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J/AJ/154/64      Transit times of Kepler-448b and Kepler-693b     (Masuda, 2017)

Eccentric companions to Kepler-448b and Kepler-693b: clues to the formation of warm Jupiters. Masuda K. <Astron. J., 154, 64-64 (2017)> =2017AJ....154...64M (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Stars, double and multiple ; Planets ; Stars, diameters Keywords: planets and satellites: individual KOI-12, Kepler-448, KIC 5812701, KOI-824, Kepler-693, KIC 5164255 Abstract: I report the discovery of non-transiting close companions to two transiting warm Jupiters (WJs), Kepler-448/KOI-12b (orbital period P=17.9days, radius Rp=1.23-0.05+0.06RJup) and Kepler-693/KOI-824b (P=15.4days, Rp=0.91±0.05RJup), via dynamical modeling of their transit timing and duration variations (TTVs and TDVs). The companions have masses of 22-5+7MJup (Kepler-448c) and 150-40+60MJup (Kepler-693c), and both are on eccentric orbits (e=0.65-0.09+0.13 for Kepler-448c and e=0.47-0.06+0.11 for Kepler-693c) with periastron distances of 1.5au. Moderate eccentricities are detected for the inner orbits as well (e=0.34-0.07+0.08 for Kepler-448b and e=0.2-0.1+0.2 for Kepler-693b). In the Kepler-693 system, a large mutual inclination between the inner and outer orbits (53-9+7deg or 134-10+11deg) is also revealed by the TDVs. This is likely to induce a secular oscillation in the eccentricity of the inner WJ that brings its periastron close enough to the host star for tidal star-planet interactions to be significant. In the Kepler-448 system, the mutual inclination is weakly constrained, and such an eccentricity oscillation is possible for a fraction of the solutions. Thus these WJs may be undergoing tidal migration to become hot Jupiters (HJs), although the migration via this process from beyond the snow line is disfavored by the close-in and massive nature of the companions. This may indicate that WJs can be formed in situ and could even evolve into HJs via high-eccentricity migration inside the snow line. Description: I analyzed Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) of 23 confirmed, singly transiting warm Jupiters (WJs; Section 2.1) with an orbital period of 7days<P<100days and a radius of Rp>8R in the DR24 of the KOI catalog (Coughlin et al. 2016, Cat. J/ApJS/224/12). Systems with multiple KOIs are all excluded, even though they consist of only one confirmed planet and false positives. I found clearly non-sinusoidal TTVs for Kepler-448/KOI-12b, Kepler-693/KOI-824b, and Kepler-419/KOI-1474b. The result is consistent with the TTV search by Holczer et al. 2016 (Cat. J/ApJS/225/9), who reported significant long-term TTVs for the same three KOIs in our sample. Of these planets, the TTVs of Kepler-419b have previously been analyzed by Dawson et al. (2014ApJ...791...89D). Therefore, I focus on Kepler-448b and Kepler-693b. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file planets.dat 21 2 Analyzed planets table1.dat 47 71 Transit times, durations, and radius ratios of Kepler-448b table2.dat 47 50 Transit times, durations, and radius ratios of Kepler-693b
See also: V/133 : Kepler Input Catalog (Kepler Mission Team, 2009) J/ApJS/225/9 : Kepler TTVs. IX. Full long-cadence data set (Holczer+, 2016) J/ApJS/224/12 : Kepler planetary candidates. VII. 48-month (Coughlin+, 2016) Byte-by-byte Description of file: planets.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 11 A11 --- Name Planet name 13- 21 F9.6 d Per Period (from Table 3 or 4 in the paper)
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table[12].dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 2 I2 --- Num [-1/90] Transit number 4- 12 F9.4 d TT [128.742/1575.02] Transit time in Barycentric Julian Date (BJDTDB-2454833) 14- 19 F6.4 d e_TT [0.0001/0.003] Uncertainty in TT (1) 21- 26 F6.4 d Dur [0.091/0.282] Transit duration 28- 33 F6.4 d e_Dur [0.0002/0.009] Uncertainty in Dur (1) 35- 40 F6.4 --- Rp/Rs [0.0882/0.137] Planet-to-star radius ratio 42- 47 F6.4 --- e_Rp/Rs [0.0003/0.008] Uncertainty in ratio (1)
Note (1): For Kepler-448b, quoted uncertainties are the standard errors derived from the covariance matrix scaled by (χ2/d.o.f.)0.5 of the fit. For Kepler-693b, quoted uncertainties are the standard errors derived from the covariance matrix scaled by (χ2/d.o.f.)0.5 of the fit or are based on the combination of the Long-Cadence (LC) and Short-Cadence (SC) data (see Section 2.2).
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAS]; Sylvain Guehenneux [CDS] 08-Nov-2017
The document above follows the rules of the Standard Description for Astronomical Catalogues.From this documentation it is possible to generate f77 program to load files into arrays or line by line

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