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J/AJ/154/107   California-Kepler Survey (CKS). I. 1305 stars   (Petigura+, 2017)

The California-Kepler Survey. I. High-resolution spectroscopy of 1305 stars hosting Kepler transiting planets. Petigura E.A., Howard A.W., Marcy G.W., Johnson J.A., Isaacson H., Cargile P.A., Hebb L., Fulton B.J., Weiss L.M., Morton T.D., Winn J.N., Rogers L.A., Sinukoff E., Hirsch L.A., Crossfield I.J.M. <Astron. J., 154, 107-107 (2017)> =2017AJ....154..107P (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Planets ; Rotational velocities ; Radial velocities ; Effective temperatures ; Abundances, [Fe/H] Keywords: binaries: spectroscopic - catalogs - stars: abundances - stars: fundamental parameters Abstract: The California-Kepler Survey (CKS) is an observational program developed to improve our knowledge of the properties of stars found to host transiting planets by NASA's Kepler Mission. The improvement stems from new high-resolution optical spectra obtained using HIRES at the W. M. Keck Observatory. The CKS stellar sample comprises 1305 stars classified as Kepler objects of interest, hosting a total of 2075 transiting planets. The primary sample is magnitude-limited (Kp<14.2) and contains 960 stars with 1385 planets. The sample was extended to include some fainter stars that host multiple planets, ultra-short period planets, or habitable zone planets. The spectroscopic parameters were determined with two different codes, one based on template matching and the other on direct spectral synthesis using radiative transfer. We demonstrate a precision of 60K in Teff, 0.10dex in logg, 0.04dex in [Fe/H], and 1.0km/s in Vsini. In this paper, we describe the CKS project and present a uniform catalog of spectroscopic parameters. Subsequent papers in this series present catalogs of derived stellar properties such as mass, radius, and age; revised planet properties; and statistical explorations of the ensemble. CKS is the largest survey to determine the properties of Kepler stars using a uniform set of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. The HIRES spectra are available to the community for independent analyses. Description: The original goal of the California-Kepler Survey (CKS) project was to measure the stellar properties of all 997 host stars in the first large Kepler planet catalog (Borucki et al. 2011, Cat. J/ApJ/736/19). As the Kepler planet catalogs grew in size (Batalha et al. 2013, Cat. J/ApJS/204/24; Burke et al. 2014, Cat. J/ApJS/210/19), we decided on a magnitude limit of Kp<14.2 (Kepler apparent magnitude) for the primary CKS sample. Most of the spectra were collected during the 2012, 2013, and 2014 observing seasons. We observed all 1305 stars in the CKS sample with the HIgh-Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) spectrometer at the W. M. Keck Observatory. We used an exposure meter to stop the exposures after achieving a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 45 per pixel (90 per resolution element) at the peak of the blaze function in the spectral order containing 550nm. The spectral format and HIRES settings were identical to those used by the California Planet Search (CPS; Howard et al. 2010ApJ...721.1467H). This includes the use of the B5/C2 decker with dimensions of 0.86''*3.5''/0.86''*14.0'', resulting in a spectral resolution of 60000. The spectral coverage extended from 3640 to 7990Å. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table3.dat 24 1305 California-Kepler Survey (CKS) target stars table4.dat 27 2075 California-Kepler Survey (CKS) candidate planets table5.dat 167 1305 Spectroscopic parameters
See also: V/133 : Kepler Input Catalog (Kepler Mission Team, 2009) J/ApJS/229/30 : Revised stellar prop. of Q1-17 Kepler targets (Mathur+, 2017) J/ApJ/822/86 : False positive probabilit. for Q1-Q17 DR24 KOIs (Morton+, 2016) J/ApJ/807/170 : Prograde vs retrogade motions. II. KOIs (Holczer+, 2015) J/ApJS/217/31 : Kepler planetary candidates. VI. 4yr Q1-Q16 (Mullally+, 2015) J/ApJS/210/19 : Kepler planetary candidates. IV. 22 months (Burke+, 2014) J/ApJ/787/47 : 106 Kepler ultra-short-period planets (Sanchis-Ojeda+, 2014) J/ApJ/784/45 : Kepler's multiple planet candidates. III. (Rowe+, 2014) J/ApJS/204/24 : Kepler planetary candidates. III. (Batalha+, 2013) J/ApJ/736/19 : Kepler planetary candidates. II. (Borucki+, 2011) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 12 A12 --- Name Star name: mostly Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) identifier, or Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) number 14 I1 --- Lim [0/1] Magnitude Limited (Kp<14.2) (0=Not member, or 1=Member) (1) 16 I1 --- Mult [0/1] Multi-planet system (0=Not member, or 1=Member) (2) 18 I1 --- Hab [0/1] Habitable zone system (0=Not member, or 1=Member) (3) 20 I1 --- USP [0/1] Ultra-Short period Planet (USP) (0=Not member, or 1=Member) (4) 22 I1 --- Oth [0/1] Other (0=Not member, or 1=Member) (5) 24 I1 --- F [0/1] False positive (includes systems for which all planet candidates have been dispositioned as false positives) (0=Not member, or 1=Member) (6)
Note (1): This sample is defined as all stars with Kp<14.2. We set out to observe a magnitude-limited sample of KOIs chosen independently of the number of detected planets or previously measured stellar properties. As the project progressed, we added additional samples of fainter stars. Note (2): This sample is defined as KOI stars orbited by two or more transiting planets (excluding false positives). We also observed nearly all of the multi-transiting systems appearing in the Rowe et al. 2014 (Cat. J/ApJ/784/45) catalog, with priority given to the highest multiplicity systems and the brightest stars. CKS Paper V (Weiss et al. 2017, submitted) performs a detailed analysis of the multi-planet systems. Note (3): We observed 127 host stars of Kepler planets residing in or near the habitable zone defined by Kopparapu et al. 2013ApJ...765..131K. Some of the individual habitable zone planets have been studied extensively and validated (Borucki et al. 2013Sci...340..587B; Jenkins et al. 2015AJ....150...56J; Torres et al. 2015ApJ...800...99T). It is not clear what to adopt as the boundaries of the liquid-water habitable zone, because of the many uncertainties in exoplanet atmospheric properties and other factors that impact planet habitability (Seager 2013Sci...340..577S). The NASA Kepler Team constructed a list of habitable zone targets using the best available stellar parameters at the time. They selected stars for which the flux received by the planet fell (within 1σ) between the Venus and "early-Mars" habitable zone boundaries (Kopparapu et al. 2013ApJ...765..131K). After the revision to the stellar parameters based on our CKS spectra, we now know that some of these planets are well outside of the habitable zone. CKS Paper II (Johnson et al. 2017, Cat. J/AJ/154/108) gives the newly determined values for stellar flux and planetary equilibrium temperature for all the CKS stars. Note (4): USP planets (Sanchis-Ojeda et al. 2014, Cat. J/ApJ/787/47) have orbital periods shorter than one day. Winn et al. 2017AJ....154...60W have performed an investigation of this sample, in particular on the metallicity distribution. Note (5): We observed 38 additional Kepler planet host stars for reasons that do not fall into any of the preceding categories. Often these ad hoc observations were for studies of unusual or noteworthy planetary systems (e.g., Kruse & Agol 2014Sci...344..275K; Dawson et al. 2015ApJ...798...66D; Desert et al. 2015ApJ...804...59D; Holczer et al. 2015, Cat. J/ApJ/807/170). Note (6): The planetary candidate status ("disposition") of some KOIs has changed over time. Inevitably, we observed KOIs that are now recognized as false positives. For completeness, we report on the parameters for these false positives. Importantly, though, the false positives were not used for the cross-calibration between our two spectroscopic analysis pipelines (see Section 4.2). More details on this sample are given in Section 2.5.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 15 A15 --- Name Planet name: mostly Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) identifier, or Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) identifier 17- 18 A2 --- Disp Adopted disposition (CP, PC, or FP) (1) 20- 21 A2 --- M16 Morton et al. 2016 (Cat. J/ApJ/822/86) false positive assessment (CP, PC, or FP) (1) 23- 24 A2 --- M15 Mullally et al. 2015 (Cat. J/ApJS/217/31) false positive assessment (CP, PC, FP, or ND) (1) 26- 27 A2 --- NEA NASA Exoplanet Archive (accessed 2017 February 1: http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu) false positive assessment (CP, PC, or FP) (1)
Note (1): The disposition codes are defined as below: CP = Confirmed Planet; PC = Planet Candidate; FP = False Positive.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 12 A12 --- Name Star name: mostly Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) identifier, or Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) number 14- 23 A10 --- Obs Observation identifier 25- 28 I4 --- Kepler ? Kepler number 30- 33 A4 --- f_Kepler "None" flag on Kepler 35- 42 I8 --- KIC [757450/12737015]? Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) identifier 44- 49 F6.1 K Teff [4617/6657]? Adopted effective temperature (7) 51- 54 F4.1 K e_Teff [60]? Uncertainty in Teff (8) 56- 60 F5.3 [cm/s2] logg [2.9/4.8]? Adopted log surface gravity (7) 62- 66 F5.3 [cm/s2] e_logg [0.1/0.1]? Uncertainty in logg (8) 68- 73 F6.3 [Sun] [Fe/H] [-0.607/0.465]? Adopted metallicity (7) 75- 79 F5.3 [Sun] e_[Fe/H] [0.04/0.04]? Uncertainty in [Fe/H] (8) 81- 85 F5.1 km/s vsini [0/456.7]? Adopted rotational velocity (7) 87- 89 F3.1 km/s e_vsini [1]? Uncertainty in vsini (8) 91- 95 A5 --- Cat Catalog(s) used for adopted values (SM=SpecMatch, SX=SME@XSEDE, or SM+SX) 97-102 F6.1 K MTeff [4617.7/6631]? SpecMatch effective temperature 104-108 F5.3 [cm/s2] Mlogg [2.899/4.794]? SpecMatch log surface gravity 110-115 F6.3 [Sun] M[Fe/H] [-0.687/0.44]? SpecMatch metallicity 117-121 F5.1 km/s Mvsini [0/456.7]? SpecMatch rotational velocity 123-128 F6.1 K XTeff [4047/6682]? Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME)@XSEDE effective temperature (9) 130-134 F5.3 [cm/s2] Xlogg [2.8/5.4]? SME@XSEDE log surface gravity (9) 136-141 F6.3 [Sun] X[Fe/H] [-1.3/1]? SME@XSEDE metallicity (9) 143-146 F4.1 km/s Xvsini [-0.7/21.2]? SME@XSEDE rotational velocity (9) 148-153 F6.1 km/s TRV [-221.6/169.5]? Systemic radial velocity (relative to solar system barycenter) 155-159 A5 --- BTeff Boolean key for effective temperature (False or True=effective temperature is between 4700 and 6500K) 161-165 A5 --- Bvsini Boolean key for vsini (False or True=vsini is between 0 and 20km/s) 167 I1 --- B [0/2]? Boolean key for pipeline agreement (0, 1, or 2) (10)
Note (7): Adopted values are our best determination of the spectroscopic parameters after calibrating the SME@XSEDE values and averaging with the SpecMatch values. Note (8): Uncertainties for the adopted values are summarized in Table6 and Section 4.7. Note (9): After the calibrations described in Section 4.2. Note (10): The agreement codes are defined as follows: 0 = SpecMatch (SM) and SME@XSEDE (SX) disagree; 1 = SM and SX agree; 2 = If comparison is not possible.
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Johnson et al., Paper II 2017AJ....154..108J, Cat. J/AJ/154/108 Fulton et al., Paper III 2017AJ....154..109F, Cat. J/AJ/154/109
(End) Prepared by [AAS]; Sylvain Guehenneux [CDS] 30-Nov-2017
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