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J/AJ/153/71   Kepler follow-up observation program. I. Imaging   (Furlan+, 2017)

The Kepler follow-up observation program. I. A catalog of companions to Kepler stars from high-resolution imaging. Furlan E., Ciardi D.R., Everett M.E., Saylors M., Teske J.K., Horch E.P., Howell S.B., van Belle G.T., Hirsch L.A., Gautier T.N., Adams E.R., Barrado D., Cartier K.M.S., Dressing C.D., Dupree A.K., Gilliland R.L., Lillo-Box J., Lucas P.W., Wang J. <Astron. J., 153, 71-71 (2017)> =2017AJ....153...71F (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Stars, double and multiple ; Planets ; Photometry, infrared ; Photometry, HST Keywords: binaries: general - catalogs - planets and satellites: detection - surveys - techniques: high angular resolution - techniques: photometric Abstract: We present results from high-resolution, optical to near-IR imaging of host stars of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), identified in the original Kepler field. Part of the data were obtained under the Kepler imaging follow-up observation program over six years (2009-2015). Almost 90% of stars that are hosts to planet candidates or confirmed planets were observed. We combine measurements of companions to KOI host stars from different bands to create a comprehensive catalog of projected separations, position angles, and magnitude differences for all detected companion stars (some of which may not be bound). Our compilation includes 2297 companions around 1903 primary stars. From high-resolution imaging, we find that ∼10% (∼30%) of the observed stars have at least one companion detected within 1'' (4''). The true fraction of systems with close (≲4'') companions is larger than the observed one due to the limited sensitivities of the imaging data. We derive correction factors for planet radii caused by the dilution of the transit depth: assuming that planets orbit the primary stars or the brightest companion stars, the average correction factors are 1.06 and 3.09, respectively. The true effect of transit dilution lies in between these two cases and varies with each system. Applying these factors to planet radii decreases the number of KOI planets with radii smaller than 2R by ∼2%-23% and thus affects planet occurrence rates. This effect will also be important for the yield of small planets from future transit missions such as TESS. Description: We present results from six years of follow-up imaging observations of KOI host stars, including work done by teams from the Kepler Community Follow-up Observation Program (CFOP; and by other groups. Several observing facilities were used to obtain high-resolution images of KOI host stars. Table1 lists the various telescopes, instruments used, filter bandpasses, typical Point Spread Function (PSF) widths, number of targets observed, and main references for the published results. The four main observing techniques employed are adaptive optics (Keck, Palomar, Lick, MMT), speckle interferometry (Gemini North, WIYN, DCT), lucky imaging (Calar Alto), and imaging from space with HST. A total of 3557 KOI host stars were observed at 11 facilities with 9 different instruments, using filters from the optical to the near-infrared. In addition, 10 of these stars were also observed at the 8m Gemini North telescope by Ziegler et al. 2016 (AJ accepted, arXiv:1605.03584) using laser guide star adaptive optics. The largest number of KOI host stars (3320) were observed using Robo-AO at the Palomar 1.5m telescope (Baranec et al. 2014ApJ...790L...8B; Baranec et al. 2016, Cat. J/AJ/152/18; Law et al. 2014, Cat. J/ApJ/791/35; Ziegler et al. 2016, AJ accepted, arXiv:1605.03584). A total of 8332 observations were carried out from 2009 September to 2015 October covering 3557 stars. We carried out observations at the Keck, Palomar, and Lick Observatory using the facility adaptive optics systems and near-infrared cameras from 2009 to 2015. At Keck, we observed with the 10m Keck II telescope and Near-Infrared Camera, second generation (NIRC2). The pixel scale of NIRC2 was 0.01''/pixel, resulting in a field of view of about 10''*10''. We observed our targets in a narrow K-band filter, Brγ, which has a central wavelength of 2.1686µm. In most cases, when a companion was detected, we also observed the target in a narrow-band J filter, Jcont, which is centered at 1.2132µm. At Palomar, we used the 5m Hale telescope with the Palomar High Angular Resolution Observer (PHARO). We used the 0.025''/pixel scale, which yielded a field of view of about 25''*25''. As at Keck, we typically used a narrow-band filter in the K-band, Brγ centered at 2.18µm, to observe our targets. When a companion was detected, we usually also observed our targets in the J filter (centered at 1.246µm). At Lick, we used the 3m Shane telescope and the IR Camera for Adaptive Optics at Lick (IRCAL). With its 0.075''/pixel scale, it offered a field of view of about 19''*19''. We observed our targets with the J filter (centered at 1.238µm) or the H filter (centered at 1.656µm). Our team also carried out speckle imaging using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) at Gemini North, the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) telescope, and at the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) from 2010 to 2015. Table5 lists the various observing dates at the three telescopes. At the 8m Gemini North telescope, 158 unique KOI host stars were observed, while at the 3.5m WIYN telescope, 681 stars were targeted. The more recent observing runs at the 4m DCT telescope covered 75 stars. Overall, at all three telescopes, the observations were directed at 828 unique KOI host stars. Targets were observed simultaneously in two bands, centered at 562nm and 692nm (both with a bandwidth of 40nm), or at 692nm and 880nm (the latter with a bandwidth of 50nm). Some targets have data in all three bands. The field of view of the speckle images is smaller than that of the AO images, about 3'' on each side, but the PSF widths are narrower (0.02''-0.05''), resulting in better spatial resolution. Some of the results on DSSI observations of KOIs can be found in Howell et al. 2011 (Cat. J/AJ/142/19), Horch et al. ( 2012AJ....144..165H, 2014ApJ...795...60H), Everett et al. (2015AJ....149...55E), and Teske et al. (2015AJ....150..144T). Wang et al. (2015ApJ...806..248W, 2015ApJ...813..130W) used the adaptive optics systems at Keck and Palomar with NIRC2 and PHARO, respectively, and typically observed each target with the J-, H-, and K-band filters. Adams et al. 2012 (Cat. J/AJ/144/42), Adams et al. (2013AJ....146....9A) and Dressing et al. (2014AJ....148...78D) mainly used the Ks filter in their AO observations at the MMT; in addition, they often used the J-band filter when a companion was detected in the Ks image. The field of view of the ARIES instrument on the MMT was 20''*20'', somewhat smaller than that of PHARO at Palomar, and the FWHM of the stellar images varied between about 0.1'' and 0.6''. Kraus et al. 2016 (Cat. J/AJ/152/8) employed adaptive optics imaging and also non-redundant aperture-mask interferometry at Keck with the NIRC2 instrument; the latter technique is limited only by the diffraction limit of the 10m Keck telescope. They used the K' filter for their observations. Baranec et al. 2016 (Cat. J/AJ/152/18) and Ziegler et al. 2016 (AJ accepted, arXiv:1605.03584) observed a sample of KOI host stars at Keck using mostly the K' filter on NIRC2. With the Robo-AO imaging at the Palomar 1.5m telescope, Law et al. 2014 (Cat. J/ApJ/791/35), Baranec et al. 2016 (Cat. J/AJ/152/18), and Ziegler et al. 2016 (AJ accepted, arXiv:1605.03584) covered a total of 3320 KOI host stars. For most observations, they used a long-pass filter whose window starts at 600nm (LP600), which is similar to the Kepler bandpass; they also took data for some stars in the Sloan i-band filter and, more rarely, Sloan r and z filters. The typical FWHM of the observed stellar PSF amounted to 0.12''-0.15''; the images covered a field of view of 44''*44''. Lillo-Box et al. (2012, Cat. J/A+A/546/A10; 2014, Cat. J/A+A/566/A103) used the 2.2m Calar Alto telescope with the AstraLux instrument to obtain diffraction-limited imaging with the lucky imaging technique, typically observing in the i- and z-band filters. This technique involves taking a very large number of short exposures and then combining only those images with the best quality (i.e., with the highest Strehl ratios). The FWHM of the stellar PSF in their 24''*24'' images was typically 0.21'', which is somewhat larger than the value from AO images (∼0.15''). HST imaging using WFC3 was carried out in the F555W and F775W bands (Cartier et al. 2015ApJ...804...97C; Gilliland et al. 2015AJ....149...24G). The images spanned a relatively large field of view of 40''*40'', and the typical FWHM of the stellar PSF was 0.08''. One additional facility, the 8m Large Binocular Telescope, was used with LMIRCam to observe 24 KOI host stars in the Ks band, but results have not yet been published and are not available on CFOP. Except for 1 of these 24 stars (which has only one false positive transit signal), all have been observed with one or more other facilities too. The Kepler field was observed at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) in 2010 using the UKIRT Wide Field Camera (WFCAM). The images were taken in the J band and have a typical spatial resolution of 0.8''-0.9''. Everett et al. (2012PASP..124..316E) carried out a survey of the Kepler field in 2011 using the NOAO Mosaic-1.1 Wide Field Imager on the WIYN 0.9m telescope. They observed the field in UBV filters; the FWHM of the stellar PSF due to seeing ranged from 1.2'' to 2.5'' in the V-band (with somewhat larger values in the U and B band). The source catalog and the images are available on CFOP. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table1.dat 93 11 High-resolution imaging observations of KOI host stars table2.dat 104 3557 Summary of KOI host stars observed with high-resolution imaging techniques table3.dat 67 8332 Summary of high-resolution imaging observations of KOI host stars table8.dat 248 2297 Relative photometry (Δm), separations and position angles for companions to KOI host stars table9.dat 170 1903 Planet radius correction factors assuming planets orbit the primary stars, derived from Δm measurements in various bands, and weighted average table10.dat 170 1903 Planet radius correction factors assuming planets orbit the brightest companion stars, derived from Δm measurements in various bands, and weighted average
See also: V/133 : Kepler Input Catalog (Kepler Mission Team, 2009) J/AJ/152/18 : Robo-AO Kepler planetary candidate survey. II (Baranec+, 2016) J/AJ/152/8 : Impact of stellar mult. on planetary systems I. (Kraus+, 2016) J/ApJ/822/86 : False positive probabilities for DR24 KOIs (Morton+, 2016) J/ApJS/224/12 : Kepler planetary candidates. VII. 48-month (Coughlin+, 2016) J/ApJS/217/31 : Kepler planetary candidates. VI. 4yr Q1-Q16 (Mullally+, 2015) J/ApJS/217/16 : Kepler planetary candidates. V. 3yr Q1-Q12 (Rowe+, 2015) J/ApJS/210/19 : Kepler planetary candidates. IV. 22 months (Burke+, 2014) J/A+A/566/A103 : Kepler planet host candidates imaging (Lillo-Box+, 2014) J/ApJ/791/35 : Detection of Kepler planet candidates host stars (Law+, 2014) J/ApJS/204/24 : Kepler planetary candidates. III. (Batalha+, 2013) J/AJ/144/42 : Infrared photometry of 90 KOIs (Adams+, 2012) J/A+A/546/A10 : Multiplicity in planet-host stars (Lillo-Box+, 2012) J/ApJ/736/19 : Kepler planetary candidates. II. (Borucki+, 2011) J/ApJ/728/117 : Kepler planetary candidates. I. (Borucki+, 2011) J/AJ/142/19 : Speckle observations of KOI (Howell+, 2011) J/AJ/141/45 : Speckel observations of HIP stars (Horch+, 2011) : CFOP website : NASA Exoplanet Archive Byte-by-byte Description of file: table1.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 12 A12 --- Fac Facility telescope 14- 17 F4.1 m Size Mirror size 19- 24 A6 --- Tel Telescope short code used in other tables (G1) 26- 33 A8 --- Inst Instrument used (G2) 35- 51 A17 --- Band Bands/filters of the observations 53- 56 F4.2 arcsec PSF ? Typical width of the Point Spread Function (PSF) 58- 61 I4 --- Nkoi Number of KOI host stars observed at each facility 63- 93 A31 --- Ref References where the data are published (1)
Note (1): The reference codes are defined as follows: A12 = Adams et al. 2012 (Cat. J/AJ/144/42); A13 = Adams et al. (2013AJ....146....9A); D14 = Dressing et al. (2014AJ....148...78D); W15a = Wang et al. (2015ApJ...806..248W); W15b = Wang et al. (2015ApJ...813..130W); G15 = Gilliland et al. (2015AJ....149...24G); C15 = Cartier et al. (2015ApJ...804...97C); H12 = Horch et al. (2012AJ....144..165H); H14 = Horch et al (2014ApJ...795...60H); E15 = Everett et al. (2015AJ....149...55E); H11 = Howell et al. 2011 (Cat. J/AJ/142/19); L14 = Law et al. 2014 (Cat. J/ApJ/791/35); B16 = Baranec et al. 2016 (Cat. J/AJ/152/18); Z16 = Ziegler et al. (2016arXiv160503584Z); LB12 = Lillo-Box et al. 2012 (Cat. J/A+A/546/A10); LB14 = Lillo-Box et al. 2014 (Cat. J/A+A/566/A103); K16 = Kraus et al. 2016 (Cat. J/AJ/152/8).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- KOI [1/7591] Kepler Object of Interest number of the star 6- 13 I8 --- KIC [757450/12885212] Kepler Input Catalog identifier of the star 15 I1 --- Ncp [0/6] Number of confirmed planets 17 I1 --- Npc [0/4] Number of planet candidates 19 I1 --- Nfp [0/5] Number of false positives 21- 28 F8.1 Rgeo Rp [0/200346] Radius of the smallest planet in the system (Rp,min) (1) 30- 36 F7.2 --- Kmin [1.01/7591.01] KOI number of the smallest planet in system 38- 42 I5 K Teq [0/14225] Equilibrium temperature of the coolest planet in the system (1) 44- 50 F7.2 --- Kcool [1.01/7591.01] KOI number of the coolest planet in system 52- 56 F5.2 mag Kpmag [6.9/18.8] Kepler magnitude of the KOI host star 58- 62 F5.2 mag Vmag [7.5/19.6]?=99.99 V band magnitude of KOI host 64- 68 F5.2 mag Ksmag [4.7/16.1]?=99.99 Ks band magnitude of KOI host 70-104 A35 --- Tel Telescope code(s) (see also table1) (G1)
Note (1): Note that if a system contains both planets and false positives, only the planets are used to determine the smallest planet radius and lowest equilibrium temperature.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- KOI [1/7591] Kepler Object of Interest number of the star 6- 13 I8 --- KIC [757450/12885212] Kepler Input Catalog identifier the star 15- 20 A6 --- Tel Telescope where the images were taken (either CAHA, DCT, Gem, HST, Keck, LBT, Lick, MMT, Pal1.5, Pal5, or WIYN) (G1) 22- 29 A8 --- Inst Instrument used (ARIES, AstraLux, DSSI, IRCAL, LMIRCam, NIRC2, NIRI, PHARO, Robo-AO, or WFC3) (G2) 31- 38 A8 --- Flt Filter/band of the observation (447nm, 562nm, 692nm, 880nm, Br-gamma, F555W, F775W, H, J, K', Kcont, Ks, L', LP600, i', r', or z') 40- 44 F5.2 arcsec PSF [0/1]?=99.99 Typical width of the stellar Point Spread Function (PSF) 46- 50 F5.2 mag Dmag [0/9.01]?=99.99 Typical sensitivity in magnitudes (usually 5σ) at a certain separation from the primary star (Δm) (1) 52- 56 F5.2 arcsec Sep [0.03/1]?=99.99 Separation from primary star for magnitude sensitivity Dmag (dΔm) 58- 67 A10 "Y:M:D" Date Observation date
Note (1): Sensitivity curves with Δm values measured at a range of separations are available on the Community Follow-Up Observation Program (CFOP) website at
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table8.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- KOI [1/7606] Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) number of the host star 6 A1 --- m_KOI [BCDEFGH] The identifier we assigned to each companion star ("B" for the first companion, "C" for the second companion, etc.) (1) 8- 15 I8 --- KIC1 [1161345/12785320] Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) identifier of the primary star (KICIDprim) (2) 17- 24 I8 --- KIC2 [1161345/12785320] Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) identifier of the companion ("secondary") star (KICIDsec) (2) 26- 30 A5 --- f_KIC2 Flag for blended KIC2 (blend) (3) 32- 36 F5.3 arcsec Sep [0.016/4] Separation of the companion relative to the primary (d) 38- 42 F5.3 arcsec e_Sep [0.05/0.45] Uncertainty in Sep 44- 48 F5.1 deg PA Position angle (from North through East) of the companion relative to the primary 50- 52 F3.1 deg e_PA [1/7.1] Uncertainty in PA 54- 59 F6.3 mag DUmag [-1.9/4.4]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in U-band (4) 61- 66 F6.3 mag e_DUmag [0.02/0.17]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DUmag 68- 73 F6.3 mag DBmag [-1.6/6.6]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in B-band (4) 75- 80 F6.3 mag e_DBmag [0.025/0.18]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DBmag 82- 87 F6.3 mag DVmag [-1.32/6.3]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in V-band (4) 89- 94 F6.3 mag e_DVmag [0.018/0.15]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DVmag 96-101 F6.3 mag DF555W [0.16/11.61]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in F555W band (4) 103-108 F6.3 mag e_DF555W [0.023/1.1]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DF555W 110-115 F6.3 mag DF775W [0.16/10]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in F775W band (4) 117-122 F6.3 mag e_DF775W [0.016/0.175]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DF775W 124-129 F6.3 mag Dimag [0.01/9.3]?=99.99 Magnitude difference i'-band (4) 131-136 F6.3 mag e_Dimag [0.01/1.6]?=99.99 Uncertainty in Dimag 138-143 F6.3 mag Dzmag [0.084/5.71]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in z'-band (4) 145-150 F6.3 mag e_Dzmag [0.01/0.35]?=99.99 Uncertainty in Dzmag 152-157 F6.3 mag DLP600 [-0.36/7.22]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in LP600 band (4) 159-164 F6.3 mag e_DLP600 [0.02/0.66]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DLP600 166-171 F6.3 mag D562nm [0/4.24]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in 562nm band (4) 173-178 F6.3 mag e_D562nm [0.15/0.39]?=99.99 Uncertainty in D562nm 180-185 F6.3 mag D692nm [0.12/6.7]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in 692nm band (4) 187-192 F6.3 mag e_D692nm [0.15/0.28]?=99.99 Uncertainty in D692nm 194-199 F6.3 mag D880nm [0.01/5.8]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in 880nm band (4) 201-206 F6.3 mag e_D880nm [0.15/0.84]?=99.99 Uncertainty in D880nm 208-213 F6.3 mag DJmag [-2.51/9.29]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in J-band (4) 215-220 F6.3 mag e_DJmag [0.01/0.97]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DJmag 222-227 F6.3 mag DHmag [-2.1/7.39]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in H-band (4) 229-234 F6.3 mag e_DHmag [0.024/0.18]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DHmag 236-241 F6.3 mag DKmag [-1.61/10.54]?=99.99 Magnitude difference in K-band (4) 243-248 F6.3 mag e_DKmag [0.01/0.63]?=99.99 Uncertainty in DKmag
Note (1): 330 KOI host stars have two or more companions stars. We assign an identifier to each companion, choosing letters "B" to "H" for the first to seventh companion star. This nomenclature does not imply that the companions are actually bound (they could be background stars or galaxies that are just by chance aligned with a KOI host star); it is used to uniquely identify each companion star. Note (2): In most cases, the two KIC identifiers are the same, since the stars are not resolved in the KIC, but for 78 wide companions (≥2'' from the primary), both objects can be found in the KIC. Note (3): A flag of "blend" means that the companion star is not a distinct source in the KIC and thus blended with the KIC source of the primary star. Note (4): Difference in magnitude between the primary and the companion star (Δm=msecondary-mprimary).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table9.dat,table10.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 4 I4 --- KOI [1/7606] Kepler Object of Interest number 6 A1 --- m_KOI [BCD] Companion identifier (B...; as defined in table8) of the star assumed to host the planets 8- 14 F7.5 --- HST [1/8.43]?=0 Planet radius correction factor from Δm measurements in F555W,F775W bands (1) 16- 24 E9.3 --- e_HST [0/2.16]?=0 Uncertainty in HST 26- 32 F7.5 --- i' [1/7.37]?=0 Planet Radius Correction Factor from Δm measurements in i' band (1) 34- 42 E9.3 --- e_i' [0/5.1]?=0 Uncertainty in i' 44- 50 F7.5 --- 692nm [1.001/5.33]?=0 Planet Radius Correction Factor from Δm measurements in 692nm band (1) 52- 60 E9.3 --- e_692nm [0.0001/1.39]?=0 Uncertainty in 692nm 62- 68 F7.5 --- LP600 [1/5.73]?=0 Planet Radius Correction Factor from Δm measurements in LP600 band (1) 70- 78 E9.3 --- e_LP600 [0/1.53]?=0 Uncertainty in LP600 80- 88 F9.5 --- J [-46.27/10.51]?=0 Planet Radius Correction Factor from Δm measurements in J band (1) 90- 98 E9.3 --- e_J [0/20.62]?=0 Uncertainty in J 100-107 F8.5 --- K [1/49.26]?=0 Planet Radius Correction Factor from Δm measurements in K band (1) 109-117 E9.3 --- e_K [0/21.94]?=0 Uncertainty in K 119-125 F7.5 --- JK1 [1/6.6]?=0 Planet Radius Correction Factor, J-K (dwarf) (1) 127-135 E9.3 --- e_JK1 [0/77.72]?=0 Uncertainty in JK1 137-144 F8.5 --- JK2 [-1.06/6.85]?=0 Planet Radius Correction Factor, J-K (giant) (1) 146-154 E9.3 --- e_JK2 [0/4.1]?=0 Uncertainty in JK2 156-162 F7.4 --- Avg [1/49.26]?=0 Weighted average of the correction factors 164-170 F7.4 --- e_Avg [0.0001/22]?=0 Uncertainty in Avg
Note (1): Radius correction factors calculated as shown in Equation 5 or Equation 7, derived from Δm measurements in different bands converted to ΔKp values (see Section 4.3 for details). We calculated factors to revise the planet radii to take the flux dilution into account. Since the measurements were done in different filters at different telescopes, and there are uncertainties in converting them to ΔKp, the derived correction factors are expected to differ somewhat. Moreover, there are some cases in which a star has more than one companion, and not all companions are detected in all bands (for example, a faint companion close to the primary star is only detected in a Keck AO image, while a brighter companion at a larger distance is only measured in a UKIRT image). Therefore, radius correction factors, which depend on the sum of the Δmi values of the companion stars, are different for different bands for these stars.
Global Notes: Note (G1): The observatories where data were taken are defined as follows: CAHA = Calar Alto; DCT = Discovery Channel Telescope; Gem = Gemini North; HST = Hubble Space Telescope; Keck = Keck II; LBT = Large Binocular Telescope; Lick = Lick-3m; MMT = Multiple Mirror Telescope; Pal1.5 = Palomar-1.5m; Pal5 = Palomar-5m; WIYN = Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO telescope. Note (G2): The instruments used are defined as follows: ARIES = Arizona Infrared imager and Echelle Spectrograph (ARIES) on the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT); AstraLux = AstraLux instrument mounted at the 2.2m Calar Alto telescope; DSSI = Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) at Gemini North, the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) telescope; IRCAL = IR Camera for Adaptive Optics at Lick (IRCAL) the 3m Shane telescope; LMIRCam = L/M-band InfraRed Camera on the 8m Large Binocular Telescope; NIRC2 = Near-Infrared Camera, second generation (NIRC2) on the 10m Keck II telescope; PHARO = Palomar High Angular Resolution Observer (PHARO) on the 5m Hale telescope; Robo-AO = Robo-AO instrument at the Palomar 1.5m telescope; WFC3 = Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
History: From electronic version of the journal
(End) Prepared by [AAA]; Sylvain Guehenneux [CDS] 21-Jul-2017
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