.455.3345B); 7 = Schlieder et al. (2010, J/AJ/140/119); 8 = Malo et al. (2014, J/ApJ/788/81); 9 = Elliott et al. (2016, J/A+A/590/A13); 10 = Liu et al. (2016ApJ...833...96L); 11 = Elliott et al. (2014, J/A+A/568/A26); 12 = Schlieder et al. (2012, J/AJ/143/80); 13 = Torres et al. (2008hsf2.book..757T).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 16 A16 --- 2MASS 2MASS name (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs) 18 A1 --- n_2MASS [KN] Known (K) or new (N) member of the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) 20- 40 A21 --- OName Other name 42- 43 I2 --- r_2MASS [1/69] Reference for 2MASS (1) 45- 53 A9 --- SpType Spectral type 55- 56 I2 --- r_SpType [1/69]? Reference for SpType (1) 58- 62 F5.1 0.1nm EW(Ha) [-73.6/3.9]? Hα equivalent width (Å) 64- 65 I2 --- r_EW(Ha) [7/69]? Reference for EW(Ha) (1) 67 A1 --- l_EW(Li) [<] Limit flag on EW(Li) 68- 70 I3 0.1nm EW(Li) [-39/920]? Li equivalent width (Å) 72- 73 I2 --- r_EW(Li) [2/69]? Reference for EW(Li) (1) 75- 80 F6.2 km/s RV [-25.6/23.5]? Radial velocity 82- 85 F4.1 km/s e_RV [0/10]? Uncertainty in RV 87- 88 I2 --- r_RV [1/69]? Reference for RV (1) 90- 94 A5 --- GType Gravity type (FLD-G, INT-G or VL-G) (G1) 96- 97 I2 --- r_GType [4/69]? Reference for GType (1) 99-103 F5.1 mas plx [10.1/102.1]? Parallaxe π 105-107 F3.1 mas e_plx [0.1/5]? Uncertainty in plx 109-110 I2 --- r_plx [17/67]? Reference for plx (1) 112-113 A2 --- MmRV Membership assessment of the RV (G2) (2) 115 A1 --- MmHa Membership assessment of the Hα emission (G2) (2) 117 A1 --- MmLi Membership assessment of the Li absorption (G2) (2) 119-120 A2 --- BPMG BPMG member? (G2) (2)
Note (1): Reference as follows: 1 = Zuckerman et al. (2001ApJ...549L.233Z); 2 = Malo et al. (2013, J/ApJ/762/88); 3 = Lepine & Simon (2009AJ....137.3632L); 4 = Gagne et al. (2015, J/ApJS/219/33); 5 = Malo et al. (2014, J/ApJ/788/81); 6 = Gagne et al. (2015, J/ApJ/798/73); 7 = Kiss et al. (2011MNRAS.411..117K); 8 = Binks & Jeffries (2016MNRAS.455.3345B); 9 = Elliott et al. (2016, J/A+A/590/A13); 10 = Schlieder et al. (2010, J/AJ/140/119); 11 = Song et al. (2003ApJ...599..342S); 12 = Moor et al. (2006ApJ...644..525M); 13 = Alonso-Floriano et al. (2015, J/A+A/583/A85); 14 = Elliott et al. (2014, J/A+A/568/A26); 15 = Rodriguez et al. (2014A&A...567A..20R); 16 = Torres et al. (2008hsf2.book..757T); 17 = Riedel et al. (2014, J/AJ/147/85); 18 = Schlieder et al. (2012, J/AJ/143/80); 19 = Teixeira et al. (2009A&A...503..281T); 20 = Schlieder et al. (2012AJ....144..109S); 21 = Malo et al. (2014ApJ...792...37M); 22 = Moor et al. (2013MNRAS.435.1376M); 23 = Liu et al. (2016ApJ...833...96L); 24 = Barrado y Navascues et al. (1999ApJ...522L..53B); 25 = Liu et al. (2013ApJ...777L..20L); 26 = Allers & Liu (2013ApJ...772...79A); 27 = Binks & Jeffries (2014MNRAS.438L..11B); 28 = Gray et al. (2003, J/AJ/126/2048); 29 = Lopez-Santiago et al. (2010, J/A+A/514/A97); 30 = Zuckerman & Song (J/other/ARA+A/42.685); 31 = Torres et al. (2006, J/A+A/460/695); 32 = Kordopatis et al. (2013, Cat. III/272); 33 = Alcala et al. (2000A&A...353..186A); 34 = Riaz et al. (2006, J/AJ/132/866); 35 = Houk & Smith-Moore (1988, Cat. III/133); 36 = Shkolnik et al. (2009, J/ApJ/699/649); 37 = Teixeira et al. (2009A&A...503..281T); 38 = Stephenson (1986, J/ApJ/300/779); 39 = Hawley et al. (1997AJ....113.1458H); 40 = Hipparcos Catalog (Cat. I/239); 41 = Reid et al. (2008, J/AJ/136/1290); 42 = Cruz et al. (2009AJ....137.3345C); 43 = Shkolnik et al. (2012, J/ApJ/758/56); 44 = Lepine et al. (2013, J/AJ/145/102); 45 = Reid et al. (2007, J/AJ/133/2825); 46 = Alcala et al. (1996A&AS..119....7A); 47 = White et al. (2007, J/AJ/133/2524); 48 = Song et al. (2012, J/AJ/144/8); 49 = Herbig & Bell (1988, Cat. V/73); 50 = Martin et al. (2010A&A...517A..53M); 51 = Gaidos et al. (2014, J/MNRAS/443/2561); 52 = Reid et al. (2002AJ....124.2721R); 53 = da Silva et al. (2009, J/A+A/508/833); 54 = Kraus et al. (2014, J/AJ/147/146); 55 = Faherty et al. (2016, J/ApJS/225/10); 56 = Montes et al. (2001, J/MNRAS/328/45); 57 = Bailey et al. (2012, J/ApJ/749/15); 58 = Macintosh et al. (2015, J/other/Sci/350.64); 59 = Gizis et al. (2002, J/AJ/123/3356); 60 = Gontcharov (2006A&AT...25..145G); 61 = Strassmeier & Rice (2000A&A...360.1019S); 62 = Wilson (1953, Cat. III/21); 63 = Zuckerman & Webb (2000ApJ...535..959Z); 64 = Allers et al. (2016ApJ...819..133A); 65 = Gaia Collaboration et al. (2016, Cat. I/337); 66 = Faherty et al. (2013AJ....145....2F); 67 = van Leeuwen (2007, Cat. I/311); 68 = Schneider et al. (2017AJ....153..196S); 69 = This work (see Tables 1-3 for more details on these members). Note (2): Lists the assessment of each age diagnostic and membership status following the prescription of this paper, as summarized in Figure 3. We subjected the 123 published members with K and M SpTypes to the same tests described in Sections 3-5 as a test of the methodology. The results of those tests are summarized in the text.
Global notes: Note (G1): Allers & Liu (2013ApJ...772...79A) define spectral indices and pseudo-equivalent widths (EWs) of various gravity-sensitive features in lower-resolution NIR spectra to classify the spectra into three groups: low (VL-G), intermediate (INT-G), and high (FLD-G) gravity objects, roughly corresponding to young (~<30Myr), intermediate (∼30-200Myr), and field-age (≳200Myr) objects. Note (G2): Membership assessment as follows: Y = Confirmed member; N = Nonmember when the kinematics or youth indicators conflict with membership; ? = Likely member whose RV differ from the predicted values due to binarity in the system.
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(End) Tiphaine Pouvreau [CDS] 31-May-2018
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