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J/AJ/152/113  Pleiades members with K2 light curves. I. Periods  (Rebull+, 2016)

Rotation in the Pleiades with K2. I. Data and first results. Rebull L.M., Stauffer J.R., Bouvier J., Cody A.M., Hillenbrand L.A., Soderblom D.R., Valenti J., Barrado D., Bouy H., Ciardi D., Pinsonneault M., Stassun K., Micela G., Aigrain S., Vrba F., Somers G., Christiansen J., Gillen E., Collier Cameron A. <Astron. J., 152, 113-113 (2016)> =2016AJ....152..113R (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)
ADC_Keywords: Clusters, open ; Rotational velocities ; Cross identifications Keywords: globular clusters: individual: Pleiades - stars: rotation Abstract: Young (125Myr), populous (>1000 members), and relatively nearby, the Pleiades has provided an anchor for stellar angular momentum models for both younger and older stars. We used K2 to explore the distribution of rotation periods in the Pleiades. With more than 500 new periods for Pleiades members, we are vastly expanding the number of Pleiades with periods, particularly at the low-mass end. About 92% of the members in our sample have at least one measured spot-modulated rotation period. For the ∼8% of the members without periods, non-astrophysical effects often dominate (saturation, etc.), such that periodic signals might have been detectable, all other things being equal. We now have an unusually complete view of the rotation distribution in the Pleiades. The relationship between P and (V-Ks)0 follows the overall trends found in other Pleiades studies. There is a slowly rotating sequence for 1.1≲(V-Ks)0≲3.7 and a primarily rapidly rotating population for (V-Ks)0≳5.0. There is a region in which there seems to be a disorganized relationship between P and (V-Ks)0 for 3.7≲(V-Ks)0≲5.0. Paper II continues the discussion, focusing on multiperiod structures, and Paper III speculates about the origin and evolution of the period distribution in the Pleiades. Description: Members of the Pleiades were observed in K2 Campaign 4. The NASA K2 mission (Howell et al. 2014PASP..126..398H), using the repurposed 1m Kepler spacecraft, observed the Pleiades cluster nearly continuously for 72 days. All of the stars shown were observed in the long-cadence (∼30-minute exposure) mode. Thirty-four of these stars were additionally observed in fast cadence (∼1-minute exposure), but those data are beyond the scope of the present work. There are 1020 unique K2 long-cadence light curves (see Table7). Kepler pixel sizes are relatively large, 3.98''*3.98'', and the 95% encircled energy diameter ranges from 3.1 to 7.5 pixels with a median value of 4.2 pixels. During the K2 portion of the mission, because only two reaction wheels can be used, the whole spacecraft slowly drifts and then repositions regularly every 0.245 days. We find periods for 798 out of our sample of 1020 K2 light curves of candidate Pleiads. However, not all of those stars may be members. Our final list of members is in Table2 (for the periodic members). Basic parameters for stars not detected as periodic are listed in Table3. Five of these stars have reported periods in the literature that we do not recover. For some objects, we found a period during our analysis, but individual inspection of the light curves suggests that whatever is causing the repeating pattern is not a spot-modulated rotation period. For a complete list of these objects, see Table4. In Table5, we list the objects that are too bright or too faint for our sample. There are more than 150 stars where a K2 light curve was obtained, presumably because some literature considered these objects as Pleiades members. However, consideration of each of the individual stars, suggests that these are not, in fact, likely to be Pleiades members. They are listed in Table6 with the period(s) we derived. The Table7 gives some of the common synonyms for our targets in the literature. File Summary:
FileName Lrecl Records Explanations
ReadMe 80 . This file table2.dat 145 759 Periods and supporting data for periodic Pleiades members table3.dat 95 67 Supporting data for Pleiades members not detected to be periodic in the K2 data table4.dat 145 28 Timescales table5.dat 92 41 Targets that are too bright or too faint table6.dat 102 153 Targets taken as non-members table7.dat 230 1020 Contents of online cross-identifications list
See also: II/281 : 2MASS 6X Point Source Working Database / Catalog (Cutri+ 2006) II/246 : 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003) I/258 : Pleiades positions and proper motions (Wang+, 1996) II/131 : Tonantzintla Pleiades Flare Stars (Haro+ 1982) J/AJ/152/114 : Pleiades members with K2 LCs. II. (Rebull+, 2016) J/AJ/152/115 : Pleiades members with K2 LCs. III. (Stauffer+, 2016) J/ApJS/224/2 : K2 EPIC properties for 138600 targets (Huber+, 2016) J/A+A/579/A19 : K2 Variable Catalogue (Armstrong+, 2015) J/A+A/577/A148 : The Seven Sisters DANCe. I. Pleiades (Bouy+, 2015) J/AJ/148/30 : BVI photometry of 350 Pleiades stars (Kamai+, 2014) J/MNRAS/422/1495 : UKIDSS Galactic Clusters Survey Pleiades members (Lodieu+ 2012) J/MNRAS/408/475 : HATNet Pleiades Rotation Period Catalogue (Hartman+, 2010) J/A+A/416/125 : RI photometry in alpha Per and Pleiades (Deacon+, 2004) J/MNRAS/313/347 : Pleiades low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (Pinfield+, 2000) J/A+A/335/183 : Pleiades low-mass stars rotational vel. (Queloz+ 1998) J/A+A/332/575 : Pleiades member list (Belikov+ 1998) J/A+A/329/101 : Masses of Pleiades members (Raboud+ 1998) J/A+A/323/139 : K magnitude of Pleiades low-mass binaries (Bouvier+ 1997) J/A+A/299/696 : Pleiades field Membership probabilities (Schilbach+, 1995) J/other/PZ/23.141 : Flare stars in the Pleiades (Kazarovets 1993) J/ApJS/85/315 : F, G and K dwarf stars of the Pleiades (Soderblom+ 1993) J/A+AS/100/607 : Very low mass proper motion members in Pleiades (Hambly+ 1993) Byte-by-byte Description of file: table2.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- EPIC Number in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) for K2 (1) 11- 28 A18 --- Name Position-based name (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 30- 37 F8.5 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 39- 46 F8.5 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 48- 70 A23 --- OName Other identifier 72- 76 F5.2 mag Vmag [6.7/20.8]? The V-band magnitude (in Vega mag), if observed (G1) 78- 82 F5.2 mag Ksmag [6.2/14.5] The 2MASS Ks (K-short) band magnitude (in Vega mag), if observed (G1) 84- 88 F5.2 mag (V-K)0 [-0.2/7.2] Dereddened V-Ks, (V-Ks)0, color index (directly observed, if V and Ks exist, or inferred) (vmk0) (G1) 90- 96 F7.4 d Prot [0.035/22.2] Primary period, taken to be rotation period (P1) (2) 98-103 F6.4 d Per2 [0.03/9.7]? Secondary period (P2) (3) 105-110 F6.4 d Per3 [0.036/6]? Tertiary period (P3) (3) 112-118 F7.4 d Per4 [0.03/11]? Quaternary period (P4) (3) 120-124 F5.3 mag Amp [0.001/0.6] Amplitude of the 10th to 90th percentile (ampl) (4) 126-127 A2 --- --- [LC] 128 I1 --- LC Light curve used as "best" (1, 2, 3, or 4) (5) 130-133 A4 --- Mm Pleiades membership indicator (best or ok) (G2) 135-139 F5.2 d LPer [0.1/11.3]? Literature (rotation) period, if available (Plit) (6) 141-145 F5.1 km/s vsini [2.4/140]? Literature rotational velocity, if available (refer to Section 2.3.2 in the paper for details)
Note (1): Our set of members consists of 799 high-confidence ("best") Pleiades members and 54 more lower-confidence ("ok") members, for a total of 853. Thus, we find that 167 of the candidate Pleiads with K2 light curves are unlikely to be members. Omitting the too bright and too faint stars for our sample, there are 775 high-confidence members, with 51 more lower-confidence members (for a total of 826 members). Out of those 775 (best members), 716 (92.4%) have at least one measured period that we believe in the overwhelming majority of cases to be a rotation period and due to starspots. Including the lower-confidence members, 759/826 (91.9%) have at least one measured period that we believe to be the rotation period. Note (2): We looked for periodic signals using primarily the NASA Exoplanet Archive Periodogram Service: http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu/cgi-bin/Periodogram/nph-simpleupload (Akeson et al. 2013PASP..125..989A). We also looked for periods using CLEAN (Roberts et al. 1987AJ.....93..968R). See Section 2.2 in the paper for details about the periods finding. Note (3): See Paper II (Rebull et al. 2016, Cat. J/AJ/152/114) for multiperiodic stars. Note (4): We calculated the amplitude of the light curves in magnitudes by assembling the distribution of all points in the light curve, taking the log of the 90th percentile flux, subtracting from that the log of the 10th percentile flux, and multiplying by 2.5. See Section 3.3 in the paper for more details. Note (5): We have used different sets of LCs employing the following reductions: 1 = The Pre-search Data Conditioning (PDC) version generated by the Kepler project and obtained from MAST, the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes; 2 = A version with moving apertures obtained following A. M. Cody et al. (2016, in preparation); 3 = A version using a semiparametric Gaussian process model used by Aigrain et al. (2015MNRAS.447.2880A, 2016MNRAS.459.2408A); 4 = The "self-flat-fielding" approach used by Vanderburg & Johnson (2014PASP..126..948V) from MAST. Note (6): In order to verify our period-finding approach, it is useful to compare to prior Pleiades results. There are two recent papers that obtain periods in the Pleiades from large-field photometric monitoring. Hartman et al. 2010 (Cat. J/MNRAS/408/475) used HATNet and reported periods for 383 Pleiads. Covey et al. 2016ApJ...822...81C used Palomar Transient Facility (PTF) and report periods for 138 Pleiads. Please refer to Section 2.3.1 in the paper for more details about the literature periods.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table3.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- EPIC Number in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) for K2 11 A1 --- f_EPIC [a] Flag if not recovered literature period (1) 13- 30 A18 --- Name Position based name (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 32- 39 F8.5 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 41- 48 F8.5 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 50- 72 A23 --- OName Other identifier 74- 78 F5.2 mag Vmag [6.8/20.8]? The V-band magnitude (in Vega mag), if observed (G1) 80- 84 F5.2 mag Ksmag [6.4/14.5] The 2MASS Ks (K-short) band magnitude (in Vega mag), if observed (G1) 86- 90 F5.2 mag (V-K)0 [-0.2/9.3] Dereddened V-Ks, (V-Ks)0, color index (directly observed, if V and Ks exist, or inferred) (G1) 92- 95 A4 --- Mm Pleiades membership indicator (best or ok) (G2)
Note (1): Three stars have periods in the literature that we do not recover from the K2 data: EPIC211060530 = 0.622 days; EPIC211078009 = 3.158 days; EPIC211094556 = 0.17 days.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table4.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- EPIC Number in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) for K2 (1) 11- 28 A18 --- Name Position based name (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 30- 37 F8.5 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 39- 46 F8.5 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 48- 70 A23 --- OName Other identifier 72 A1 --- f_tau1 [~] Approximate flag on tau1 73- 78 F6.3 d tau1 [5.2/35]? Repeating pattern timescale 80- 81 I2 d tau2 [30]? Upper value when timescale range 83- 93 A11 --- n_tau2 Note about the timescale 95- 98 A4 --- Mm Pleiades membership indicator (best, ok, or NM=non-member) (G2) 100-145 A46 --- Note Additional comments
Note (1): For these objects, we found a period during our analysis, but individual inspection of the light curves suggests that whatever is causing the repeating pattern is not a spot-modulated rotation period. We have opted to describe the period suggested by the repeating pattern as "timescale" rather than a period.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table5.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- EPIC Number in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) for K2 (1) 11- 28 A18 --- Name Position based name (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 30- 37 F8.5 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 39- 46 F8.5 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 48- 69 A22 --- OName Other identifier 71- 78 F8.6 d Per1 [0.23/0.68]? Period, if detected 80- 87 F8.6 d Per2 [0.24/0.65]? Second period, if detected 89- 92 A4 --- Mm Pleiades membership indicator (best, ok, or NM=non-member) (G2)
Note (1): We empirically determined that our brightness and faintness limits are effectively Ks≲6 and Ks≳14.5, respectively. Sometimes, despite these limits, we were still able to derive a period (and in two cases, two distinct periods).
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table6.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- EPIC Number in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) for K2 (1) 11- 28 A18 --- Name Position based name (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s; J2000) 30- 37 F8.5 deg RAdeg Right Ascension in decimal degrees (J2000) 39- 46 F8.5 deg DEdeg Declination in decimal degrees (J2000) 48- 70 A23 --- OName Other identifier 72- 76 F5.2 mag Vmag [10.45/20.41]? The V band magnitude (in Vega mag), if observed (G1) 78- 82 F5.2 mag Ksmag [7.28/14.48] The 2MASS Ks (K-short) band magnitude (in Vega mag), if observed (G1) 84- 87 F4.2 mag (V-K)0 [1.3/7] Dereddened V-Ks, (V-Ks)0, color index (directly observed, if V and Ks exist, or inferred) (G1) 89- 94 F6.3 d Per1 [0.24/29.6]? Primary period we derived 98-102 F5.3 d Per2 [0.24/5.1]? Other period or timescale
Note (1): There are more than 150 stars where a K2 light curve was obtained, presumably because some literature considered these objects as Pleiades members. However, consideration of each of the individual stars, including the references mentioned in Section 2.5 in the paper, suggests that these are not, in fact, likely to be Pleiades members.
Byte-by-byte Description of file: table7.dat
Bytes Format Units Label Explanations
1- 9 I9 --- EPIC Number in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) for K2 11- 33 A23 --- Name More common name used in the literature 35- 37 A3 --- --- [HII] 38- 43 A6 --- HII Identifier in HII catalog (Hertzsprung 1947AnLei..19A...1H) 45- 47 A3 --- --- [HCG] 48- 50 I3 --- HCG [5/516]? Identification number in HCG catalog (Haro, Chavira, and Gonzalez 1982, Cat. II/131; Kazarovets 1993, Cat. J/other/PZ/23.141) 51 A1 --- f_HCG [b] Flag "b" on HCG377 53- 55 A3 --- --- [HHJ] 56- 58 I3 --- HHJ [5/440]? Identification number in HHJ catalog (Hambly, Hawkins, and Jameson 1993, Cat. J/A+AS/100/607) 60- 63 A4 --- --- [PELS] 64- 66 I3 --- PELS [3/192]? Identification number in Pels catalog (van Leeuwen et al. 1986A&AS...65..309V) 68- 69 A2 --- --- [DH] 70- 72 I3 --- DH [10/916]? Sequence number in DH catalog (Deacon & Hambly 2004, Cat. J/A+A/416/125) 74- 76 A3 --- --- [SRS] 77- 81 I5 --- SRS [12896/92992]? Identification number in SRS catalog (Schilbach, Robichon, Souchay, and Guibert 1995, Cat. J/A+A/299/696; Belikov et al. 1998, Cat. J/A+A/332/575) 83- 91 F9.7 --- --- [0.02/0.99]? 93- 99 A7 --- BPL Identifier in BPL catalog (Pinfield et al. 2000, Cat. J/MNRAS/313/347) 101-107 A7 --- n_BPL Possible other BPL identification number 109-110 A2 --- --- [SK] 111-113 I3 --- SK [13/778]? Identification number in SK catalog (Stauffer, Klemola et al. 1991AJ....101..980S) 115-116 A2 --- --- [Tr] 117-121 A5 --- Tr Identifier in Trumpler 1921PASP...33..214T 123-135 A13 --- n_Tr Possible other Tr identifier 137-139 A3 --- --- [WCZ] 140-142 I3 --- WCZ [4/476]? Identification number in WCZ catalog (Wang, Chen, Zhao, and Jiang 1996, Cat. I/258) 144-169 A26 --- Simbad Name used in Simbad as primary identifier 171-188 A18 --- Lodieu Position-based identifier from catalog of Lodieu et al. 2012 (Cat. J/MNRAS/422/1495) (HHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s, J2000) 190-208 A19 --- DANCe DANCe survey identifier from Bouy et al. 2015 (Cat. J/A+A/577/A148) (JHHMMSS.ss+DDMMSS.s) 210-225 A16 --- 2MASS Identifier in 2MASS All-sky point source catalog (Cat. II/246) (HHMMSSss+DDMMSSs, J2000) 227-230 A4 --- f_2MASS [tm6x] Flag on 2MASS (tm6x=6x 2MASS data, Cat. II/281)
Global Notes: Note (G1): Ideally, we would have Teff or mass for all of our targets. However, those quantities can be very model dependent. Because we preferred to keep our discussion of the new K2 rotation period data on an empirical basis to the extent possible, our goal was to use an observed color as the proxy for mass or Teff. The broadband color that acts as the best such proxy over the entire mass range for which we have periods is (V-Ks)0. While Ks is widely available from 2MASS, V is harder to find. We only have measured V-band photometry for about half of the periodic stars; it was necessary to estimate V magnitudes from other photometry for the rest. The highest-quality V-band photometry we have is from phototube photometry reported in Johnson & Mitchell 1958ApJ...128...31J, Landolt 1979ApJ...231..468L, Stauffer & Hartmann 1987ApJ...318..337S, or references therein, or CCD photometry from Kamai et al. 2014 (Cat. J/AJ/148/30). Additional V-band photometry, generally for fainter members, was obtained using CCD cameras on small telescopes by Prosser et al. 1991AJ....101.1361P and Stauffer et al. 1998ApJ...504..805S. For the remaining stars (mostly faint M dwarfs), we have adopted measured photometry at bands near in wavelength to V. Please see Section 2.4 in the paper for additional details about the photometry. Note (G2): We evaluated each object using a combination of proper motions and photometric position in an optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD). As a result of this analysis, we have the three following sets of members: best = Highest confidence (our determination) Pleiades member; ok = Lower confidence (our determination) Pleiades member, where the evidence for membership is suggestive but not conclusive; NM = Non-member.
History: From electronic version of the journal References: Rebull et al., Paper II 2016AJ....152..114R, Cat. J/AJ/152/114 Stauffer et al., Paper III 2016AJ....152..115S, Cat. J/AJ/152/115
(End) Prepared by [AAS]; Sylvain Guehenneux [CDS] 12-Dec-2016
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